The Ω-Conjugation Present System: Vowel Verbs, Not Contracting

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255. The present system includes the indicative present and imperfect, with the subjunctive, optative, imperative, infinitive, and participle, active and middle (passive). All regular ω-verbs are conjugated in the present system like παύω (§§ 252, 253, 254).

256. The present stem (indicative) is made from the verb stem in several ways, and verbs are classed (in the present system) accordingly.

For convenience in later use (since all ω-presents are inflected alike), the modes of forming the present stem in all classes of ω-presents are here described together (§§ 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, below).

257. (1) Formative-Vowel Class. The suffix -ο:ε- (§ 25), called the formative vowel, is added. Verbs that have a stronger and weaker form of the root take in this system the stronger:

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
παυ-
stop
παυο:ε-
(i.e. παυο-, παυε-)
παύω
λιπ-, λειπ-
leave
λειπο:ε- λείπω
φυγ-, φευγ-
flee
φευγο:ε- φεύγω

a. In γίγνομαι (becοme), for γι-γεν-ο-μαι, the verb stem is reduplicated. This present reduplication consists in prefixing the initial consonant with ι.

πῑ́πτω (fall), for πι-πετ-ο

ἴσχω (hold) for σι-σεχ-ω (§ 54)

τίκτω (bring forth) for τι-τεκ-ω

b. Verb stems in -υ-, -ευ- lose υ between vowels (§ 27).

πλέω (sail) for πλευ-ω [πλυ-, πλευ-]

ῥέω (flow) for ῥευ-ω [ῥυ-, ῥευ-]

πνέω (blow) for πνευ-ω [πνυ-, πνευ-]

258. (2) Tau Class. The suffix -το:ε- is added. The verb stem always ends in a labial mute, which becomes π before τ (§§ 38.b, 43.a).

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
ῥῑφ-, ῥιφ-
throw
ῥῑπτο:ε- ῥῑ́πτω
τυπ-
strike
τυπτο:ε- τύπτω
βλαβ-
harm
βλαπτο:ε- βλάπτω
κρυφ-
hide
κρυπτο:ε- κρύπτω
ταφ- (47.d)
bury
θαπτο:ε- θάπτω

259. (3) Iota Class. The suffix -ιο:ε- is added; for sound changes see § 56.

a.

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
βαλ-
throw
βαλλο:ε- βάλλω
ὀφελ-
increase
ὀφελλο:ε- ὀφέλλω

But ὀφείλω (ὀφελ-owe) is like those under § 259.b.

b.

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
φαν-
show
φαινο:ε- φαίνω
τεν-
stretch
τεινο:ε- τείνω
σπερ-
sow
σπειρο:ε- σπείρω
ἀμυν-
ward οff
ἀμῡνο:ε- ἀμῡ́νω
κριν-
decide
κρῑνο:ε- κρῑ́νω

c.

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
φυλακ-
guard
φυλασσο:ε- φυλάσσω
ταγ-
arrange
τασσο:ε- τάσσω
ταραχ-
disturb
ταρασσο:ε- ταράσσω

d.

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
φραδ-
tell
φραζο:ε- φράζω
ἐλπιδ-
hope
ἐλπιζο:ε- ἐλπίζω
oἰμωγ-
lament
oἰμωζο:ε- οἰμώζω
κλαγγ-
cry οut
κλαζο:ε- κλάζω
σαλπιγγ-
blow trumpet
σαλπιζο:ε- σαλπίζω

e.The verb stems καυ- (burn) and κλαυ- (weep) give καίω and κλαίω, with loss of -υ- (§ 27), farther shortened in prose to κᾱ́ω and κλᾱ́ω.

260. (4) Inceptive Class. The suffix -σκο:ε- or ισκο:ε- is added.

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
ἀρε-
please
ἀρεσκο:ε ἀρέσκω
εὑρ-
find
εὑρισκο:ε εὑρίσκω

a. The class is so named because some verbs in it imply beginning or becoming.

γηρᾱ́σκω grow old (γηρᾱ-)

γιγνώσκω come to know, perceive (γνο:ω-, § 28.a)

b. Several presents take a reduplication (§ 257.a, above).

γι-γνώ-σκω recognize (γνο:ω-)

πάσχω (παθ-, pres. stem πασχο:ε-suffer) is irregular for παθ-σκω; διδάσκω (διδαχ-teach) is for διδαχ-κω.

261. (5) Nasal Class. A suffix containing ν is added.

a. The suffix -νο:ν- is added.

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
τεμ-
cut
τεμνο:ε- τέμνω

b. The suffix -ανο:ε- is added.

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
ἁμαρτ-
err
ἁμαρτανο:ε- ἁμαρτάνω

c. The suffix -ανο:ε- is added, wih an inserted nasal in the verb stem.

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
λαβ-
take
λαμβανο:ε- λαμβάνω
μαθ-
learn
μανθανο:ε- μανθάνω
λαχ-
get by lot
λαγχανο:ε- λαγχάνω

d. The suffix -υνο:ε- is added.

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
ἐλα-
drive
ἐλαυνο:ε- ἐλαύνω

e. The suffix -νεο:ε- is added.

Verb Stem Pres. Stem Pres. Ind.
ἱκ-
come
ἱκνεο:ε- ἱκνέομαι

262. Sometimes a verb stem is in the present tense system (or in some other) longer by an added ε:η or ο:ω.

Present Future Perfect

δοκέω (δοκε-)
seem

δόξω (δοκ-)
shall seem
 
ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-)
am taken
ἁλώσομαι (ἁλω-)
shall be taken
 
μανθάνω (μαθ-)
learn
μεμάθηκα (μαθη-)
have learned

263. The personal endings of the indicative are partially different in the primary and secondary tenses; they also distinguish the active and middle (passive) voices.

Active Middle and Passive
Primary Secondary Primary Secondary
Si. 1. -μι -μαι -μην
2. -σαι -σο
3. -σι -ται -το
Pl. 1. -μεν -μεν -μεθα -μεθα
2. -τε -τε -σθε -σθε
3. -(ν)σι, -ᾶσι -ν, -σαν -νται -ντο
Du. 2. -τον -τον -σθον -σθον
3. -τον -την -σθον -σθην

a. The formative vowel is ο before μ or ν of the ending, elsewhere ε. But in combination with the primary active endings we have the following.

instead of -ο-μι
-εις instead of -ε-ς
-ει instead of -ε-σι
-ουσι instead of -ο(ν)σι (§ 51.c).

The endings -ᾱσι and -σαν never go with the formative vowel (see § 355).

b. In the middle (passive)

-ε-σαι becomes -ῃ (§ 55.a and § 28.d), later -ει

-ε-σο becomes -ου (§ 55.a and § 29.c)

c. Poets often use the ending -μεσθα for -μεθα. For -αται and -ατο in place of -νται and
-ντο see 270.a, 345.c. For a few verbs have -σθα (§§ 381, 384, 385, 386).

264. The imperfect (also the other secondary tenses in the indicative) takes the augment, the sign of past time.

a. In poetry the augment is sometimes omitted.

265. The augment has two forms.

a. The syllabic augment is ε-, prefixed to a stem beginning with a consonant.

Initial ρ- is doubled (§ 48)

ῥῑ́πτω throw, impf. ἔρρῑπτον

b. The temporal augment is the lengthening of an initial vowel: α-, ᾱ-, and ε- become η-, ου- is unchanged; in later Greek ευ- and ει- are unchanged.

Pres. Impf.
ἄγω
lead
ἦγον
ἐλπίζω
hope
ἤλπιζον
εἰκάζω
make like
ᾔκαζον
εἴκαζον
ὁπλίζω
arm
ὥπλιζον
οἴομαι
think
ᾠόμην
ἱκετεύω
entreat
ῑ̔κέτευον
αἰσθάνομαι
perceive
ᾐσθανόμην
ᾱ̓́ͅδω
sing
ᾖδον
εὑρίσκω
find
ηὕρισκον
εὕρισκον

266. βούλομαι (wish), δύναμαι (can), and μέλλω (intend) take either ε- or η- as augment.

ἠβουλόμην, ἠδυνάμην, ἤμελλον, ἐβουλόμην, etc.

267. Some verbs that have lost an initial consonant still take the syllabic augment; εε- then becomes ει-. Among the most frequent are the following.

Pres. Impf.
ἔχω
have
(ἐχ- for σεχ-, 54)
εἶχον
ἕπομαι
follow
(ἑπ- for σεπ-)
εἱπόμην
ἕρπω
creep
(ἑρπ- for σερπ-, Latin serpo)
εἷρπον
ἐάω
let, permit
εἴων
ἐθίζω
accustom
εἴθιζον
ὁράω
see
ἑώρων
ὠθέω
push
ἐώθουν

a. ἑώρων and some others have a double augment, syllabic and temporal.

268. A verb compounded with a preposition augments the simple form; a preposition ending in a consonant then recovers its original form.

Pres. Impf.
ἀνα-βαίνω
go up
ἀν-έβαινον
εἰσ-άγω lead in εἰσ-ῆγον
συλ-λέγω
collect
συν-έλεγον
συ-σκευάζω
pack up
συν-εσκεύαζον
ἐμ-βάλλω
throw in
ἐν-έβαλλον
ἐγ-γράφω
write in
ἐν-έγραφον
ἐκ-βάλλω
throw out
ἐξ-έβαλλον

For elision see §§ 32 and 33.

a. The accent never stands before the augment syllable.

εἰσῆγον (not εἴσηγον)

b. Verbs derived from words that begin with a preposition generally take the augment as if the verb itself were a compound; but there are exceptions.

Pres. Impf.
ὑποπτεύω suspect
(ὕπ-οπτος suspicious)
ὑπ-ώπτευον
ἐπιορκέω perjure oneself
(ἐπίορκος perjured)
ἐπι-ώρκουν
ἐνθῡμέομαι lay to heart
(ἐνθμιος taken to heart)
ἐν-εθῡμούμην

But

Pres. Impf.
ἐναντιόομαι oppose
(ἐναντίος opposite)
ἠναντιούμην

c. A few compounds put the augment before the preposition.

Pres. Impf.
καθέζομαι
sit down
ἐκαθεζόμην
καθίζω
seat
ἐκάθιζον
καθεύδω
sleep
ἐκάθευδον
καθηῦδον

d. A double augment is found in ἠμφεγνόουν from ἀμφιγνοέω, and ἠνειχόμην from ἀν-έχομαι. (So in the aorist ἠνεσχόμην.)

269. The subjunctive takes the primary endings; -ο:ε- becomes ω before μ or ν, elsewhere η. Thus -ω:η- is the mode-suffix, appearing throughout the subjunctive, which is otherwise like the indicative.

270. The optative takes the secondary endings, but with -μι instead of . The formative vowel is ο, which makes a diphthong with the mode-suffix -ι- (or -ιε- in the third plural active).

In the middle -σο loses σ (§ 55.a).

a. Poets not infrequently use the ending -ατο for -ντο in the present and aorist optative (cp. § 344.c).

271. The imperative endings are as follows.

Active Middle, Passive
Sing. 2. -θι, -ς -σο
3. -τω -σθω
Plur. 2. -τε -σθε
3. -ντων (-τωσαν) -σθων (-σθωσαν)
Dual 2. -τον -σθον
3. -των -σθων

272. The formative vowel is ο before -ντων, elsewhere ε. -θι and are omitted in -ω presents; -τωσαν and -σθωσαν are rare or late.

In the middle -ε-σο loses σ and contracts.

273. The infinitive endings are as follows.

Active Middle, Passive

-εν

-εναι

-ναι

-σθαι

274. In -ω presents the formative vowel and endings combined are -ε-εν, contracted to -ειν, and -ε-σθαι.

275. The participial endings are:

Active Middle, Passive
-ντ- -μενο-

before which the formative vowel is ο.

276. Active participles are declined like ᾱ̓́κων (166 and 167); middle participles are regular in the vowel declension (76).

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/goodell/%CF%89-conjugation-present-system-vowel-verbs-not-contracting