2.23

 Ἄρτι δὲ τοῦ ἀγῶνος συντετελεσμένου ἠγγέλλοντο οἱ ἐν τῷ χώρῳ τῶν ἀσεβῶν κολαζόμενοι ἀπορρήξαντες τὰ δεσμὰ καὶ τῆς φρουρᾶς ἐπικρατήσαντες ἐλαύνειν ἐπὶ τὴν νῆσον· ἡγεῖσθαι δὲ αὐτῶν Φάλαρίν τε τὸν Ἀκραγαντῖνον καὶ Βούσιριν τὸν Αἰγύπτιον καὶ Διομήδη τὸν Θρᾷκα καὶ τοὺς περὶ Σκείρωνα καὶ Πιτυοκάμπτην. ὡς δὲ ταῦτα ἤκουσεν ὁ Ῥαδάμανθυς, ἐκτάσσει τοὺς ἥρωας ἐπὶ τῆς ᾐόνος· ἡγεῖτο δὲ Θησεύς τε καὶ Ἀχιλλεὺς καὶ Αἴας ὁ Τελαμώνιος ἤδη σωφρονῶν· καὶ συμμίξαντες ἐμάχοντο, καὶ ἐνίκησαν οἱ ἥρωες, Ἀχιλλέως τὰ πλεῖστα κατορθώσαντος. ἠρίστευσε δὲ καὶ Σωκράτης ἐπὶ τῷ δεξιῷ ταχθείς, πολὺ μᾶλλον ἢ ὅτε ζῶν ἐπὶ Δηλίῳ ἐμάχετο. προσιόντων γὰρ τεττάρων πολεμίων οὐκ ἔφυγε καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον ἄτρεπτος ἦν· ἐφ᾽ οἷς καὶ ὕστερον ἐξῃρέθη αὐτῷ ἀριστεῖον, καλός τε καὶ μέγας παράδεισος ἐν τῷ προαστείῳ, ἔνθα καὶ συγκαλῶν τοὺς ἑταίρους διελέγετο, Νεκρακαδημίαν τὸν τόπον προσαγορεύσας. 

News arrives of a jailbreak from the Island of the Damned.

τοῦ ἀγῶνος συντετελεσμένου: gen. abs. perf. part. of συν-τελέω, “the games hardly finished”

οἱ...κολαζόμενοι: “those being punished”

ἀπορρήξαντες: ao. part. of ἀπορρήγνυμι, “having burst out”

ἐλαύνειν, ἡγεῖσθαι: pr. inf. in ind. st. after ἠγγέλλοντο, “they were reported to be driving,” and “that P. was leading.”  Note the change in construction from nominative to accusative.

Φάλαρίν τὸν Ἀκραγαντῖνον: Phalaris was tyrant of Acragas from 570-554 and was renowned for his excessive cruelty.  He speaks in his own defense in two rhetorical exercises by Lucian.

Βούσιριν Αἰγύπτιον: Busiris was a legendary pharoah of Egypt renowned for his xenophobia and cruelty.  Busiris was a popular theme in Greek art and Isocrates wrote a mock encomium about him.

Διομήδη τὸν Θρᾷκα: Diomedes of Thrace was a legendary king renowned for cruelty, especially for the man-eating horses he kept, which were stolen by Heracles.

Σκείρωνα καὶ Πιτυοκάμπτην: Sciron and Pityokamptes were infamous robbers killed by Theseus.

ἐκτάσσει: pr. of ἐκ-τάσσω, “he musters”

ἤδη σωφρονῶν: “already recovered”

Ἀχιλλέως κατορθώσαντος: gen. abs., “A. having accomplished”

ταχθείς: ao. part. pas. of τάσσω, “having been stationed”

ζῶν ἐπὶ Δηλίῳ ἐμάχετο: Socrates was in the defeated army at Delium in 424.

προσιόντων...πολεμίων: gen abs., “four enemies attacking”

προσιόντων: pr. part. of προσ-ἔρχομαι

οὐκ ἔφυγε: ao. of φεύγω, “he didn᾽t flee”

ἄτρεπτος: Alcibiades recounts in the Symposium Socrates᾽ composure in battle.

ἐφ᾽ οἷς: “and for this reason”

ἐξῃρέθη: ao. pas. of ἐξαιρέω, “was dedicated”

ἐν τῷ προαστείῳ: “outside the city”

συγκαλῶν: pr. part. συν-καλέω, “calling together”

Νεκρακαδημίαν: “Academy of the Dead”

ἄρτι: just, exactly

συντελέω: bring to an end, complete, accomplish

χῶρος, ὁ: a piece of ground, ground, place

ἀσεβής, -ές: ungodly, godless, unholy, profane

κολάζω: curtail, dock, prune

ἀπορρήγνυμι: break off, snap asunder

δεσμόν, τὸ: anything for binding, fetter

φρουρά, ἡ: watch, guard

ἐπικρατέω: rule over

Αἰγύπτιος, -α, -ον: Egyptian

Θρᾷξ, Θρᾳκός, ὁ: a Thracian

ἐκτάσσω: draw out in battle-order

ἥρως, ὁ: a hero, warrior

ἠιών: a sea-bank, shore, beach

Θησεύς, ὁ: Theseus

Ἀχιλλεύς, ὁ: Achilles

Αἴας, -αντος, ὁ: Ajax

σωφρονέω: be sound of mind

συμμίγνυμι: mix together

κατορθόω: set upright, erect

ἀριστεύω: be best or bravest

Σωκράτης, ὁ: Socrates

δεξιός, -ά, -όν: on the right hand or side

Δήλιος, -α, -ον: Delium

ἄτρεπτος, -ον: unmoved, immutable

ἐξαιρέω: dedicate

ἀριστεῖον: the prize of the best and bravest

παράδεισος, ὁ: a garden, orchard

προάστειον, ου, τό: a suburb

συγκαλέω: call to council, convoke, convene

ἑταῖρος, ὁ: a comrade, companion, mate

διαλέγομαι: discourse

προσαγορεύω: address, name

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Suggested Citation

Eric Casey, Stephen Nimis, and Evan Hayes, Lucian: True History, Book 1. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-947822-05-4. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/lucian-true/book-2/2-23