11.138-179

"ὣς ἔφατ᾽, αὐτὰρ ἐγώ μιν ἀμειβόμενος προσέειπον·

‘Τειρεσίη, τὰ μὲν ἄρ που ἐπέκλωσαν θεοὶ αὐτοί.

ἀλλ᾽ ἄγε μοι τόδε εἰπὲ καὶ ἀτρεκέως κατάλεξον·140

μητρὸς τήνδ᾽ ὁρόω ψυχὴν κατατεθνηυίης·

ἡ δ᾽ ἀκέουσ᾽ ἧσται σχεδὸν αἵματος, οὐδ᾽ ἑὸν υἱὸν

ἔτλη ἐσάντα ἰδεῖν οὐδὲ προτιμυθήσασθαι.

εἰπέ, ἄναξ, πῶς κέν με ἀναγνοίη τὸν ἐόντα;’

ὣς ἐφάμην, ὁ δέ μ᾽ αὐτίκ᾽ ἀμειβόμενος προσέειπεν·145

‘ ῥηΐδιόν τοι ἔπος ἐρέω καὶ ἐπὶ φρεσὶ θήσω.

ὅν τινα μέν κεν ἐᾷς νεκύων κατατεθνηώτων

αἵματος ἆσσον ἴμεν, ὁ δέ τοι νημερτὲς ἐνίψει·

ᾧ δέ κ᾽ ἐπιφθονέῃς, ὁ δέ τοι πάλιν εἶσιν ὀπίσσω.’

ὣς φαμένη ψυχὴ μὲν ἔβη δόμον Ἄϊδος εἴσω150

Τειρεσίαο ἄνακτος, ἐπεὶ κατὰ θέσφατ᾽ ἔλεξεν·

αὐτὰρ ἐγὼν αὐτοῦ μένον ἔμπεδον, ὄφρ᾽ ἐπὶ μήτηρ

ἤλυθε καὶ πίεν αἷμα κελαινεφές· αὐτίκα δ᾽ ἔγνω,

καί μ᾽ ὀλοφυρομένη ἔπεα πτερόεντα προσηύδα·

‘τέκνον ἐμόν, πῶς ἦλθες ὑπὸ ζόφον ἠερόεντα155

ζωὸς ἐών; χαλεπὸν δὲ τάδε ζωοῖσιν ὁρᾶσθαι.

μέσσῳ γὰρ μεγάλοι ποταμοὶ καὶ δεινὰ ῥέεθρα,

Ὠκεανὸς μὲν πρῶτα, τὸν οὔ πως ἔστι περῆσαι

πεζὸν ἐόντ᾽, ἢν μή τις ἔχῃ ἐυεργέα νῆα.

ἦ νῦν δὴ Τροίηθεν ἀλώμενος ἐνθάδ᾽ ἱκάνεις160

νηί τε καὶ ἑτάροισι πολὺν χρόνον; οὐδέ πω ἦλθες

εἰς Ἰθάκην, οὐδ᾽ εἶδες ἐνὶ μεγάροισι γυναῖκα;’

ὣς ἔφατ᾽, αὐτὰρ ἐγώ μιν ἀμειβόμενος προσέειπον·

‘μῆτερ ἐμή, χρειώ με κατήγαγεν εἰς Ἀίδαο

ψυχῇ χρησόμενον Θηβαίου Τειρεσίαο·165

οὐ γάρ πω σχεδὸν ἦλθον Ἀχαιΐδος, οὐδέ πω ἁμῆς

γῆς ἐπέβην, ἀλλ᾽ αἰὲν ἔχων ἀλάλημαι ὀιζύν,

ἐξ οὗ τὰ πρώτισθ᾽ ἑπόμην Ἀγαμέμνονι δίῳ

Ἴλιον εἰς ἐύπωλον, ἵνα Τρώεσσι μαχοίμην.

ἀλλ᾽ ἄγε μοι τόδε εἰπὲ καὶ ἀτρεκέως κατάλεξον·170

τίς νύ σε κὴρ ἐδάμασσε τανηλεγέος θανάτοιο;

ἦ δολιχὴ νοῦσος, ἦ Ἄρτεμις ἰοχέαιρα

οἷς ἀγανοῖς βελέεσσιν ἐποιχομένη κατέπεφνεν;

εἰπὲ δέ μοι πατρός τε καὶ υἱέος, ὃν κατέλειπον,

ἢ ἔτι πὰρ κείνοισιν ἐμὸν γέρας, ἦέ τις ἤδη175

ἀνδρῶν ἄλλος ἔχει, ἐμὲ δ᾽ οὐκέτι φασὶ νέεσθαι.

εἰπὲ δέ μοι μνηστῆς ἀλόχου βουλήν τε νόον τε,

ἠὲ μένει παρὰ παιδὶ καὶ ἔμπεδα πάντα φυλάσσει

ἦ ἤδη μιν ἔγημεν Ἀχαιῶν ὅς τις ἄριστος.’

    Odysseus asks Teiresias how he should approach his mother. Antikleia and Odysseus begin to talk.

    Odysseus’s mother Antikleia has been hovering nearby. After some prompting from Teiresias, the hero allows her to drink blood from the ditch and their encounter begins. The masculine hero’s mother in ancient hero stories has a consistent function, to support and protect her child no matter what he does, no matter the consequences for him or others.

    read full essay

    Ninsun, Gilgamesh’s mother, clears the way for him to pursue Humbaba, monster of the Cedar Forest, an adventure that will eventually bring the hero much pain (The Epic of Gilgamesh III.i–v). Achilles’s mother Thetis supports him in his thirst for vengeance against Hector, though it is clear to us at least that this rampage will be self-destructive. Only after Zeus commands her does she go to Achilles and urge him to release Hector’s corpse to Priam, thus signaling his (and her) acceptance of his mortal nature (Il. 24.77–119). The rare counter examples draw power from this established pattern. Orestes, son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, must be spirited out of Argos as an infant, for fear that his frightening mother and her lover Aegisthus might kill him to protect themselves. Medea murders her children to spite her faithless husband Jason.

    Though the hero’s mother usually offers comfort, her son, in order to reach maturity as a man, must eventually separate from her nurture and come to terms with his father’s world, process that often requires the acceptance of some hard truths about himself and his place in that world. Both Gilgamesh and Achilles struggle to accept the fact that they, like all mortals, must eventually die. Utnapishtim, a surrogate father, delivers this hard news to Gilgamesh (The Epic of Gilgamesh X.vi). To win release of his son’s body, Priam convinces Achilles to see in him a reflection of Peleus, the hero’s father, pining for his son back in Thessaly (Il. 24.486–506). The disastrous life of Oedipus plays out in the wake of his conspicuous failure to launch, as he kills his father and marries his mother (Sophocles Oedipus Tyrannus 771–833). Virgil plays against the expectations generated by previous hero stories to create a brilliantly perverse portrait of Aeneas’ relationship to his mother Venus. The goddess appears in the woods outside Carthage disguised as a sexy virgin huntress—thus firing up the Oedipal potential in the encounter—and then arranges for Aeneas to become entangled with Dido, with horrific consequences for both (Aen. 1.305–417).

    Odysseus’s mother is less prominent in her son’s story, appearing only here in the Odyssey. She is certainly devoted to him, having died from the pain of missing him (202–3). In response to his questioning, she reassures him that his father, son, and wife are all alive and protecting his estates, though Laertes is living a debased, hardscrabble existence (180–96). The hero’s mother, in her desire to protect him, often works against his need to assert himself in the world and win renown (kleos). Antikleia’s transparently allegorical name (“against kleos”) seems to put her in that role. Her interest is in getting him back home to his wife and family, not encouraging more adventuring. On the other hand, doing so will eventually require him to kill the suitors, a spectacularly heroic feat.

    The crosscurrents here reflect the influence of Odyssey’s comic narrative form (see Introduction, para. 5). In tragic stories like The Epic of Gilgamesh or the Iliad, there is a tension between a mother’s desire to protect and nurture her son and his journey toward becoming the man he is supposed to be. The Odyssey, by contrast, requires not that Odysseus evolve into full manhood, but rather that he survive, at whatever cost, to restore order in Ithaka. He has finished whatever growing up he must do and so Antikleia has a different function in the story than she would in a tragic narrative. There is in fact a story in the poem about a male protagonist evolving toward maturity, the adventures of Telemachus, who is sent on a journey orchestrated by Athena to find out about his father and become a worthy helper for Odysseus if he comes home. He does not tell his mother his plans, for fear she will try to keep him from fulfilling his mission, which will bring into contact with his father’s world. The movement of Telemachus toward maturity could in fact create a problem for Odysseus’s mission. If Telemachus reaches maturity at the end of his journey, there would be two contenders for the role of king in Ithaka. That conflict is resolved when Odysseus successfully warns off his son as the latter is about to string the bow and win both the kingship and the queen (Od. 21.101–35).

    Odysseus’s encounter with his mother ends with a striking vignette, as he tries unsuccessfully three times to embrace Antikleia’s ghost, which flies off each time “like a shadow or a dream” (207–8). The scene recalls a famous encounter between Achilles and the ghost of Patroclus:

    ἀλλά μοι ἆσσον στῆθι: μίνυνθά περ ἀμφιβαλόντε
    ἀλλήλους ὀλοοῖο τεταρπώμεσθα γόοιο.
    ὣς ἄρα φωνήσας ὠρέξατο χερσὶ φίλῃσιν
    οὐδ᾽ ἔλαβε: ψυχὴ δὲ κατὰ χθονὸς ἠΰτε καπνὸς
    ᾤχετο τετριγυῖα: ταφὼν δ᾽ ἀνόρουσεν Ἀχιλλεὺς
    χερσί τε συμπλατάγησεν, ἔπος δ᾽ ὀλοφυδνὸν ἔειπεν:
    ‘ὢ πόποι ἦ ῥά τίς ἐστι καὶ εἰν Ἀΐδαο δόμοισι
    ψυχὴ καὶ εἴδωλον, ἀτὰρ φρένες οὐκ ἔνι πάμπαν:
    παννυχίη γάρ μοι Πατροκλῆος δειλοῖο
    ψυχὴ ἐφεστήκει γοόωσά τε μυρομένη τε,
    καί μοι ἕκαστ᾽ ἐπέτελλεν, ἔϊκτο δὲ θέσκελον αὐτῷ.

    “But come closer; embracing, if only for a moment,
    let us take pleasure in baneful grieving.”
    Having spoken thus he reached out with his arms
    but could not grasp the image; like a puff of smoke the spirit
    went under the earth with a shrill cry. Achilles rose up astonished,
    drove his hands together and spoke a sorrowful word:
    “Ah wonder! Even in the house of Hades there is left something,
    a soul and an image, but no wits are in it.
    For all night long the spirit of wretched Patroclus
    stood over me wailing and grieving,
    and told me each thing to do, and the likeness to him was wonderful.”

    Iliad 23.97–107

    The absence of any verbal parallels between the two passages suggests that these are probably not two versions of a traditional type scene. The “three times” motif here does appear elsewhere in Homeric epic, but not in the same kind of context (cf. Il 5.436–37; 16.703–4, 784–85). Both encounters are intensely intimate and personal, full of frustrated affection. In both cases, we learn something about the nature of the psyche after death, both consistent with Homeric beliefs about the afterlife and the soul. Achilles’s outburst fits with the ongoing exploration in Iliad 22–24 of the boundaries of human experience, while Antikleia’s explanation, because it occurs during the katabasis, corresponds to the kind of deep wisdom that the hero characteristically encounters in the underworld. That the hero’s mother delivers it puts her in a role usually reserved for male authority figures in heroic epic, another sign of that this katabasis will not fit comfortably in the paradigm as we see it elsewhere in tragic stories. Women are central to the meaning of Odysseus’s adventure in Hades, but their function in the episode is particular to the Odyssey.

    Further Reading

    Dimock, G. 1989. The Unity of the Odyssey, 149–151. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

    Heubeck, A. and Hoekstra, A. ed. 1989. A Commentary on Homer’s Odyssey, vol. II, Books IX–XVI, 86–88, 90. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Reinhardt, K. 1942. “The Adventures in the Odyssey.” In Schein, S. 1996. Reading the Odyssey. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 116.

    Van Nortwick, T. 1992. Somewhere I Have Never Travelled: The Second Self and the Hero’s Journey in Ancient Epic, 46–47, 67–68, 95–100. New York: Oxford University Press.

    139  τὰ ... ἐπέκλωσαν: “have fated these things."

    142  : “she.”

    142  ἧσται: 3rd sing. > ἧμαι.

    142  ἑὸν: “her,” possessive adj. > ἑός.

    143  ἔτλη: τλάω with infin., “dare to.”

    143  ἐσάντα: = εἰσάντα, “face to face.”

    143  προτιμυθήσασθαι: = προσμυθήσασθαι

    144  πῶς κε με ἀναγνοίη: “how she could….” indir. question (introduced by εἰπέ) with a 3rd sing. aor. potential opt. κε (ἄν) … ἀναγνοίη.

    144  τὸν ἐόντα: “that I am he” (i.e., her son)

    146  ἐπὶ φρεσὶ: “in your mind.” For the use of the plural, see Monro 171.

    147  ὁν τινα μέν κεν ἐᾷς: “whomever ….” Protasis of a future more vivid conditional rel. with κε (ἄν) + subj. (Smyth 2565).

    148  ὁ δέ ... ὁ δέ ...: instances of the "apodotic δέ" (Smyth 2837), which gives greater emphasis to the main clause in conditional, concessive, causal, temporal, and relative sentences.

    148  ἐνίψει: future tense in the apodosis of the future more vivid relative (> ἐνέπω)

    149  ᾧ δέ κ᾽ ἐπιφθονέῃς … εἶσιν: “whomever you begrudge it (the blood) ….” Future more vivid conditional relative, as in lines 147-148. ἐπιφθονέῃς takes a dat. indir. obj. (ᾧ).

    149  εἶσιν: 3rd sing. fut. > εἶμι.

    150  φαμένη: aor. pct. > φημί.

    151  Τειρεσίαο ἄνακτος: modifying ψυχή in line 150.

    151  κατὰ … ἔλεξεν: tmesis > κατάλεγω, “to recount, go over, reckon up.”

    152  μένον: ἔμενον, unaugmented 1st sing. impf.

    152  ὄφρ᾽: “until” (+ indic.).

    152  ἐπὶ … ἤλυθε: tmesis > ἐπέρχομαι.

    153  πίεν: ἔπιεν, unaugmented 3rd sing. aor., > πίνω.

    153  ἔγνω: 3rd sing. aor. > γιγνώσκω (for the aor. conjugation, see Smyth 682). Understand με as its dir. obj.

    156  ζωὸς ἐών: “though you are alive,” concessive participle.

    156  χαλεπὸν: “it is difficult.” Supply the verb ἐστί.

    156  ζωοῖσιν: dative of interest.

    157  μέσσῳ: “in between (there are),” that is, between the land of the living and the land of the dead. Understand the verb εἰσί.

    158  πρῶτα: “first of all,” adverbial.

    158  τὸν: rel. pron., the obj. of περῆσαι. The antecedent is Ὠκεανός.

    158  οὔ πως ἔστι: “it is in no way possible for (acc.) to (infin.) ….” ἔστι, non-enclitic, means “it is possible” (Smyth 1985).

    159  πεζὸν ἐόντ᾽: “someone going on foot,” the acc. subj. of the infin. περῆσαι.

    159  ἐόντ(α): acc. sing. pct. > εἶμι, substantive.

    159  ἢν μη: “unless” (ἐὰν μή + subj.), the protasis of a pres. general conditional.

    160  : introduces a question.

    161  νηΐ τε καὶ ἑτάροισι: “with…,” dative of means (νηΐ) and accompaniment (ἑτάροισι).

    161  πολὺν χρόνον: acc. of extent of time (Monro 138; Smyth 1582), with ἀλώμενος (line 160).

    164  εἰς Ἀΐδαο: εἰς δόμον Ἀΐδαο.

    165  χρησόμενον: “in order to consult with…,” with dat., fut. pct. expressing purpose (Monro 244)

    167  ἐπέβην: “set foot upon” > ἐπιβαίνω + gen.

    167  ὀϊζύν: obj. of ἔχων.

    168  ἐξ οὗ: “since,” “from the time when.”

    168  τὰ πρώτιστ(α): adverbial.

    169  ἵνα … μαχοίμην: purpose clause with optative in secondary seq.

    170  a repetition of line 140

    171  τίς … κὴρ: “what fate.”

    171  τανηλεγέος: “long-lamented,” gen.

    172  νοῦσος: Ion. form of νόσος, ἡ, “illness.”

    173  οἷς: “with her…,” possessive adj., dative of means.

    173  κατέπεφνεν: understand σε as the obj. of the verb.

    174  πατρός τε καὶ υἱέος: “of (i.e., about) my father and son,” as if the genitives were preceded by περί (genitive of connection, Smyth 1380).

    175  ἢ … ἦέ …: “whether … or ….”

    175  παρ: = πάρεστι, “is present.”

    176  φασὶ: “they think.” Introducing indir. discourse with acc. (ἐμὲ) and infin. (νέεσθαι).

    178  ἔμπεδα: "steadfastly," adverbial.

    179  ὅς τις: “whoever (is).” Supply the verb ἐστί. The rel. clause is the subj. of ἔγημεν.

    ἀτάρ (or αὐτάρ): but, yet

    μιν: (accusative singular third person pronoun) him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    ἀμείβω ἀμείψω ἤμειψα ἤμειφα ἤμειμμαι ἠμείφθην: to respond, answer; to exchange; (mid.) to take turns, alternate; to change, place, pass

    προσεῖπον (aor. 2 of προσαγορεύω and προσφωνέω); Εp. προσέειπον: to speak to one, address, accost

    Τειρεσίας –ου ὁ: Tiresias, a seer of Thebes

    ἄρα: now, then, next, thus

    ἐπικλώθω ἐπικλώσω ἐπέκλωσα – ἐπικέκλωσμαι ἐπεκλώσθην: to spin the thread of one's destiny; to assign as one's proportion or lot

    ἄγε: come! come on! well! 140

    ἀτρεκής –ές: real, genuine, exact

    καταλέγω καταλέξω κατέλεξα κατείλοχα κατείλεγμαι κατελέχθην: to recount, tell at length and in order; (mid.) καταλέχομαι to lie down

    καταθνῄσκω καταθανοῦμαι κατέθανον κατατέθνηκα ––– –––: to die

    ἀκέων –ουσα –ον: softly, silently

    ἧμαι (or κάθημαι) ––– ––– ––– ––– –––: sit

    σχεδόν: near; almost

    ἑός ἑή ἑόν: his, her, own

    τλάω τλήσομαι ἔτλην τέτληκα –––– ––––: to tolerate, endure, resist; to dare; to have the courage (+ infin.); (part.) τετληώς

    εἰσάντα (or ἐσάντα): right opposite

    προσμυθέομαι προσμυθήσομαι προσεμυθησάμην: to address, accost

    ἄναξ –ακτος ὁ: ruler, lord

    ἀναγιγνώσκω ἀναγνώσομαι ἀνέγνων ἀνέγνωκα ἀνέγνωσμαι ἀνεγνώσθην: to know well, read, perceive

    ἀμείβω ἀμείψω ἤμειψα ἤμειφα ἤμειμμαι ἠμείφθην: to respond, answer; to exchange; (mid.) to take turns, alternate; to change, place, pass 145

    προσεῖπον (aor. 2 of προσαγορεύω and προσφωνέω); Εp. προσέειπον: to speak to one, address, accost

    ἐρῶ εἴρηκα ἐρρήθην: to say, tell, speak

    φρήν φρενός ἡ: diaphragm; heart, mind, wits

    νέκυς –υος τό: dead body, corpse

    καταθνῄσκω καταθανοῦμαι κατέθανον κατατέθνηκα ––– –––: to die

    ἆσσον: nearer, very near

    νημερτής –ές: unerring, infallible

    ἐνέπω ἐνισπήσω/ἐνίψω ἔνισπον ––– ––– –––: to tell, tell of, relate, describe

    ἐπιφθονέω ἐπιφθονήσω ἐπεφθόνησα – ἐπεφθόνημαι ἐπεφθονήθην: to bear grudge against

    τοι: let me tell you, surely

    ὀπίσω or ὀπίσσω: backwards, behind; in the future

    δόμος –ου ὁ: house, home 150

    Ἀΐδης –ου ὁ: Hades

    εἴσω (or ἔσω): in, into, inside

    Τειρεσίας –ου ὁ: Tiresias, a seer of Thebes

    ἄναξ –ακτος ὁ: ruler, lord

    θέσφατος –ον: fated, decreed, ordained, appointed

    ἀτάρ (or αὐτάρ): but, yet

    αὐτοῦ: at the very place, here, there

    ἔμπεδος –ον: firm-set, steadfast, constant, unchanged; (in neuter as adverb) firmly, steadily

    ὄφρα: while; until; so that; ὄφρα … τόφρα, while … for so long

    κελαινεφής –ές: of the black clouds, wrapped in black clouds (epithet of Zeus); black (like a cloud)

    ὀλοφύρομαι ὀλοφυροῦμαι ὠλοφυράμην – – ὠλοφύρθην: to lament, wail; pity

    πτερόεις πτερόεσσα πτερόεν: winged

    προσαυδάω προσαυδήσω προσηύδησα προσηύδηκα προσηύδημαι προσηυδήθην: to speak to, address, accost

    ζόφος –ου ὁ: darkness; zone of darkness, (as a compass direction) west 155

    ἠερόεις –εσσα –εν: hazy, murky

    ζωός (Ion. ζώς) –ή –όν: alive, living

    ῥεῖθρον (or ῥέεθρον) –ου τό: river, stream

    Ὠκεανός –οῦ ὁ: Oceanus

    περάω περάσω (or περῶ) ἐπέρασα πεπέρακα ––– –––: to cross, go across; to penetrate

    πεζός –ή –όν: on foot

    εὐεργής –ές: well-wrought, well-made

    Τροίηθεν: from Troy 160

    ἀλάομαι ἀλήσομαι ἀλάλημαι ἠλήθην: to wander, stray

    ἐνθάδε: to here, to there

    ἱκάνω ––– ––– ––– ––– –––: to come to, arrive at, reach

    ἑταῖρος –ου ὁ: comrade, companion

    πω: up to this time, yet

    Ἰθάκη –ης ἡ: Ithaca, the home of Odysseus, an island on the West coast of Greece

    μέγαρον –ου τό: a large room, hall, feast-hall

    ἀτάρ (or αὐτάρ): but, yet

    μιν: (accusative singular third person pronoun) him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    ἀμείβω ἀμείψω ἤμειψα ἤμειφα ἤμειμμαι ἠμείφθην: to respond, answer; to exchange; (mid.) to take turns, alternate; to change, place, pass

    προσεῖπον (aor. 2 of προσαγορεύω and προσφωνέω); Εp. προσέειπον: to speak to one, address, accost

    χρεώ (or χρειώ) –οῦς ἡ: want, need, necessity

    κατάγω κατάξω κατήγαγον καταγήοχα κατῆγμαι κατήχθην: to lead or bring down; (of sailing) (mid.) to bring to land, port, put in (+ dat.)

    ᾍδης –ου ὁ: Hades

    χράω χρήσω ἔκρησα κέχρηκα ––– –––: to fall upon, attack, assail; deliver an oracle, (mid.) consult an oracle 165

    Θηβαῖος –η/–α –ον: Theban

    Τειρεσίας –ου ὁ: Tiresias, a seer of Thebes

    πω: up to this time, yet

    σχεδόν: near; almost

    Ἀχαιΐς –ΐδος ἡ: the Achaean land/woman

    πω: up to this time, yet

    ἁμός –ή –όν: our, my > ἐμός

    ἐπιβαίνω ἐπιβήσομαι ἐπέβην ἐπιβέβηκα ––– –––: to go on, enter, step up, mount, board (a ship) + gen.

    ἀλάλημαι (perf. of ἀλάομαι): to wander

    ὀϊζύς: sorrow, grief, distress, hardship

    πρώτιστος [–η] –ον: the very first, first of the first

    Ἀγαμέμνων –ονος ὁ: Agamemnon

    δῖος –α –ον: divine, godlike, shining

    Ἴλιος –ου ἡ: Troy, Ilion

    εὔπωλος –ον: abounding in foals

    Τρώς Τρωός ὁ: Trojan

    ἄγε: come! come on! well! 170

    ἀτρεκής –ές: real, genuine, exact

    καταλέγω καταλέξω κατέλεξα κατείλοχα κατείλεγμαι κατελέχθην: to recount, tell at length and in order; (mid.) καταλέχομαι to lie down

    κήρ κηρός ἡ: doom, death, fate

    δαμάζω δαμάσω ἐδάμασα δεδάμακα δεδάμασμαι/δέδμημα ἐδαμάσθην/ἐδμήθην: to overpower, tame, conquer, subdue

    τανηλεγής –ές: long-lamented

    δολιχός –ή –όν: long

    Ἄρτεμις –ῐδος ἡ: Artemis

    ἰοχέαιρα –ας ἡ: arrow-pourer, shooter of arrows

    ἑός ἑή ἑόν: his, her, own

    ἀγανός –ή –όν: mild, gentle, kindly

    βέλος –ους τό: arrow

    ἐποίχομαι ἐποιχήσομαι ἐπῴχημαι: to go towards, approach; to ply (the loom)

    καταφένω ––– κατέπεφνον: to kill, slay

    καταλείπω καλλείψω κάλλιπον καταλέλοιπα καταλέλειμμαι κατελείφθην: to leave behind

    γέρας –ως τό: prize, privilege, sovereignty 175

    νέομαι ––– ––– ––– ––– –––: to return (often in present with future sense), go home, go

    μνηστός –ή –όν: wedded

    ἄλοχος –ου ἡ: wife

    ἔμπεδος –ον: firm-set, steadfast, constant, unchanged; (in neuter as adverb) firmly, steadily

    μιν: (accusative singular third person pronoun) him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    γαμέω γαμῶ ἔγημα γεγάμηκα γεγάμημαι –––: marry

    Ἀχαιός –ά –όν: Achaean, Greek

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    Suggested Citation

    Thomas Van Nortwick and Rob Hardy, Homer: Odyssey 5–12. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2024. ISBN: 978-1-947822-17-7 https://dcc.dickinson.edu/homer-odyssey/xi-138-179