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54. Initial σ- followed by a vowel is often weakened to the rough breathing.

Greek ὑπό ὑπέρ ἅλς ἕρπω ἵστημι ἅλλομαι
Latin sub super sal serpo sisto salio

55.   a. Between vowels σ is apt to disappear.

b. Between consonants σ disappears.

c. When inflection brings two sigmas together, one disappears.