Selection 5 (4b.13.1-11)

[4b.13.1] 'Quid istās’ inquis, ‘ineptiās, quibus litterātior est quisque, nōn melior, tam operōsē persequeris? quōmodo fīant nivēs dīcis, cum multō magis ad nōs pertineat dīcī ā tē quārē emendae nōn sint’. iubēs mē lītem cum luxuriā lītigāre? cotīdiānum istud et sine effectū iūrgium est. lītigēmus tamen, etiamsī superior futūra est; pugnantēs ac reluctantēs vincat. [4b.13.2] quid porrō? hanc ipsam īnspectiōnem nātūrae nihil iūdicās ad id quod vīs cōnferre? cum quaerimus quōmodo nix fīat, et dīcimus illam pruīnae similem habēre nātūram, plūs illī spīritūs quam aquae inesse, nōn putās exprobrārī illīs, cum emere aquam turpe sit, sī nē aquam quidem emunt? [4b.13.3] nōs vērō quaerāmus potius quōmodo fīant nivēs quam quōmodo serventur, quoniam, nōn contentī vīna diffundere, veterāria per sapōrēs aetātēsque dispōnere, invēnimus quōmodo stīpārēmus nivem, ut ea aestātem ēvinceret et contrā annī fervōrem dēfenderētur locī frīgore. quid hāc dīligentiā cōnsecūtī sumus? nempe ut grātuītam mercēmur aquam. nōbīs dolet quod spīritum, quod sōlem emere nōn possumus, quod hic āēr etiam dēlicātīs dīvitibusque ex facilī nec ēmptus venit. ō quam nōbīs male est quod quicquam ā rērum nātūrā in mediō relictum est! [4b.13.4] hoc quod illa fluere et patēre omnibus voluit, cuius haustum vītae pūblicum fēcit, hoc quod tam hominī quam ferīs avibusque et inertissimīs animālibus in ūsum largē ac beātē profūdit, contrā sē ingeniōsa luxuria redēgit ad pretium. adeō nihil illī potest placēre nisi carum. ūnum hoc erat quod dīvitēs in aequum turbae dēdūceret, quō nōn possent antecēdere pauperrimum; illī cui dīvitiae molestae sunt excōgitātum est quemadmodum etiam caperet aqua luxuriam.

[4b.13.5] Unde hoc perventum sit ut nūlla nōbīs aqua satis frīgida vidērētur quae flueret, dīcam. quamdiū sānus et salūbris cibī capāx stomachus est implēturque, nōn premitur, nātūrālibus fōmentīs contentus est. ubi cotīdiānīs crūditātibus perustus nōn temporis aestūs sed suōs sentit, ubi ēbrietās continua vīsceribus īnsēdit et praecordia bīle in quam vertitur torret, aliquid necessāriō quaeritur quō aestus ille frangātur, quī ipsīs aquīs incalēscit. remediīs incitant vitium; itaque nōn aestāte tantum, sed et mediā hieme nivem causā parī bibunt. [4b.13.6] quae huius reī causa est nisi intestīnum malum et luxū corrupta praecordia? quibus nūllum intervāllum umquam quō interquiēscerent datum est, sed prandia cēnīs usque in lūcem perductīs ingesta sunt, et distentōs cōpiā ferculōrum ac varietāte comissātiō altius mersit. deinde numquam intermissa intemperantia quidquid alimenti dēcoxerat efferāvit, et in dēsīderium semper novī rigōris accendit. [4b.13.7] itaque quamvīs cēnātiōnem vēlīs ac speculāribus mūniant, et igne multō doment hiemem, nihilōminus stomachus ille solūtus et aestū suō languidus quaerit aliquid quō ērigātur. nam sīcut animō relictōs stupentēsque frīgidā spargimus ut ad sēnsum suī redeant, ita vīscera istōrum vitiīs torpentia nihil sentiunt, nisi frīgore illa vehementiōre perusserīs. [4b.13.8] inde est, inquam, quod nē nive quidem contentī sunt, sed glaciem, velut certior illī ex solidō rigor sit, exquīrunt ac saepe repetītīs aquīs dīluunt. quae nōn ē summō tollitur sed, ut vim maiōrem habeat et pertinācius frīgus, ex abditō effoditur. itaque nē ūnum quidem eius est pretium, sed habet īnstitōrēs aqua et annōnam (prō pudor!) variam. [4b.13.9] unguēntāriōs Lacedaemoniī urbe expulērunt et properē cēdere fīnibus suīs iussērunt, quia oleum disperderent. quid illī fēcissent sī vidissent repōnendae nivis officīnās et tot iūmenta portandae aquae dēservientia, cuius colōrem sapōremque paleīs quibus cūstōdiunt inquinant?

[4b.13.10] At, dīī bonī, quam facile est extinguere sitim sānam! sed quid sentīre possunt ēmortuae faucēs et occallātae cibīs ārdentibus? quemadmodum nihil illīs satis frīgidum, sīc nihil satis calidum est, sed ārdentēs bōlētōs et raptim indūmentō suō mersātōs dēmittunt paene fūmantēs, quōs deinde restinguant nivātīs pōtiōnibus. vidēbis, inquam, quōsdam gracilēs et palliolō fōcālīque circumdatōs, pallentēs et aegrōs nōn sorbēre sōlum nivem sed etiam ēsse et frusta eius in scyphōs suōs dēicere, nē tepēscant inter ipsam bibendī moram. [4b.13.11] sitim istam esse putās? febris est, et quidem eō ācrior quod nōn tāctū vēnārum nec in cutem effūsō calōre dēprehenditur; sed cor ipsum excoquit luxuria, invictum malum et ex mollī fluidōque dūrum atque patiēns. nōn intellegis omnia cōnsuētūdine vim suam perdere? itaque nix ista, in quā iam etiam natātis, eō pervenit ūsū et cotīdiānā stomachī servitūte ut aquae locum obtineat. aliquid adhūc quaerite illā frīgidius, quia prō nihilō est familiāris rigor.

Selection 5 (4b.13.1–11): Critique of the trade of snow and the luxurious habits of the rich

This selection from the conclusion of Book 4b treats celestial waters such as hail and snow. These were typical topics for works of meteorology, and one can find a discussion in Aristotle’s Meteorologica 347b16–349a3. Because the opening of this book is lost, we are unsure about all of the subjects covered, but what remains covers frozen precipitation. After differentiating between hail and snow, providing the scientific theories of the two (see Williams 2012: 149–70), and offering some rather humorous examples of ancient beliefs in warding off hail, Seneca finishes the book with a peroration against the trade in ice and snow and what this has done to pervert the natural order of eating, drinking, and other social interactions. There is a similar digression about eating red mullet in Book 3, and one about the way humans have manipulated the winds for their own imperialist desires at the conclusion of Book 5. For the connections of ethics and physics in these sections, see Scott 1999 and Williams 2012: 54–92.

[4b.13.1] The social and ethical effects of the trade in ice and snow.

inquis: Lucilius is the interlocutor here. Seneca enlivens his account by adding other voices and questioning the purpose of own investigations. Here Lucilius wonders if such knowledge is making Seneca more learned (litteratior), but not better (melior).

quibus: its antecedent is ineptias; ablative of means (AG 409).

quomodo fiant: fiant is subjunctive in an indirect question (AG 574).

cum … pertineat: concessive cum clause with the subjunctive (AG 549).

dici a te: te is ablative of personal agent with the passive infinitive dici (AG 405).

quare emendae non sint: “why it should not be purchased,” subjunctive in indirect question. The subject is nives, “snow.” The plural nives is interchangeable with the singular nix.

litem cum luxuria litigare: legal language, which is common in the NQ (Lehoux 2012: 77–105). Luxuria is often attacked by Seneca in his philosophical treatises (e.g. Ep. 100.10: “I want luxury to be castigated, debauchery to be lessened, and violence to be crushed”). In the NQ luxuria leads to unnatural behavior, such as the behavior of those who take pleasure in watching a fish die before they eat it, to ensure maximum freshness (NQ 3.17.2-3.18.7).

superior futura est: “it will win.” luxuria is the subject.

pugnantes ac reluctantes: supply nos.

[4b.13.2] Snow merchants have figured out how to pack and preserve it against heat. The rich in effect purchase water, which is free.

quid porro?: “what else?” “what further?” introducing a rhetorical question, as at 3.30.2.

nihil … conferre: “that it contributes nothing,” indirect statement after iudicas

vis: > volo, velle, 2 sing.

pruinae: dative with similem (AG 384)

plus illi spiritus quam aquae inesse: supply dicimus; illi and aquae are datives with inesse, as normal with compounds of esse. spiritus = “air.” Un-compacted snow is typically 90–95% trapped air.

exprobrari illis: "that a reproach is being leveled at them," impersonal passive infinitive + dat. (AG 372)

ne … quidem: surrounds and emphasizes the word it negates (AG 322.f). Because there is more air than water in snow, those who buy snow in essence spend their money on what is mostly air.

 [4b.13.3] The rich want to put a price on the free gifts of nature and are distressed that certain of nature’s gifts remain free.

diffundere: “decant” into vessels, such as amphoras, for storage and preservation.

disponere: “arrange” on racks according to (per) their flavor and age. Seneca represents such connoisseurship as a blameworthy product of luxuria.

stiparemus: “we compact”

nempe: “doubtless.” The tone is ironic and satirical.

nobis dolet: take dolet impersonally with nobis = “we grieve that….” The ironic tone continues though the end of the section.

hic aer: “this air,” around us, as opposed to the spiritus trapped in snow

ex facili nec emptus: “readily and unbought”

in medio: “for the public, open to all” (LS medius II.B.1).

[4b.13.4] Nature made water available to all, but the rich have turned even this into a means of conspicuous consumption, a way to separate themselves from the mob.

hoc quod: “this (i.e., water), a thing which”

illa: natura.

cuius haustum vitae publicum fecit: “the drinking of which she has made common to life,” i.e., communal property (LS publicus I.B.2.a).

in usum: “to use”

contra se ingeniosa: “clever against itself.” Luxuria’s (i.e. the luxurious person’s) actions are self-defeating. Seneca mentions luxuria’s cleverness at Ep. 90.19.

redegit ad pretium: “has put a price on,” “has reduced to the status of a commodity” (LS redigo II.B, OLD pretium 6.a)

illi: luxuria, dative because placere takes the dative (AG 367).

quod divites in aequum turbae deduceret: “which reduced the wealthy to the status of the mob.” deduceret is subjunctive in a relative clause of characteristic (AG 535); the same syntax governs quo possent.

antecedere: “take precedence over” + acc.

illi cui divitiae molestae sunt: “someone burdened by riches.” illi is dative with the impersonal passive excogitatum est.

excogitatum est: The verb highlights the mental effort needed by the rich to make even water a luxury item. Seneca utilizes it in a similar manner at NQ 3.18.3, and 5.18.4.

quemadmodum etiam caperet aqua luxuriam: “how even water might acquire the status of a luxury.” caperet is subjunctive in an indirect question (AG 574).

[4b.13.5] Seneca explains how snow came to be the only form of water that could alleviate this heat.

General humoral theory (especially the mention of bilis “bile”) and common sense about body temperature underlie this section. Chronic heartburn anyone?

unde ... dicam: dicam is future; unde introduces an indirect question.

ut nobis ... videretur: a substantive clause of result (AG 568). The first person singular (nobis) is again ironic.

quae flueret: no flowing water is cold enough, i.e., it must be frozen.

salubris cibi: genitive after capax, “receptive to”

premitur: “is oppressed” by overeating

cruditatibus: “indigestion”

temporis aestus: “heat of the season.”

in quam vertitur: “into which it changes” (LS verto I.B.2.a)

quo aestus ille frangatur: relative clause of purpose (AG 531)

qui ... incalescit: the heat is so great it warms up water that once could have quenched it, thus the warm(ed) water becomes part of the problem.

non tantum ... sed et: “not only ... but also”

causa pari: “for the same reason” (abl.)

[4b.13.6] By continually eating such food, no respite is given to rejuvenate the digestive system.

Nero apparently enjoyed drinking hot water that he cooled by putting his glass in snow (Pliny N.H. 31.40, see Woods 2009).

nullum ... umquam: the tone is vehement and hyperbolic

quo interquiescerent: relative clause of purpose (AG 531); the antecedent of quo is intervallo.

datum est ... ingesta sunt ... mersit: perfect tense stating a general truth (AG 475), implying that such conduct is very widespread.

prandia ... ingesta sunt: the life of this individual consists of only eating.

usque in lucem: “all the way until dawn.” In Petronius’ contemporary novel Satyrica the rich freedman Trimalchio declares, usque in lucem cenemus, “let’s dine all the way until dawn” (Sat. 73.6).

numquam intermissa intemperantia: “uninterrupted excess”

quicquid alimenti decoxerat: "whatever of the food had been digested". alimenti is Oltramare's (1961) emendation of animi in the manuscripts.

efferavit: “irritates,” a hyperbolic use of the verb effero -are, which normally means “to make savage.”

in desiderium semper novi rigoris accendit: Seneca plays with the language of heat and cold in order to point out how unnatural this is.

[4b.13.7] In winter dining rooms are kept warm, yet even then the stomach craves something cold to spur it to life.

quamvis ... doment: concessive clause introduced by quamvis with the subjunctive (AG 527).

vēlīs … specularibus: “with draperies and windowpanes,” ablatives of means. It was relatively common for windows to be made of a semi-translucent stone instead of glass (they featured in insulae at Ostia).

muniant: “they fortify” against the cold. The subject is an indefinite “they,” referring to the snow-fanciers Seneca is criticizing. A verb in a clause introduced by the conjunction quamvis (“as much as you will,” however much”) is regularly subjunctive, as here, though indicative is also used with no substantial difference in meaning (LS quamvis II).

solutus et aestu suo languidus: “numbed [LS solvo I.B.3.b.α, literally ‘loose’] and languid from its own burning.” The “loosening” of the stomach caused by heat mimics a reaction that Seneca elsewhere describes in the natural world, where heat melts or “loosens” certain stones and evaporates water.

animo relictos stupentesque: “people who have lost consciousness or are dazed” (Corcoran). For animus = “consciousness,” see LS animus II.A.3. When describing fainting, Latin says “consciousness left him,” rather that “he lost consciousness” (Caes. De Bello Gallico 6.36, Ov. Metamorphoses 10.459).

frigidā: supply aquā

ut ... redeant: purpose clause (AG 531)

illa: viscera

perusseris: “you scorch (with intense cold),” future perfect, 2nd person singular, with nisi. The second person is generalizing, though is could also be aimed at Lucilius, the addressee of the work. Once again Seneca plays with a verb that originally means “to burn up” but applies it to cold “to nip, pinch.”

[4b.13.8] If snow was bad, ice is even worse, and the trade it has engendered in Rome is absurd.

inde est ... quod: “that is why,” with inde expressing cause (OLD inde 10.a)

ne nive quiden: ne … quidem surround and emphasize the word they negate (AG 322.f).

velut certior illi ex solido rigor sit: “as if it had a more reliable coldness because of its solidity,” conditional clause of comparison with the subjunctive (AG 524); illī is dative of possession (AG 373).

saepe repetitis aquis diluunt: “they dissolve (the ice) with often repeated waters,” i.e., by bathing it repeatedly in water.

e summo: “from the top” of a frozen lake or river

ut ... habeat: purpose clause (AG 531).

ex abdito: understand loco, “from a hidden place”; abditus -a -um > abdo

institores: “small-time retailers,” “peddlers”

annonam ... variam: “a varying price,” like wheat, depending on the market. Seneca finds this kind of small-time trade particularly shameful (pro pudor!), perhaps because it shows the habit of buying ice is widespread.

[4b.13.9] If Spartans expelled perfume manufacturers from their city, what would they have done to ice traders?

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The assumption is, of course, that we should be more like the Spartans as well and live in such a way. For the Spartans in Seneca, see the entry in A.L. Motto 1970 and for Spartan influence on Stoics like Cato the Younger see Cic. Pro Murina 74. On Stoicism’s early founders, see Brunt’s assessment, “It seems probable that both of them [Chrysippus and Cleanthes] shared, very probably with similar reservations, in Plato’s approval of the Spartan system of training the young for virtue” (2013: 25).

unguentarios: perfume-makers and sellers were supposedly expelled from Sparta because of their “tainting” of oil with scent, and because the use of perfume was thought to be effeminate. This story is told in Athenaeus Deipnosophistae 686F. Unadulterated olive oil for bathing was considered prefereable by the more austere (see Call. Hymn 5.16). Seneca elsewhere criticizes contemporary perfumed dandies (Ep. 86.13).

quia ... disperderent: quia takes the subjunctive in a causal clause (AG 540); the use of the subjunctive indicates the belief is that of the Spartans.

quid ... fecissent, si vidissent: past contrary-to-fact condition (AG 517).

reponendae nivis officinas: “shops for storing snow,” i.e., an icehouse. reponendae and nivis are both genitive. When a gerund would have an object in the accusative, the gerundive is generally used instead. The gerundive agrees with its noun, which takes the case that the gerund would have had (AG 503). Shafts found near the Roman colony of Augusta Raurica in Northern Switzerland may have been used for snow storage, according to Swiss archaeologists.

portandae aquae deservientia: deservire takes the dative, hence the dative cases of the gerundive + noun, portandae aquae.

[4b.13.10] The desire for cold drinks is a sign of sickness and stems either from scorching the throat with excessively hot food, or from a kind of fever.

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It is easy to quench a normal thirst. Luxurious habits have made eating and drinking, in some sense, more difficult, and the current trend of bolting hot mushrooms and then quenching the fire with a snow-cooled beverage is unnatural (see a similar disapproving story of such drinks at de Providentia 3.13).

quam facile: “how easy,” introducing an exclamatory sentence (AG 269).

emortuae fauces: we have killed our throats by such eating habits.

quemadmodum ... sic: “just as ... so”

ardentes boletos: mushrooms were a delicacy, but they could be dangerous. Court gossip suggested that Claudius had died from eating poisoned mushrooms (Pliny N.H. 22.46).

raptim indumento suo mersatos: “hurriedly plunged in their sauce” presumably just off the grill, tableside.

demittunt: "they thrust down" into their throats (OLD demitto 3.b). 

quosdam graciles: these gourmands resemble delicate invalids

focali: > focale -is n., a scarf worn round the neck by maddened lovers according to Horace, Sermones 2.4.255. There is a comparison between the physically ill and the mentally ill that Seneca is exploiting by using this word.

non ... solum, sed etiam: “not only ... but also.”

esse: “to eat”  > edō esse ēdī ēsum, (not sum esse fuī, “to be”)

ne tepescant: negative purpose clause (AG 531) referring to the cups of the drinkers and, by insinuation, the drinkers themselves.

[4b.13.11] Overindulgence in hot food has cooked their innards and given them an internal fever undetectable by normal methods. Dulled to the cooling effects of snow, they will have to search for something even colder.

eo acrior quod: “all the more severe because.” eo is ablative of comparison with acrior (AG 406).

tactu venarum: the act of “taking the pulse” to see if someone has a fever. Hippocrates and Praxagoras were interested in the pulse. This “fever” (febris) is worse not only because it cannot be detected, but also because it cooks the very heart.

luxuria, invictum malum: invictum malum stands in apposition with luxuria.

ex molli … patiens: ex indicates change from one quality to another: “out of,” “from being.” Luxury almost acts like water turning to ice, as it becomes hard (i.e. becomes ingrained in the user) from a softer and more fluid origin. For traditional associations of softness and luxury, see Cicero De Officiis 1.106, "we shall understand how foul it is to overflow with luxury and to live in voluptuous softness" (intellegemus quam sit turpe diffluere luxuria et delicate ac molliter vivere). patiens = “firm, unyielding, hard” is a poetic usage (LS patior B.2).

omnia ... perdere: indirect speech with omnia as the subject of perdere and vim suam as the direct object.

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Elsewhere in NQ Seneca will write how even amazing astronomical events have lost their power to impress us because we see them nightly (e.g. 7.1.1, 7.20.2). At Ep. 112.1 he writes of a similar hardened sinner: “he proves to be a hard case; no, rather (and what is worse), he is very soft and has been broken by his consistently bad habits” (sed valde durus capitur, immo, quod est molestius, valde mollis capitur et consuetudine mala ac diutina fractus).

in qua ... natatis: again, the use of the 2nd person plural here would open up the audience to multiple readers, possibly including Nero himself, whom Suetonius reports swam in a snow-cooled pool (Nero 27.2).

ut ... obtineat: result clause (AG 537) introduced by eo pervenit, “it has reached such a point that….”

pro nihilo: pro indicates functional equivalence: “like nothing,” “worthless.”

quid: what; why

ineptiae –ārum f.: instances of folly, frivolities

litterātus –a –um: versed in literature, cultured

melior melius: better

operōsus –a –um: full of labor, industrious

persequor persequī persecūtus sum: to follow persistently, chase after, prosecute

nix nivis f.: snow

multō: by much, greatly

emō emere ēmī ēmptus: to buy, obtain, gain

līs lītis f.: quarrel, dispute, lawsuit, litigation

luxuria luxuriae f.: luxury

lītigō lītigāre lītigāvī lītigātum: to quarrel, litigate

cottīdiānus (cotīdiānus) –a –um: daily

effectus –ūs m.: effect, result; with sine = without a decisive result

iurgium –ī n.: quarrel, abuse

lītigō lītigāre lītigāvī lītigātum: to quarrel, litigate

etiamsī: even if, although

reluctor reluctārī reluctātus: to struggle, resist

porrō: in turn, further, next 4b.13.2

īnspectiō –ōnis f.: an inspection; consideration

nix nivis f.: snow

pruīna –ae f.: frost

īnsum inesse īnfuī: to be in

exprobrō -probrāre: to reproach, criticize

emō emere ēmī ēmptus: to buy, obtain, gain

nē…quidem: not even

nix nivis f.: snow 4b.13.3

contentus -a -um: satisfied, content

diffundō –ere –fūdī –fūsus: to pour forth, spread out, cheer up

veterārius –a –um: old, ancient

sapor –ōris m. : taste

dispōnō dispōnere dispōsuī dispōsitus: distribute, arrange, assign

stīpō stīpāre stīpāvī stīpātus: to crowd, press together

aestās aestātis f.: summer

ēvincō –ere –vīcī –victus: to conquer completely; overcome

fervor –ōris m.: heat

frīgus frīgoris n.: cold, chill

dīligentia dīligentiae f.: diligence, care, frugality

nempe: indeed

grātuitus –a –um: costing nothing, free of charge

mercor –ātus sum: trade, buy

quod: because

emō emere ēmī ēmptus: to buy, obtain, gain

dēlicātus –a –um: self-indulgent; pampered; difficult to please; dainty

emō emere ēmī ēmptus: to buy, obtain, gain

hastus -ūs m: drinking, swallowing 4b.13.4

fera ferae f.: wild beast

iners –ertis: unskilled, lazy

largus –a –um: ample

profundō –ere –fūdī –fūsus: to pour forth; pour

ingeniōsus –a –um: clever, ingenious

luxuria luxuriae f.: luxury

redigō redigere redēgī redāctum: bring down, reduce, compel

antecēdō –cēdere –cessī –cessum: surpass, excel; precede

molestus –a –um: troublesome, annoying

excōgitō –āre –āvī –ātus: to contrive, devise, invent

luxuria luxuriae f.: luxury

frīgidus –a –um: cool, cold 4b.13.5

quamdiū or quam diū: as long as

salūbris –e or salūber –bris –bre: healthy

capāx –ācis: big enough for, spacious

stomachus –ī m.: the gullet; chest

nātūrālis –e: natural

fōmentum –ī n.: nourishment

contentus -a -um: satisfied, content

cottīdiānus (cotīdiānus) –a –um: daily

crūditas –ātis f.: an overloading of the stomach, indigestion

perūrō –ūrere –ussī –ustum: to burn up, nip, pinch, chafe

aestus aestūs m.: heat; tide, seething, raging (of the sea)

ēbrietās ēbrietātis f. : drunkenness, intoxication

continuus –a –um: connected

vīscus vīsceris n.: innards

īnsīdō –ere –sēdī –sessus: to sink

praecordia –ōrum n.: abdomen, entrails, stomach

bīlis –is f. (abl. sg. –ī or –e): bile, wrath

torreō –ēre –uī tostus: to burn

necessārius –a –um: necessary, essential

aestus aestūs m.: heat; tide, seething, raging (of the sea)

incalēscō –calēscere –caluī —: to grow warm, be heated

remedium remediī n.: cure

incitō incitāre incitāvī incitātus: to accelerate, rouse, excite

aestās aestātis f.: summer

nix nivis f.: snow

bibō bibere bibī: to drink

intestīnum –ī n. or intestina (colloquial): gut, intestine 4b.13.6

luxus –ūs m.: excess, extravagance in eating and drinking, luxury

praecordia –ōrum n.: abdomen, entrails, stomach

intervāllum –ī n.: interval, space, gap, opening, break, pause

interquiēscō –ere –ēvī –ētus: to rest awhile, pause

prandium –ī n.: lunch

cēna cēnae f.: dinner

perdūcō perdūcere perdūxī perductum: to bring to/over

ingerō –ere –gessī –gestus: heap on, pile up

distendō –ere –tendī –tēnsus –or tentus: to stretch out, stuff, fill

fericulum (ferculum) –ī n. or fericulus –ī m. : dish, course, food tray

varietās varietātis f.: variety

cōmissātiō –ōnis f.: revelry

mergō –ere mersī mersus: sink, bury, overwhelm

intermittō intermittere intermīsī intermīssus: to leave off, neglect

intemperantia –ae f.: excess

dēcoquō –coquere –coxī –coctum: to boil away, cook, ruin oneself

efferō –āre: to make wild, make savage; not to be confused with effero-efferre

dēsīderium dēsīderi(ī) n.: desire

rigor –ōris m.: cold, chilliness, stiffness

accendō accendere accendī accēnsus: to kindle, set on fire

cēnātiō –ōnis f. : dining room 4b.13.7

vēlum vēlī n.: cloth, awning, covering, hanging

speculāria -ōrum n. pl.: window panes, a window

mūniō mūnīre mūnīvī mūnītus: to build, fortify

domō domāre domuī domitus: to subdue, master, tame

nihilōminus or nihilō minus: nevertheless

stomachus –ī m.: the gullet; chest

aestus aestūs m.: heat; tide, seething, raging (of the sea)

languidus –a –um: languid

ērigō ērigere ērēxī ērēctus: to raise, rise, set up, excite, encourage

stupeō –ēre –uī: to be amazed or dazed; to be bewildered

frīgidus –a –um: cool, cold

vīscus vīsceris n.: innards

torpeō torpēre: to be numb

frīgus frīgoris n.: cold, chill

vehemēns –ntis: violent

perūrō –ūrere –ussī –ustum: to burn up, nip, pinch, chafe

nē…quidem: not even 4b.13.8

contentus -a -um: satisfied

glaciēs –eī f.: ice

solidus –a –um: dense, firm, solid

rigor –ōris m.: cold, chilliness, stiffness

exquīrō exquīrere exquīsīvī exquīsītus: to seek out

dīluō dīluere dīluī dīlūtus: wash off, dilute, weaken

summus –a –um: highest

pertināx –ācis : persevering, stubborn

frīgus frīgoris n.: cold, chill

abditus –a –um: hidden, secluded, out of the way

effodiō –ere –fōdī –fossus: to dig out, mine, excavate

nē…quidem: not even

īnstitor –ōris m.: peddler, shopkeeper

annōna –ae f.: crop (grain), price

prō (prōh): wow!

unguentārius –ī m.: ointment dealers, perfumer 4b.13.9

Lacedaemonius –a –um: Lacedaemonian; Spartan

expellō expellere expulī expulsus: to propel, drive out, expel

properus –a –um: quick

oleum –ī n.: oil

dis–perdō –perdere –perdidī –perditum: to ruin, destroy utterly

repōnō repōnere reposuī repositus: to put back, store

nix nivis f.: snow

officīna –ae f.: office, workshop

iūmentum –ī n.: mule, beast of burden

dēserviō –īre –servīre: to serve, be of service/use to

sapor –ōris m. : taste

palea –ae f.: chaff, straw

custōdiō custōdīre custōdīvī custōdītus: to guard

inquinō inquināre inquināvī inquinātus: daub, stain, smear

exstinguō exstinguere exstinxī exstinctus: to extinguish 4b.13.10

sitis –is f.: thirst

ēmorior emorī ēmortuus sum: to die

faux faucis f.: mouth

occallātus (obcallātus) –a –um: rendered callous, blunted

frīgidus –a –um: cool, cold

calidus (caldus) –a –um: warm, hot

bōlētus –ī m.: mushroom

raptim: suddenly, speedily

indūmentum –ī n.: sauce, (lit.) something put on

mersō –āre –āvī –ātum: to submerge, plunge, overwhelm

dēmittō dēmittere dēmīsī dēmissum: to send down, drop

fūmō fūmāre fūmāvī fūmātus: to smoke

restinguō –ere –stīnxī –stīnctus: extinguish, quench, put out

nivātus –a –um: cooled with snow

pōtiō –ōnis f.: drink, beverage

gracilis gracile: thin

palliolum –ī m. : little Greek cloak, hoodie

fōcāle –is n.: scarf

circumdō circumdare circumdedī circumdatus: to surround

palleō –ēre –uī: to fade, be pale

sorbeō –ēre –uī: to suck in, drink in, swallow

nix nivis f.: snow

scyphus –ī m.: cup, goblet

dēiciō dēicere dēiēcī deīctum: to throw down, eject

tepēscō –ere –uī: to grow warm

bibō bibere bibī: to drink

sitis –is f.: thirst 4b.13.11

febris febris f.: fever

quod: because

tāctus –ūs m.: touching; touch

vēna vēnae f.: vein, channel

cutis –is f.: the skin

calor –ōris m.: warmth

dēprehendō dēprehendere dēprehendī dēprehensus: to apprehend, detect, indicate. 

excoquō –coquere –coxī –coctum: to dry up

luxuria luxuriae f.: luxury

invictus –a –um: unconquered

malum malī n.: evil, calamity

fluidus –a –um: flowing, running

nix nivis f.: snow

natō natāre natāvī natātus: to swim

cottīdiānus (cotīdiānus) –a –um: daily

stomachus –ī m.: the gullet; chest

servitūs servitūtis f.: slavery

obtineō obtinēre obtinuī obtentus: achieve, gain, hold (a position/rank)

frīgidus –a –um: cool, cold

nihilum/nīlum nihilī/nīlī n.: nothing

familiāris familiāre: domestic, intimate

rigor –ōris m.: cold, chilliness, stiffness

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