2.7 - 2.10

ἦν δὲ ἡ μὲν πρώτη δίκη περὶ Αἴαντος τοῦ Τελαμῶνος, εἴτε χρὴ αὐτὸν συνεῖναι τοῖς ἥρωσιν εἴτε καὶ μή· κατηγορεῖτο δὲ αὐτοῦ ὅτι μεμήνοι καὶ ἑαυτὸν ἀπεκτόνοι. τέλος δὲ πολλῶν ῥηθέντων ἔγνω ὁ Ῥαδάμανθυς, νῦν μὲν αὐτὸν πιόμενον τοῦ ἐλλεβόρου παραδοθῆναι Ἱπποκράτει τῷ Κῴῳ ἰατρῷ, ὕστερον δὲ σωφρονήσαντα μετέχειν τοῦ συμποσίου.      [8] δευτέρα δὲ ἦν κρίσις ἐρωτική, Θησέως καὶ Μενελάου περὶ τῆς Ἑλένης διαγωνιζομένων, ποτέρῳ χρὴ αὐτὴν συνοικεῖν. καὶ ὁ Ῥαδάμανθυς ἐδίκασε Μενελάῳ συνεῖναι αὐτὴν ἅτε καὶ τοσαῦτα πονήσαντι καὶ κινδυνεύσαντι τοῦ γάμου ἕνεκα· καὶ γὰρ αὖ τῷ Θησεῖ καὶ ἄλλας εἶναι γυναῖκας, τήν τε Ἀμαζόνα καὶ τὰς τοῦ Μίνωος θυγατέρας. [9] τρίτη δ᾽ ἐδικάσθη περὶ προεδρίας Ἀλεξάνδρῳ τε τῷ Φιλίππου καὶ Ἀννίβᾳ τῷ Καρχηδονίω, καὶ ἔδοξε προέχειν ὁ Ἀλέξανδρος, καὶ θρόνος αὐτῷ ἐτέθη παρὰ Κῦρον τὸν Πέρσην τὸν πρότερον. [10] τέταρτοι δὲ ἡμεῖς προσήχθημεν· καὶ ὁ μὲν ἤρετο τί παθόντες ἔτι ζῶντες ἱεροῦ χωρίου ἐπιβαίημεν· ἡμεῖς δὲ πάντα ἑξῆς διηγησάμεθα. οὕτω δὴ μεταστησάμενος ἡμᾶς ἐπὶ πολὺν χρόνον ἐσκέπτετο καὶ τοῖς συνέδροις ἐκοινοῦτο περὶ ἡμῶν. συνήδρευον δὲ ἄλλοι τε πολλοὶ καὶ Ἀριστείδης ὁ δίκαιος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος. ὡς δὲ ἔδοξεν αὐτῷ, ἀπεφήναντο, τῆς μὲν φιλοπραγμοσύνης καὶ τῆς ἀποδημίας, ἐπειδὰν ἀποθάνωμεν, δοῦναι τὰς εὐθύνας, τὸ δὲ νῦν ῥητὸν χρόνον μείναντας ἐν τῇ νήσῳ καὶ συνδιαιτηθέντας τοῖς ἥρωσιν ἀπελθεῖν. ἔταξαν δὲ καὶ τὴν προθεσμίαν τῆς ἐπιδημίας μὴ πλέον μηνῶν ἑπτά.

Αἴαντος τοῦ Τελαμῶνος:  Telamonion Ajax (vs. the Locrian Ajax) is a great hero of the Iliad.  Odysseus is awarded the armor of Achilles after his death, and Ajax, enraged, kills himself.  The story of his madness and death is told in Sophocles' play, Ajax.

εἴτε χρὴ: ind. quest., “whether it was permitted”

αὐτὸν συνεῖναι: pr. inf. of συν-εἰμι after χρὴ, “that he join with”

κατηγορεῖτο: impf. pas. of κατα-αγορέω, “it was alleged that...” followed by ind. st., with perf. indicatives changed to perf. optatives in secondary sequence

μεμήνοι: perf. opt. of μηνίω, “that he went mad”

ἀπεκτόνοι: perf. opt. of ἀποκτείνω, “that he had killed”

πολλῶν ῥηθέντων (ao. pas. of λέγω): gen. abs., “many things having been said”

ἔγνω: ao. of γινώσκω, taking acc. + inf. form of ind. st. expressing judgment

πιόμενον: fut. part. acc. s. of πίνω modifying αὐτὸν, expressing purpose, “in order for him to drink...”

ἐλλεβόρου: Hellebore was a drug used to treat madness.

παραδοθῆναι: ao. inf. pas. of παραδίδωμι, “that he should be handed over”

σωφρονήσαντα μετέχειν: ind. st., “that, after having regained his senses, he share”

Θησέως:  Theseus is the greatest of the Attic heroes, a legendary king who, like Heracles, rids the world of monsters.  He had sought Helen as a wife before she was awarded to Menelaus.  Another story has Theseus and Pirithous abducting Helen.

Μενελάου:  Brother of Agamemnon, who was awarded Helen as a wife.  The abduction of Helen by Paris was the cause of the Trojan War.

ποτέρῳ χρὴ αὐτὴν συνοικεῖν: ind. quest., “with which of the two it was necessary to live....”

συνεῖναι αὐτὴν: ind. st. after ἐδίκασε, “that she should live with”

ἅτε + part: “on the ground that...”

πονήσαντι: ao. part. dat. s. of πονέω, modifying Μενελάῳ, “that he had undergone”

καὶ γὰρ αὖ: “and furthermore”

εἶναι γυναῖκας: continuation of ind. st. after ἐδίκασε, “that there were wives”

τήν Ἀμαζόνα: The Amazon is Hippolyte or Antiope, both of whom Theseus was said to have abducted and made his wife.  After bearing a son, Hippolytus, Hippolyte or Antiope was cast aside for Phaedra, the daughter of Minos.

τὰς τοῦ Μίνωος θυγατέρας: the daughters of Minos are Phaedra and Ariadne, the latter abandoned on an island after having helped Theseus defeat the Minotaur; the former Theseus' wife who fell in love with her stepson, Hippolytus.

ἐδικάσθη: ao. pas. of δικάζω, “was judged”

προεδρίας: gen. s., “precedence,” lit. “front seats”

Ἀλεξάνδρῳ τῷ Φιλίππου:  Alexander the Great (356 – 323), the Macedonian general who conquered the Persian Empire.

Ἀννίβᾳ τῷ Καρχηδονίω:  Hannibal (248–183), the Carthaginian general who led his people against Rome in the second Punic War.

ἔδοξε προέχειν: “seemed to be superior”

ἐτέθη: ao. pas. of τίθημι, “was placed”

προσήχθημεν: ao. pas. of προσ-άγω, “we were brought forth”

ἤρετο...ἐπιβαίημεν: ao. opt. of ἐπι-βαίνω, ind. quest. with opt. in sec. seq.

τί παθόντες: ao. pas. of πάσχω, “experiencing what?”

διηγησάμεθα: ao. of δια-ἡγέομαι, “we narrated”

οὕτω δὴ: “next, as you would expect”

μεταστησάμενος: ao. part. trans. of μετα-ἵστημι, “setting us aside”

συνήδρευον: impf. 3 pl. of συν-ἑδρεύω, “sat in council with him”

ἄλλοι τε πολλοὶ καὶ: “many others, but especially...”

Ἀριστείδης ὁ δίκαιος: Aristides the Just (530 - 468 B.C), whose legendary fairness is recounted by Plutarch.

ὡς δὲ ἔδοξεν αὐτῷ: “when he had decided”

ἀπεφήναντο: ao. of ἀπο-φαίνω, “they resolved”

τῆς μὲν φιλοπραγμοσύνης καὶ τῆς ἀποδημίας: gen. indicating the grounds of the sentence, “for the charge of...“

ἐπειδὰν ἀποθάνωμεν: subj. of ἀποθνῄσκω, indefinite temporal clause, “whenever we die”

δοῦναι: ao. inf. of δίδωμι, ind. st. after ἀπεφήναντο, “they resolved that we give”

τὸ δὲ νῦν: “but for the present” 

ῥητὸν χρόνον: acc. of duration, “for a specified time”

μείναντας...συνδιαιτηθέντας: ao. part. acc. pl. modifying the subject of ἀπελθεῖν, 

ἀπελθεῖν: ao. inf. of ἀπο-ἔρχομαι, continuation of ind. st. after ἀπεφήναντο, “that we depart”

ἔταξαν: ao. of τάσσω, “they determined”

Αἴας, -αντος, ὁ: Ajax

ἥρως, ὁ: hero, warrior

μαίνομαι: rage, be furious

ἑλλέβορος, ὁ: hellebore, poison

Κῷος, -α, -ον: from the island Cos, Coan

ἰατρός, ὁ: one who heals, physician

σωφρονέω: be sound of mind

μετέχω: partake of, enjoy a share of

συμπόσιον, τό: a drinking-party, symposium

κρίσις, εως, ἡ: a separating, decision

ἐρωτικός, -ή, -όν: amatory

Θησεύς, ὁ: Theseus

Μενέλαος, ὁ: Menelaus

διαγωνίζομαι: contend, struggle or fight against

συνοικέω: dwell together

δικάζω: judge, give judgment on

πονέω: work hard, do work, suffer toil

κινδυνεύω: take the risk, do a daring thing

γάμος: a wedding, wedding-feast

Ἀμαζών, -όνος, ἡ: an Amazon

Μίνως, ὁ: Minos

δικάζω: judge, to give judgment on

προεδρία, ἡ: the privilege of the front seats

Καρχηδόνιος, -α, -ον: Carthaginian

προέχω: hold before

θρόνος, ὁ: a seat, chair

Κῦρος, ὁ: Cyrus 

Πέρσης, ου, ὁ: a Persian

προσάγω: bring to or forth

ἐπιβαίνω: go upon

ἑξῆς: in order, in a row

διηγέομαι: set out in detail, describe in full

μεθίστημι: place in another way, to change

σκέπτομαι: look about, look carefully

σύνεδρος, -ον: councilor

κοινόω: make common, communicate

συνεδρεύω: sit together, sit in council

Ἀθηναῖος: Athenian, of or from Athens

ἀποφαίνω: display, produce

φιλοπραγμοσύνη, ἡ:  meddlesomeness

ἀποδημία, ἡ: a being from home, a going or being abroad

ἐπειδάν: whenever

εὔθυνα, ἡ: a setting straight, correction, chastisement

ῥητός, -ή, -όν: stated, specified

συνδιαιτάομαι: dwell with or together

ἀπέρχομαι: go away, depart from

προθέσμια: fore-appointed time

ἐπιδημία, ἡ: a stay in a place 

μείς , -ηνός, ὁ,: a month

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Suggested Citation

Eric Casey, Stephen Nimis, and Evan Hayes, Lucian: True History, Book 1. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-947822-05-4. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/lucian-true/book-2/2-7-2-10