2.18

οἱ μέντοι ἀμφ᾽ Ἀρίστιππόν τε καὶ Ἐπίκουρον τὰ πρῶτα παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἐφέροντο ἡδεῖς τε ὄντες καὶ κεχαρισμένοι καὶ συμποτικώτατοι. παρῆν δὲ καὶ Αἴσωπος ὁ Φρύξ· τούτῳ δὲ ὅσα καὶ γελωτοποιῷ χρῶνται. Διογένης μέν γε ὁ Σινωπεὺς τοσοῦτον μετέβαλεν τοῦ τρόπου, ὥστε γῆμαι μὲν ἑταίραν τὴν Λαΐδα, ὀρχεῖσθαι δὲ πολλάκις ὑπὸ μέθης ἀνιστάμενον καὶ παροινεῖν. τῶν δὲ Στωϊκῶν οὐδεὶς παρῆν· ἔτι γὰρ ἐλέγοντο ἀναβαίνειν τὸν τῆς ἀρετῆς ὄρθιον λόφον. ἠκούομεν δὲ καὶ περὶ Χρυσίππου ὅτι οὐ πρότερον αὐτῷ ἐπιβῆναι τῆς νήσου θέμις, πρὶν τὸ τέταρτον ἑαυτὸν ἐλλεβορίσῃ. τοὺς δὲ Ἀκαδημαϊκοὺς ἔλεγον ἐθέλειν μὲν ἐλθεῖν, ἐπέχειν δὲ ἔτι καὶ διασκέπτεσθαι· μηδὲ γὰρ αὐτὸ τοῦτό πω καταλαμβάνειν, εἰ καὶ νῆσός τις τοιαύτη ἐστίν. ἄλλως τε τὴν ἐπὶ τοῦ Ῥαδαμάνθυος, οἶμαι, κρίσιν ἐδεδοίκεσαν, ἅτε καὶ τὸ κριτήριον αὐτοὶ ἀνῃρηκότες. πολλοὺς δὲ αὐτῶν ἔφασκον ὁρμηθέντας ἀκολουθεῖν τοῖς ἀφικνουμένοις ὑπὸ νωθείας ἀπολείπεσθαι μὴ καταλαμβάνοντας καὶ ἀναστρέφειν ἐκ μέσης τῆς ὁδοῦ.

Ἀρίστιππόν:  Aristippus of Cyrene (435-356) was a follower of Socrates and founded a school focused on pleasure as the appropriate end for humans to seek.

Ἐπίκουρον:  Epicurus (341-271) was a hedonist like Aristippus.

ἐφέροντο: “were considered”

κεχαρισμένοι: perf. part. of χαρίζω, “since they were agreeable”

Αἴσωπος ὁ Φρύξ: Aesop (620-564) was famous for his moral fables.

γελωτοποιῷ: “they use him for a jester”

Διογένης μέν γε ὁ Σινωπεὺς: Diogenes the Cynic (404-323), a “Socrates gone mad,” was famous for his utter disregard for conventional behavior.

τοσοῦτον: acc. s., “to such an extent....”

μετέβαλεν: ao. of μεταβάλλω, “had changed”

ὥστε γῆμαι...ὀρχεῖσθαι...παροινεῖν: result clauses

ἑταίραν τὴν Λαΐδα: Lais was the name of several famous courtesans.

ὑπὸ μέθης: “under the influence”

ἀνιστάμενον: pr. part. intrans. acc. s. of ἀνα-ἵστημι, “getting up to dance”

τῶν Στωϊκῶν:  The Stoics, who sought to overcome all passion, were popularly thought of as dour and hypocritical.

ἐλέγοντο ἀναβαίνειν: “they were said to be still climbing”

Χρυσίππου: Chrysippus of Soli (279-206), the third head of the Stoic school of philosophy.

ἐπιβῆναι: ao. inf. of ἐπιβαίνω after θέμις, “allowed to come ashore”

πρὶν + subj: “until such time”

ἐλλεβορίσῃ: ao. subj. of ἐλλεβορίζω, “takes the hellebore treatment.”  Hellebore was a treatment for madness.  Chrysippus claimed one could only be wise after taking the treatment three times.

τοὺς δὲ Ἀκαδημαϊκοὺς:  The Academy was the school of Plato, but the later Academics were known for a highly skeptical attitude toward truth and certainty, hence their portrayal here.

ἐθέλειν, ἐπέχειν, διασκέπτεσθαι, καταλαμβάνειν: inf. in ind. st. after ἔλεγον, “that they wished to come but were staying away, etc.”

αὐτὸ τοῦτό: acc., “even this”

μηδὲ...καταλαμβάνειν: “that they were not yet able to decide”

εἰ καὶ νῆσός τις τοιαύτη ἐστίν: ind. question after καταλαμβάνειν, “whether such an island really exists”

ἄλλως τε: “besides”

ἐδεδοίκεσαν: plupf. of δείδω, “they feared”

ἅτε + part: expressing the grounds of the supposition (οἶμαι)

ἀνῃρηκότες: perf. part. of ἀναιρέω, “that they had abolished”

ἔφασκον...ἀκολουθεῖν, ἀπολείπεσθαι, ἀναστρέφειν: ind. st.

ὁρμηθέντας: ao. part. pas. of ὁρμάω modifying the subject of  ἀκολουθεῖν, “having set out”

τοῖς ἀφικνουμένοις: pr. part. dat. pl. of ἀφικνέομαι, object of ἀκολουθεῖν, “to follow those arriving”

μὴ καταλαμβάνοντας: pr. part. acc. modifying the subject of ἀπολείπεσθαι, “by not reaching” (but also “not coming to understand”)

χαρίζομαι: say or do something agreeable

συμποτικός, -ή, -όν: convivial, jolly

Φρύξ: a Phrygian

γελωτοποιός, -όν: exciting laughter

Σινωπεύς, έως, ὁ: an inhabitant of Sinope

μεταβάλλω: change quickly

γαμέω: marry

ἑταίρα, ἡ: a companion

ὀρχέομαι: dance in a row

μέθη, ἡ: strong drink

ἀνίστημι: make to stand up, raise up

παροινέω: behave ill at wine, play drunken tricks

ἀναβαίνω: go up, mount, go up to

ὄρθιος, -α, -ον: straight up, going upwards, steep

λόφος, ὁ: raised area, hill

ἐπιβαίνω: go upon

θέμις, ἡ: that which is laid down or established by custom

ἐπέχω: hold back

διασκέπτομαι: be skeptical

πω: up to this time, yet

κρίσις, εως, ἡ: a separating, decision

δείδω: fear

κριτήριον, τό:  a criterion, standard

φάσκω: say, affirm, assert

ἀκολουθέω: follow

νώθεια, ἡ: sluggishness, dulness

ἀπολείπω: leave over or behind

ἀναστρέφω: turn upside down, upset

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Suggested Citation

Eric Casey, Stephen Nimis, and Evan Hayes, Lucian: True History, Book 1. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-947822-05-4. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/lucian-true/book-2/2-18