5.1-42

Ἠὼς δ᾽ ἐκ λεχέων παρ᾽ ἀγαυοῦ Τιθωνοῖο

ὤρνυθ᾽, ἵν᾽ ἀθανάτοισι φόως φέροι ἠδὲ βροτοῖσιν·

οἱ δὲ θεοὶ θῶκόνδε καθίζανον, ἐν δ᾽ ἄρα τοῖσι

Ζεὺς ὑψιβρεμέτης, οὗ τε κράτος ἐστὶ μέγιστον.

τοῖσι δ᾽ Ἀθηναίη λέγε κήδεα πόλλ᾽ Ὀδυσῆος5

μνησαμένη· μέλε γάρ οἱ ἐὼν ἐν δώμασι νύμφης·

"Ζεῦ πάτερ ἠδ᾽ ἄλλοι μάκαρες θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες,

μή τις ἔτι πρόφρων ἀγανὸς καὶ ἤπιος ἔστω

σκηπτοῦχος βασιλεύς, μηδὲ φρεσὶν αἴσιμα εἰδώς,

ἀλλ᾽ αἰεὶ χαλεπός τ᾽ εἴη καὶ αἴσυλα ῥέζοι·10

ὡς οὔ τις μέμνηται Ὀδυσσῆος θείοιο

λαῶν οἷσιν ἄνασσε, πατὴρ δ᾽ ὣς ἤπιος ἦεν.

ἀλλ᾽ ὁ μὲν ἐν νήσῳ κεῖται κρατέρ᾽ ἄλγεα πάσχων

νύμφης ἐν μεγάροισι Καλυψοῦς, ἥ μιν ἀνάγκῃ

ἴσχει· ὁ δ᾽ οὐ δύναται ἣν πατρίδα γαῖαν ἱκέσθαι·15

οὐ γάρ οἱ πάρα νῆες ἐπήρετμοι καὶ ἑταῖροι,

οἵ κέν μιν πέμποιεν ἐπ᾽ εὐρέα νῶτα θαλάσσης.

νῦν αὖ παῖδ᾽ ἀγαπητὸν ἀποκτεῖναι μεμάασιν

οἴκαδε νισόμενον· ὁ δ᾽ ἔβη μετὰ πατρὸς ἀκουὴν

ἐς Πύλον ἠγαθέην ἠδ᾽ ἐς Λακεδαίμονα δῖαν."20

τὴν δ᾽ ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη νεφεληγερέτα Ζεύς·

"τέκνον ἐμόν, ποῖόν σε ἔπος φύγεν ἕρκος ὀδόντων.

οὐ γὰρ δὴ τοῦτον μὲν ἐβούλευσας νόον αὐτή,

ὡς ἦ τοι κείνους Ὀδυσεὺς ἀποτίσεται ἐλθών;

Τηλέμαχον δὲ σὺ πέμψον ἐπισταμένως, δύνασαι γάρ,25

ὥς κε μάλ᾽ ἀσκηθὴς ἣν πατρίδα γαῖαν ἵκηται,

μνηστῆρες δ᾽ ἐν νηὶ: παλιμπετὲς ἀπονέωνται."

ἦ ῥα καὶ Ἑρμείαν, υἱὸν φίλον, ἀντίον ηὔδα·

" Ἑρμεία, σὺ γὰρ αὖτε τά τ᾽ ἄλλα περ ἄγγελός ἐσσι,

νύμφῃ ἐυπλοκάμῳ εἰπεῖν νημερτέα βουλήν,30

νόστον Ὀδυσσῆος ταλασίφρονος, ὥς κε νέηται

οὔτε θεῶν πομπῇ οὔτε θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων·

ἀλλ᾽ ὅ γ᾽ ἐπὶ σχεδίης πολυδέσμου πήματα πάσχων

ἤματί κ᾽ εἰκοστῷ Σχερίην ἐρίβωλον ἵκοιτο,

Φαιήκων ἐς γαῖαν, οἳ ἀγχίθεοι γεγάασιν,35

οἵ κέν μιν περὶ κῆρι θεὸν ὣς τιμήσουσιν,

πέμψουσιν δ᾽ ἐν νηὶ φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν,

χαλκόν τε χρυσόν τε ἅλις ἐσθῆτά τε δόντες,

πόλλ᾽, ὅσ᾽ ἂν οὐδέ ποτε Τροίης ἐξήρατ᾽ Ὀδυσσεύς,

εἴ περ ἀπήμων ἦλθε, λαχὼν ἀπὸ ληίδος αἶσαν.40

ὣς γάρ οἱ μοῖρ᾽ ἐστὶ φίλους τ᾽ ἰδέειν καὶ ἱκέσθαι

οἶκον ἐς ὑψόροφον καὶ ἑὴν ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν."

    Athena pleads Odysseus's case with Zeus, who sends Hermes to Kalypso's island to demand Odysseus's release.

    After 2,350 verses, Homer finally brings his hero onstage. We have already seen him through others’ eyes, in Ithaka, Pylos, Sparta, even on Olympus. From the poet himself we have learned of Odysseus’s versatility, intelligence, and self-control won through suffering, of his futile attempt to protect his crew members from a death brought about by their own folly. His fellow warriors in Pylos and Sparta have attested to his sterling qualities. From Nestor we have heard of his great intelligence and mastery of deceit, his eloquence and sound advice in councils; from Menelaus, his steadfast loyalty and friendship. Now he is stranded on the island of the nymph Calypso, where the poet is about to take us, but not before a crucial interlude on Olympus.

    read full essay

    Everything in Books 1–4 bears witness to the terrible cost of Odysseus’s absence from Ithaka. In the poem’s opening scenes, we see the loutish suitors rampaging unopposed through the royal household, eating, drinking, and chasing the maids. Penelope remains cloistered upstairs and Telemachus struggles in vain to take charge. His journey to Pylos and Sparta is meant to help him address his deficiencies by learning about his father, what kind of man Odysseus is, if he still lives, and if so where he might be. Telemachus needs to grow up, either to help Odysseus retake control of Ithaka or to take over himself.

    The episodes that follow in Books 5–6 show us how the Greeks’ view of human experience is influenced by the categories of gender as they understood them. By “gender” I mean a cultural construct, organized around the polarity of masculine/feminine, as opposed to “sex,” a biological category defined by male/female. Today we understand that a human being, wherever she, he, or they may fall on the biological continuum, may exhibit both masculine and feminine patterns of behavior. Greek artists also acknowledged this distinction, although sometimes with a different emphasis than ours. As Odysseus makes his way from the island of Calypso to the island of the Phaeacians, we will see that the forces threatening his progress are almost all feminine: mortal women, goddesses, or parts of the natural world that the Greeks associated with feminine power. The first four books of the Odyssey are focused on the disorder that follows from the absence of masculine leadership in Ithaka and the efforts of Telemachus to counter it by consulting masculine authority figures—including, indir.ly through the memories of others, his father. Once Odysseus reappears, his adventures are dominated by his struggle to overcome feminine forces, beginning with Calypso and Nausicaa and continuing through Books 9–12.

    Homer signals a strong break in the narrative at the beginning of Book 5. Eos, the goddess of the dawn, rises to mark a new day:

    Ἠὼς δ᾽ ἐκ λεχέων παρ᾽ ἀγαυοῦ Τιθωνοῖο
    ὤρνυθ᾽, ἵν᾽ ἀθανάτοισι φόως φέροι ἠδὲ βροτοῖσιν·

    Dawn rose from her bed, where she lay beside noble Tithonus,
    so she could bring light to the immortal gods and to mortals.

    Odyssey 5.1–2

    The event is a familiar one in Homeric epic, but the phrasing is not. These two lines appear only here in the Odyssey and once in the Iliad (Il. 11.1–2). Much more common is the single verse formula that appears twenty times in the Odyssey:

    ἦμος δ᾽ ἠριγένεια φάνη ῥοδοδάκτυλος Ἠώς

    Now when early-born, rosy-fingered Dawn appeared

    Odyssey 2.1, etc.

    Given the many variables that must have influenced a poet’s choices within the traditional style of early Greek hexameter, it would be risky to assume we know for sure why this unusual phrasing appears at the very beginning of Book 5 instead of the much more common single-verse formula. Still, the content of 5.1–2 is particularly suggestive. The story of Tithonus is one version of a common myth about a goddess taking a mortal lover. We will hear more about other examples later in Book 5, when Calypso complains that other deities have been able to keep their mortal lovers, while Zeus is forcing her to give up Odysseus. Homer is tuning our ears for the episode soon to come on Ogygia.

    The story of Tithonus does appear elsewhere in early greek hexameter poetry in the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, a short poem (293 verses) probably composed around the same time as the Odyssey. We learn there that Zeus has become angry with Aphrodite, because she has forced him to sleep with mortal women. In retaliation, he fills her with the desire for sex with a mortal man, in this case Anchises, a prince of the royal family in Troy and the father of Aeneas. After the tryst, Aphrodite tells the story of Tithonus and Eos: The Dawn goddess goes to Zeus and asks permission to make Tithonus immortal but neglects to ask that he also be ageless. All goes well for a few years, while Tithonus is in his prime, but when the first gray hairs appear on his head, Eos kicks him out of bed and keeps him on a maintenance diet of ambrosia. As old age approaches and he becomes physically feeble, she takes more drastic action, locking him away in a bedroom forever. He is reduced to a tremulous voice, fading away but never dying. Aphrodite tells Anchises this pathetic story as a cautionary tale. If the prince could remain as handsome and desirable as he is now, she would take him for a husband. But she will not ask Zeus to make him stay as he is and so old age, which the gods hate, will eventually come for him as it does for all mortals (Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite 218–46). For now, we only know that Odysseus is being held against his will by the nymph on her island, not the details of the arrangement (Od. 1.13–17). By introducing Tithonus here, the poet raises the specter of a dismal future for Odysseus, trapped on the island of the nymph, invisible to all who love him and depend on him, wasting away in feeble oblivion but never dying.

    Our first stop after Eos rises is Olympus, where the gods are meeting. This divine assembly seems to echo the meeting on Olympus in Book 1 (1.26–95), when Athena’s complaints to Zeus about Odysseus’s captivity on Ogygia lead to a two-pronged campaign: the goddess will go to Ithaka and get Telemachus moving, while Hermes visits Calypso to deliver Zeus’s command that she release Odysseus. As it turns out, we only hear about the first part of the divine initiative in Books 1–4. Book 5 will describe the second.

    This latter divine assembly has come in for a lot of scrutiny by classical scholars. Is it the same one as in Book 1? Do the two parts of the divine plan occur simultaneously, though the poet describes their fulfillment serially? Or should we assume that several days pass between the two assemblies? In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, before the work of Milman Parry and others on the oral tradition behind the composition of the Homeric epics, repetition was frequently suspect, a sign of some later, inferior poet adding material to a hypothetical “original” poem. In this case, the suspicion would be that the journey of Telemachus in Books 1–4 was added to an earlier version of the Odyssey, now lost, which began with the material in Book 5. Now that we are inclined to see repetition as a fundamental part of oral poetry, these theories are much less compelling. In any event, we will follow our usual practice in these essays of trying to understand the poem that has come down to us—which is, after all, the only Odyssey we have.

    Whatever the antecedents of Books 1–4 might have been, the assembly in Book 5 is integral to the debut of Odysseus in the present poem. Major movements in Homeric epic are usually prompted in some way by the gods. By gathering them a second time, the poet signals a new direction in the plot, while reminding us of the urgency we felt in Book 1 when hearing about the divine response to the chaos in Ithaka. Odysseus’s heroic stature is further marked by the attention that his dilemma draws from the gods. We see a similar narrative pattern at the end of the Iliad, in that case underscoring the importance of both Hector and Achilles there. Lamenting the abuse of Hector’s corpse by Achilles, Zeus sends Iris to deliver two commands, that Thetis tell Achilles to release Hector’s body to Priam and that Priam travel to the Greek camp, accompanied by Hermes, to beg Achilles for his son’s corpse (Il. 24.64–280). In both poems, the hero causes the gods to assemble and act on his behalf, a sure sign of his exalted status: The welfare of the hero becomes part of the destined order of the cosmos that the gods oversee.

    The assembly opens with Athena’s plea for the release of Odysseus from the clutches of the nymph Calypso. The goddess is somewhat bitter:

    "Ζεῦ πάτερ ἠδ᾽ ἄλλοι μάκαρες θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες,
    μή τις ἔτι πρόφρων ἀγανὸς καὶ ἤπιος ἔστω
    σκηπτοῦχος βασιλεύς, μηδὲ φρεσὶν αἴσιμα εἰδώς,
    ἀλλ᾽ αἰεὶ χαλεπός τ᾽ εἴη καὶ αἴσυλα ῥέζοι·
    ὡς οὔ τις μέμνηται Ὀδυσσῆος θείοιο
    λαῶν οἷσιν ἄνασσε, πατὴρ δ᾽ ὣς ἤπιος ἦεν."

    “Father Zeus and all you immortal, blessed gods,
    let no one who is a sceptered king now be gentle
    and sweet, having righteous thoughts in his mind,
    but instead, be always harsh and act severely,
    seeing how no one of those he ruled remembers
    godlike Odysseus, who was sweet, like a father.”

    Odyssey 5.7–12

    Athena’s words here recall her reproach of Zeus in the first assembly, where she accuses him of hating Odysseus, who has been a dutiful hero, and leaving him at the mercy of Calypso (1.44–62). The tone of Zeus’s initial response in both cases is indignant:

    "τἐκνον ἐμόν, ποῖόν σε ἔπος φύγεν ἕρκος ὀδόντων."

    “My child, what kind of word has escaped the barrier of your teeth?”

    Odyssey 5.22 = 1.64

    In Book 1, Zeus denies that he hates Odysseus, saying that the problem lies with Poseidon, whose son Polyphemus the hero has blinded. Here, his response reveals an important aspect of the poem’s plot:

    "οὐ γὰρ δὴ τοῦτον μὲν ἐβούλευσας νόον αὐτή,
    ὡς ἦ τοι κείνους Ὀδυσεὺς ἀποτίσεται ἐλθών; "

    “Was this not your plan, as you counseled it,
    that he would return and punish those men?”

    Odyssey 5.23–24

    These latter two verses reappear verbatim at the end of the poem, when Odysseus and his family face off against the families of the dead suitors (24.479–80). In both cases, Zeus implies that Athena has already planned out the triumph of Odysseus and can make it come to pass. She has already composed her own story. (See Introduction)

    The implication of these verses, that Athena has already arranged for Odysseus to succeed in his mission, is tantalizing, taking us into the thicket of possibilities surrounding the operation of divine will and human choice in the poem—an arresting topic but well beyond the scope of this essay. For our purposes here, another approach might be more useful. The Odyssey is a poem about the power of stories. Odysseus is a master storyteller, but there are many others, Phemius, Mentes, Nestor, Menelaus, Helen, Demodocus, Eumaeus, Theoclymenus, Penelope. Homer suggests that some of the stories in the poem are true, some false, but the flow of stories is constant. We might say that the most characteristic act in the poem is creative storytelling. Zeus’s reply to Athena suggests that behind the story that the poet has received from the muse another artist is at work, who is creating, or perhaps has created, another story inside the Odyssey. The full richness of Odysseus’s character only emerges in the interaction of Athena’s story and its fixed parameters with the more expansive world the poet creates around it. As we encounter the hero for the first time in the poem, Homer lets us peek behind the curtain and see that the story the poem tells is rather more complex and multilayered than we might first suspect.

    Zeus now affirms much of Athena’s plan: Odysseus will reach the Phaeacians, who will eventually bring him safely back to Ithaka, laden with loot. Homer does not keep his audience engaged with the prospect of surprise endings: we know how this story will end. Rather, his hold over us comes from his teasing and manipulation of expectations raised by that knowledge. We know Odysseus will get home, but not when and how.

     

    Further Reading

    Heubeck, A. J. Hainsworth, and S. West, eds. 1989. A Commentary on Homer’s Odyssey, vol. I, Books I–VIII, 51–66. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Thalmann, W. 1992. The Odyssey: An Epic of Return, 31–46. New York: Twayne Publishers.

    Tracy, S. 1990. The Story of the Odyssey, 28–29. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    6  μέλε … οἱ ἐὼν: “it was concerning to her (i.e., Athena) that he (i.e., Odysseus) was…” lit., Odysseus is the subject of μέλε, and the nominative participle agrees with him as the subject (“he being in the house of the nymph was concerning to her”). 

    6  μέλε: 3rd sing. impf. unaugmented 

    μή τις … ἔστω / σκηπτοῦχος βασιλεύς: “let no scepter-wielding king be …,” negative 3rd pers. imperat.

    10  εἴη … ῥέζοι: optatives of wish (Smyth 1814).

    11  ὡς: “seeing that,” “inasmuch as,” introducing a causal clause with the indicative, denoting a fact (Smyth 2241).

    11   Ὀδυσσῆος θείοιο: gen. obj. of μέμνηται.

    12  οἷσιν: dative object of ἄνασσε (unaugmented impf.), relative pronoun, the antecedent of which is λαῶν.

    12  πατὴρ δ᾽ ὣς: “but as a father.”

    12  ἦεν: = ἦν.

    13  : “he” (i.e., Odysseus).

    14  Καλυψοῦς: contracted gen. sing. At the beginning of the epic (1.14), we learn that Odysseus is being held on Calypso’s island.

    15  ἣν: “his,” possessive adj.

    16  οὐ γάρ οἱ πάρα: “he doesn’t have at his disposal” (πάρα = πάρεστι). The οἱ acts with πάρα as a dative of possession (lit., “there are not present for him”).

    16  ἐπήρετμοι: fem. nom. pl., modifying νῆες.

    17  οἵ κέν … πέμποιεν: "who could send him," "to send him," final (purpose) relative clause after a principal clause of negative meaning (Monro 304.1.b). 

    18  παῖδ᾽ ἀγαπητὸν: i.e., Telemachus.

    18  μεμάασιν: the subject is the suitors on Ithaca.

    19.  : i.e., Telemachus.

    19  μετὰ: “in search of,” with accusative. A regular usage with verbs of motion like βαίνω (see LSJ μετά C.I.2).

    22  ποῖόν: “what kind of…?” The interrogative adjective generally expresses surprise or anger on the part of the speaker (LSJ ποῖος).

    22  ποῖόν σε ἔπος φύγεν ἕρκος ὀδόντων: “what kind of utterance has escaped the barrier of your teeth?” A common formula. The verb φύγεν (ἔφυγεν) has two accusatives as its object, σε and ἕρκος. The former indicates the whole affected by the verb (“you”) and the latter indicates the part (“barrier [of teeth]”) affected. See Benner 180 and Monro 141.

    23  νόον: “plan,” “idea.”

    23  ἐβούλευσας νόον… / ὡς: “you came up with a plan how (that)…,” indirect discourse with the indicative retained after a main verb in secondary sequence (Smyth 2615b

    24 (ἐ)κείνους: i.e., the suitors.

    25  πέμψον: 2nd sing. imperat.

    26  ὥς κε …: introducing a pair of purpose clauses with verbs in the subjunctive (ἵκηται, ἀπονέωνται).

    26  ἣν: “his,” possessive adj. (see line 15).

    29  αὖτε: “in your turn.”

    29  τά τ᾽ ἄλλα: “and in other matters,” accusative of respect.

    30  εἰπεῖν: infin. used as imperat.

    31  νόστον: “namely, the return…,” in apposition to βουλήν.

    32  πομπῇ: “with the assistance (of),” dative of means.

    33  : “he” (i.e., Odysseus)

    34  ἤματί … εἰκοστῷ: dative of time when.

    34  κ(ε) … ἵκοιτο: potential optative.

    35  γεγάασιν: “are,” 3rd pl. perf. > γίγνομαι.

    36  κεν … τιμήσουσι: “will honor.” The future indicative is probably coupled with κεν here because the act of honoring is still conditional, dependent upon Odysseus’ potential arrival (ἵκοιτο, line 34) in Scheria. For κεν with the future indicative, see Smyth 1793.

    36  περὶ κῆρι: “exceedingly, with all their heart” (see LSJ κῆρ).

    39  ὅσ᾽ ἂν οὐδέ ποτε … ἐξήρατ(ο): “as many as he never would have carried off,” “more than he ever would have carried off,” the apodosis of a past contrary-to-fact conditional (ἄν + aor. indic.), with the protasis following in line 40 (εἴ … ἦλθε).

    39  Τροίης: “from Troy,” governed by the εξ in ἐξήρατο.

    41  ὣς: “thus,” “in this way.”

    42  ἑὴν: “his,” possessive adj.

    ἠώς ἠοῦς ἡ: dawn; Dawn

    λέχος –ους τό: a couch, bed

    ἀγαυός –ή –όν: illustrious, noble

    Τιθωνός –ου ὁ: Tithōnus, a son of Laomedon, carried off by the goddess Eos, to be her spouse

    ὄρνυμι ὄρσω ὦρσα ὄρωρα ὀρώρεμαι –––: to stir up, move; (mid.) to rise, get up

    ἀθάνατος –ον: immortal, deathless; (plur.) the gods

    φόως τό: light

    ἠδέ: and

    βροτός –οῦ ὁ: mortal

    θᾶκος (Ion. θῶκος) –ου ὁ: a seat, chair

    καθιζάνω – – – – –: to sit down

    ἄρα: now, then, next, thus

    Ζεύς Διός ὁ: Zeus

    ὑψιβρεμέτης –ου: high-thundering

    οὗ, οἷ, ἕ and encl. οὑ, οἱ, ἑ: him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    κράτος –ους τό: might, power

    Ἀθήνη –ης ἡ: Athena5

    κῆδος –ους τό: care, thought (for others); anxiety, worry, pain, grief

    Ὀδυσσεύς –έως ὁ: Odysseus, king of Ithaca, hero of the Odyssey

    μέλω μέλησω ἐμέλησα μεμέληκα ––– –––: be an object of care or interest

    οὗ, οἷ, ἕ and encl. οὑ, οἱ, ἑ: him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    δῶμα –ατος τό: house (often in plural)

    νύμφη –ης ἡ: a young wife, bride; nymph, a divinity of waters or woods

    Ζεύς Διός ὁ: Zeus

    ἠδέ: and

    μάκαρ μάκαρος: blessed, happy; blessed ones, gods

    πρόφρων –ον: kindly-spirited, well-intentioned; ready for action, purposefully, intentionally

    ἀγανός –ή –όν: mild, gentle, kindly

    ἤπιος [–α] –ον: gentle, mild, kind

    σκηπτοῦχος –ον: bearing a staff

    φρήν φρενός ἡ: diaphragm; heart, mind, wits

    αἴσιμος [–η] –ον: fatal; (neut. plural.) what is just and right

    αἴσυλος –ον: unseemly, evil10

    ῥέζω ῥέξω ἔρρεξα – – ἐρρέχθην: to do, accomplish; to offer (sacrifice)

    Ὀδυσσεύς –έως ὁ: Odysseus, king of Ithaca, hero of the Odyssey

    ἀνάσσω ἀνάξω ἤναξα: to be king, lord, or master of, rule over, reign

    ἤπιος [–α] –ον: gentle, mild, kind

    κρατερός –ά –όν: strong, powerful, mighty

    ἄλγος –ους τό: pain

    νύμφη –ης ἡ: a young wife, bride; nymph, a divinity of waters or woods

    μέγαρον –ου τό: a large room, hall, feast-hall

    Καλυψώ –οῦς ἡ: Calypso, a goddess, daughter of Atlas

    μιν: (accusative singular third person pronoun) him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    ἴσχω ––– ––– ––– ––– –––: to hold; to hold back, check, restrain15

    ἑός ἑή ἑόν: his, her, own

    γαίη –ης ἡ: land, region, district

    ἱκνέομαι ἵξομαι ἱκόμην ––– ἷγμαι –––: to come, reach

    οὗ, οἷ, ἕ and encl. οὑ, οἱ, ἑ: him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    ἐπήρετμος –ον: at the oar

    ἑταῖρος –ου ὁ: comrade, companion

    μιν: (accusative singular third person pronoun) him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    εὐρύς –εῖα –ύ: broad

    νῶτον –ου τό (or νῶτος ὁ): the back

    ἀγαπητός –ή –όν: beloved

    ἀποκτείνω ἀποκτενῶ ἀπέκτεινα ἀπέκτονα: kill

    μάω – – – – –: be eager, press on

    οἴκαδε: homeward

    νίσσομαι νίσομαι ἐνισάμην: to go, go away

    ἀκοή –ής ἡ: a hearing, the sound heard

    Πύλος –ου ἡ: Pylos, a city in Elis20

    ἠγάθεος –α –ον: very divine, most holy

    ἠδέ: and

    Λακεδαίμων –ονος ἡ: Lacedaemon

    δῖος –α –ον: divine, godlike, shining

    ἀπαμείβομαι ἀπαμείψομαι ἀπημειψάμην ἀπημείφθην: to reply, answer

    πρόσφημι πρόσφησω προσέφησα: to speak to, address

    νεφεληγερέτα –ου ὁ: cloud-gatherer

    Ζεύς Διός ὁ: Zeus

    ποῖος –α –ον: of what nature? of what sort?

    ἕρκος –ους τό: a fence, hedge, wall, barrier

    ὀδούς –οντος ὁ: tooth

    νόος νόου ὁ: mind, perception

    τοι: let me tell you, surely

    Ὀδυσσεύς –έως ὁ: Odysseus, king of Ithaca, hero of the Odyssey

    ἀποτίνω ἀποτείσω/ἀποτίσω ἀπέτεισα/ἀπέτισα ἀποτέτεικα/ἀποτέτικα ἀποτέτεισμαι/ἀποτέτισμαι ἀποετείσθην/ἀποετίσθην: to pay off, atone; (mid.) to avenge

    Τηλέμαχος –ου ὁ: Telemachus, the son of Odysseus and Penelope25

    ἐπισταμένως: skillfully

    ἀσκηθής –ές: unhurt, unharmed, unscathed

    ἑός ἑή ἑόν: his, her, own

    γαίη –ης ἡ: land, region, district

    ἱκνέομαι ἵξομαι ἱκόμην ––– ἷγμαι –––: to come, reach

    μνηστήρ –ῆρος ὁ: suitor

    παλιμπετής –ές: falling back

    ἀπονέομαι ἀπονήσομαι ἀπένησα – ἀπολνένημαι/ἀπονένησμαι ἀπενήθην/ἀπενήσθην: to return

    ἠμί – – – – –: I say

    ἄρα: now, then, next, thus

    Ἑρμῆς (or Ἑρμείας) –οῦ ὁ: Hermes, herm

    φίλος –η –ον: friend; loved, beloved, dear

    ἀντίος –α or –ιη –ον: set against, opposite, facing (+ gen); in reply

    αὐδάω (ηὔδων) αὐδήσω ηὔδησα ηὔδηκα ηὔδημαι ηὔδάθην: speak

    Ἑρμῆς (or Ἑρμείας) –οῦ ὁ: Hermes, herm

    αὖτε: in turn, moreover, still, again, on the other hand

    ἄγγελος –ου ὁ: messenger

    νύμφη –ης ἡ: a young wife, bride; nymph, a divinity of waters or woods30

    ἐϋπλόκαμος –ον: fairhaired

    νημερτής –ές: unerring, infallible

    νόστος –ου ὁ: return (home)

    Ὀδυσσεύς –έως ὁ: Odysseus, king of Ithaca, hero of the Odyssey

    ταλασίφρων –ον: patient of mind, stout-hearted

    νέομαι ––– ––– ––– ––– –––: to return (often in present with future sense), go home, go

    πομπεύς –έως (Ion. –ῆος) ὁ: one who attends

    θνητός –ή –όν: mortal

    σχεδία –ας ἡ: a raft, float

    πολύδεσμος –ον: fastened with many bonds

    πῆμα –ατος τό: suffering, misery, calamity, woe, bane; cause of suffering

    ἦμαρ –ατος τό: day

    Σχερία –ας ἡ: Scheria, the country of the Phaeacians

    ἐριβῶλαξ –ακος or ἐρίβωλος –ον: with large clods, very fertile

    ἱκνέομαι ἵξομαι ἱκόμην ––– ἷγμαι –––: to come, reach

    Φαίαξ –ακος ὁ: a Phaeacian35

    γαίη –ης ἡ: land, region, district

    ἀγχίθεος –ον: near the gods

    μιν: (accusative singular third person pronoun) him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    κῆρ κῆρος τό: heart, mind

    φίλος –η –ον: friend; loved, beloved, dear

    γαίη –ης ἡ: land, region, district

    χαλκός –οῦ ὁ: bronze, copper, weapon

    χρυσός –οῦ ὁ: gold

    ἄλις: in heaps, crowds, swarms, in abundance, in plenty

    ἐσθής –ῆτος ἡ: dress, clothing

    Τροία –ας ἡ: Troy

    ἐξαίρω ἐξαρῶ ἐξῆρα ἐξῆρκα ἐξῆρμαι ἐξήρθην: to lift, raise; (mid.) to seize for oneself, obtain

    Ὀδυσσεύς –έως ὁ: Odysseus, king of Ithaca, hero of the Odyssey

    ἀπήμων –ον gen. –ονος: unharmed, unhurt; doing no harm; favorable40

    λαγχάνω λήξομαι ἔλαχον εἴληχα ––– –––: to obtain by lot, have as portion; to fall by lot to

    ληΐς –ίδος ἡ: booty, spoil

    αἶσα –ης ἡ: destiny; norm, rule; portion share

    οὗ, οἷ, ἕ and encl. οὑ, οἱ, ἑ: him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    μοῖρα –ας ἡ: part, portion, lot, fate

    φίλος –η –ον: friend; loved, beloved, dear

    ἱκνέομαι ἵξομαι ἱκόμην ––– ἷγμαι –––: to come, reach

    ὑψόροφος –ον: high-roofed, high-ceiled

    ἑός ἑή ἑόν: his, her, own

    γαίη –ης ἡ: land, region, district

    ἀπιθέω ἀπιθήσω ἀπίθησα: he disobeyed

    διάκτορος –ου ὁ: the Messenger

    Ἀργειφόντης –ου ὁ: slayer of Argus, epithet of Hermes

    πέδιλον –ου τό: sandals

    ἀμβρόσιος [–α] –ον: immortal, divine; divinely beautiful, excellent45

    χρύσεος –η –ον: golden, gold-inlaid

    μιν: (accusative singular third person pronoun) him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    ἠμέν: both.. (and), as well.. (as)

    ὑγρός –ά –όν: wet, moist, running, fluid

    ἠδέ: and

    ἀπείρων –ον: without experience, ignorant

    γαίη –ης ἡ: land, region, district

    πνοή –ῆς ἡ: a blowing, blast, breeze

    ἄνεμος –ου ὁ: wind

    ῥάβδος –ου ὁ: a rod, wand, stick, switch

    ὄμμα –ατος τό: the eye

    θέλγω θέλξω ἔθελξα ἐθέλχθην: to bewitch

    αὖτε: in turn, moreover, still, again, on the other hand

    ὑπνάω: to sleep

    ἐγείρω ἐγερῶ ἤγειρα ἐγρήγορα ––– ἠγέρθην: rouse, stir up

    πέτομαι πετήσομαι ἐπτόμην πέπτηκα πέπτημαι ἐπετάσθην: to fly

    κρατύς –ύος: strong, mighty

    Ἀργειφόντης –ου ὁ: slayer of Argus, epithet of Hermes

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    Suggested Citation

    Thomas Van Nortwick and Rob Hardy, Homer: Odyssey 5–12. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2024. ISBN: 978-1-947822-17-7 https://dcc.dickinson.edu/homer-odyssey/v-1-42