Selection 11 (1.11.2-14.6)

[1.11.2] Quōmodo nunc mē hōc locō geram? quid vōcem? imāginēs sōlis? historicī sōlēs vocant et bīnōs ternōsque appāruisse memoriae trādunt; Graecī παρήλια appellant, quia in propinquō ferē ā sōle vīsuntur aut quia accēdunt ad aliquam similitūdinem sōlis. nōn enim tōtum imitantur sed magnitūdinem eius figūramque. cēterum nihil habent ārdōris, hebetēs et languidī. hīs quod nōmen impōnimus? an faciō quod Vergilius? quī dubitāvit dē nomine, deinde id dē quō dubitāverat posuit:

                                   et quō tē nomine dicam,
              Rhaētica? nec cellīs ideō contende Falernīs.

[1.11.3] nihil ergō prohibet illās parhēlia vocārī. sunt autem imāginēs sōlis in nūbe vīcīnā et spissā in modum speculī. quīdam parhelion ita dēfīniunt: nūbēs rotunda et splendida similisque sōlī. sequitur enim illum nec umquam longius relinquitur quam fuit cum appāruit. num quis nostrum mīrātur sī sōlis effigiem in aliquō fonte aut placidō lacū vīdit? nōn, ut putō. atquī tam in sublīmī faciēs eius quam inter nōs potest reddī, sī modo idōnea est māteria quae reddat.

[1.12.1] Quotiēns dēfectiōnem sōlis volumus dēprehendere, pōnimus pēlvēs quās aut oleō aut pice implēmus, quia pinguis ūmor minus facile turbātur et ideō quās recipit imāginēs servat. appārēre autem imāginēs nōn possunt nisi in liquidō et inmōtō. tunc solēmus notāre quemadmodum sōlī lūna sē oppōnat et illum tantō maiōrem subiectō corpore abscondat, modo ex parte, sī ita competît ut in latus eius incurreret, modo tōtum. haec dīcitur perfecta dēfectiō, quae stēllās quoque ostendit et intercipit lūcem, tunc scīlicet cum uterque orbis sub eōdem lībrāmentō stetit. [1.12.2] quemadmodum ergō utriusque imāgō in terrīs aspicī potest, ita in āëre, cum sīc coāctus āër et limpidus cōnstitit ut faciem sōlis acciperet. quam et aliae nūbēs accipiunt, sed trānsmittunt sī aut mōbilēs sunt aut rārae aut sordidae: mōbilēs enim spargunt illam, rārae ēmittunt, sordidae turpēsque nōn sentiunt, sīcut apud nōs imāginem maculōsa nōn reddunt.

[1.13.1] Solent et bīna fierī parhēlia et plura eādem ratiōne. quid enim impedit quōminus tot sint quot nūbēs fuērunt aptae ad exhibendam sōlis effigiem? quīdam in illā sententiā sunt, quotiēns duo simulācra tālia existunt, ut iūdicent in illīs alteram sōlis imāginem esse, alteram imāginis. nam apud nōs quoque cum plūra specula disposita sunt ita ut alterī sit cōnspectus alterīus, omnia implentur, et ūna imāgō ā vērō est, cēterae imāginum effigiēs sunt. nihil enim refert quid sit quod speculō ostendātur: quidquid videt, reddit. ita illīc quoque in sublīmī, sī sīc nūbēs fors aliqua disposuit ut inter sē cōnspiciant, altera nūbēs sōlis imāginem, altera imāginis reddit. [1.13.2] dēbent autem hae nūbēs quae hoc praestant dēnsae esse, lēves, splendidae, plānae, †nātūrae sōlis†. ob hoc omnia eiusmodī simulācra candida sunt et similia lūnāribus circulīs, quia ex <re>percussū oblīquē acceptō sōle resplendent: nam sī īnfrā sōlem nūbēs fuerit et propior, ab eō dissipātur; longē autem posita radiōs nōn remittet nec imāginem efficiet, quia apud nōs quoque specula, cum procul ā nōbīs abducta sunt, faciem nōn reddunt, quia aciēs nostra nōn habet usque ad nōs recursum. [1.13.3] pluviārum autem et hī sōlēs (ūtar enim historicā linguā) indicia sunt, utique sī ā parte austrī cōnstitērunt, unde maximē nūbēs ingravēscunt; cum utrimque sōlem cīnxit tālis effigiēs, tempestās, sī Arātō crēdimus, surgit.

[1.14.1] Tempus est aliōs quoque ignēs percurrēre, quōrum dīversae figūrae sunt. aliquandō ēmicat stēlla, aliquandō ārdōrēs sunt, hī nōnnumquam fīxī et haerentēs, nōnnumquam volūbilēs. hōrum plūra genera cōnspiciuntur; sunt puteī, cum velut corōnā cingente intrōrsus ingēns caelī recessus est similis effossae in orbem specū; sunt pithiae, cum magnitūdō vastī rotundīque ignis dōliō similis vel fertur vel ūnō locō flagrat; sunt chasmata, cum aliquod spatium caelī dēsēdit et flammam velut dēhīscēns in abditō ostentat. [1.14.2] colōrēs quoque hōrum omnium plūrimī sunt: quīdam rubōris ācerrimī, quīdam ēvānidae ac levis flammae, quīdam candidae lūcis, quīdam micantēs, quīdam aequāliter et sine ēruptiōnibus aut radiīs fulvī.

Vidēmus ergō ‘flammārum longōs ā tergō albēscere tractūs’. [1.14.3] hae velut stēllae exiliunt et trānsvolant, videnturque longum ignem porrigere propter inmēnsam celeritātem, cum aciēs nostra nōn discernat trānsitum eārum, sed quācumque cucurrērunt, id tōtum igneum crēdat. tanta est enim vēlōcitās mōtūs ut partēs eius nōn dispiciantur, summa prēndātur: intellegimus magis quā ierit stēlla quam quā eat. [1.14.4] itaque velut igne continuō tōtum iter signat, quia vīsūs nostrī tarditās nōn subsequitur mōmenta currentis, sed videt simul et unde exiluerit et quō pervēnerit. quod fit in fulmine: longus nōbīs vidētur ignis eius quia cito spatium suum trānsilit, et oculīs nostrīs occurrit ūniversum per quod dēiectus est; at ille nōn est extentī corporis per omne quā venit. neque enim tam longa et extenuāta in impetum valent.

[1.14.5] Quōmodo ergō prōsiliunt? adtrītū āëris ignis incēnsus ventō praeceps impellitur. nōn semper tamen ventō adtrītūve fit: nōnnumquam et aliquā opportūnitāte āëris nāscitur. multa enim sunt in sublīmī sicca calida terrēna, inter quae oritur et pābulum suum subsequēns dēfluit, ideoque velociter rapitur. [1.14.6] ‘at quārē color dīversus est?’ quia refert quāle sit id quod incenditur, quantum et quam vehemēns quō incenditur. ventum autem significant eiusmodī lāpsūs, et quidem ab eā parte quā ērumpunt.

Selection 11 (1.11.2-14.6): Parhelia and other fires in the sky.

In Book 1 Seneca offers a critical survey of various atmospheric fires, including rainbows, parhelia (“sun dogs” or “false suns” that flank the sun if certain atmospheric conditions are present), and “falling stars” of various types. It begins with an preface (Selection 10) stressing how the work of physics leads to theological understanding and encourages an ethically beneficial “view from above.” It concludes with the notorious story of Hostius Quadra, as well as an account about the proper use of mirrors (Selection 12). The present selection discusses parhelia and “falling stars,” and provides a good example of Seneca’s critical doxography.

[1.11.2] How should I refer to the phenomenon of parhelia?

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Seneca begins by examining the terminology of Latin historians for parhelia, which he rejects, then settles on a transliteration of the Greek term. The question of Latin or Greek terminology and the paucity of specific Latin terms for scientific phenomena hearkens back to Lucretius (egestam linguae, 1.139; cf. 1.832) and Cicero (hac inopi lingua, Fin. 3.51) and is addressed elsewhere in the NQ (e.g., 5.16.3–6 which gives the Greek and Latin names of various winds).

me … geram: “express myself,” deliberative subjunctive (AG 444).

loco: “section” of the discussion

quid vocem: “what shall I call (them)?” Deliberative subjunctive > voco -āre.

historici: Roman historians often noted portents and prodigies, including multiple suns, e.g., Livy 28.11 and 41.21.12.

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Seneca attacks historians throughout the NQ, often in rather humorous ways; e.g. in 7.16.1: “it doesn’t take great effort to remove prestige from Ephorus: he is a historian” (nec magna molitione detrahenda est auctoritas Ephoro: historicus est). For more on historians in the NQ, see Master 2015.

memoriae tradunt: “pass down to memory,” “record,” a common idiom describing the work of historians.

Graeci παρήλια appellant: the Greek term (‘parēlia’) comes from παρά + ἥλιος (‘para’ + ‘ēlios’) meaning, literally, “on either side of the sun,” as Seneca will explain in the quia clause.

ceterum: “moreover”

hebetes et languidi: at this point Seneca is still thinking of parhelia as suns (soles), hence the masculine plural forms of these adjectives.

an facio: “or should I do?” In questions that are truly deliberative, the indicative is almost as common as the subjunctive (Woodcock, New Latin Syntax p. 130).

quod Vergilius: supply facit.

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By quoting Vergil here, Seneca implies that Vergil may be a more important predecessor than the historians. Seneca substitutes nomine for Vergil’s carmine to make Vergil’s line speak to his line of questioning. After this quotation, he is able to write “therefore” (ergo) to show that Vergil endorses his methodology, i.e. to transliterate the Greek. Quotations of Vergil appear often in Seneca’s prose, while intertexts to Vergil pepper Seneca’s tragedies. For a recent appraisal of Seneca’s appreciation and understanding of Vergil, see Papaioannou (2020).

dubitavit: “expressed uncertainty,” as Seneca expresses uncertainty about what to call the phenomenon under discussion.

id: nomen

et quo … Falernis: Vergil, Georgics 2.95–96, on wine from R(h)aetia, an area north of the Po river.

Rhaetica: supply vina

contende: “vie with” + dat. (LS contendo II.B.2)

cellis: “cellars,” i.e., “vintages” by metonymy.

[1.11.3] Parhelia are clouds that act as mirrors reflecting the light of the sun.

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Mirrors and clouds acting as reflective surfaces are discussed often in Book 1. The Book will conclude with a diatribe against the luxurious mirrors of the rich (see Selection 12). According to Seneca, a mirror like this first-century AD example in the Metropolitan Museum would be considered cheap compared the bejeweled monstrosities of the wealthy (1.17.8–10).

illas: imagines

in modum speculi: “in the manner of a mirror”

soli: “to the sun,” dative after similis (AG 407). The parhalia never moves further away from the sun after its first appearance.

num quis: “Does anybody...?” expecting a negative answer; quis = aliquis.

atqui: introduces a fresh step in the reasoning (AG 324). Order: atquī faciēs eius potest reddī tam in sublīmī quam inter nōs.

reddi: “be reflected” (LS reddo II.5)

tam … quam: “just as”

in sublimi: “on high,” “in the atmosphere”

quae reddat: relative clause of purpose (AG 531), as is common after idoneus.

[1.12.1] The same principle of reflection operates when we observe an eclipse in a bowl of oil or pitch.

defectionem: “eclipse” (LS defectio B.II.b)

deprehendere: “to observe”

pice: a more or less viscous liquid made by cooking the resin from various kinds of trees, pitch was used as a sealant and as a flammable material in torches. This is the only reference in extant Latin to its use as a reflective medium.

quemadmodum … opponat … abscondat: indirect questions

tanto maiorem: “though it is so much larger” (ablative of degree of difference, AG 414).

modo … modo: “sometimes … sometimes”

si ita competît ut: “if it so happens that” (impersonal, LS competo II.B.1). The perfect tense in the protasis of a present general condition is normal ( AG 518.b).

haec dicitur perfecta defectio: this may be the case, but this is the only time the phrase perfecta defectio appears in extant Latin for our "total eclipse of the sun".

intercipit lucem: “shuts out daylight”

sub eodem libramento: “in the same straight line” (LS libramentum II.C), i.e., “perfectly aligned.” He writes something similar about eclipses at Ben. 5.6.4: “if the moon in the same straight line moves between the sun and earth” (si recto libramento inter solem terrasque media successit).

[1.12.2] Under certain conditions clouds reflect the sun’s light.

quemadmodum … ita: “just as… so… ”

sic … constitit ut … acciperet: result clause (AG 537)

coactus: “concentrated” (> cogo -ere) as opposed to rarae, below.

limpidus: “clear,” as opposed to sordidae, below.

constitit: “stands still,” as opposed to mobiles, below.

maculosa: “dirty things,” such as metal mirrors or dishes.

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See Horace Epist. 1.5.24 for polished dishes that can act as mirrors. The only other time Seneca uses this adjective is likewise to discuss reflection, the reflection of the soul of the angry man in de Ira (Ira. 2.36.1).

[1.13.1] If there can be one parhelion, there can also be two or more if similar clouds reflect the original reflection, like a hall of mirrors in the atmosphere

While to a certain degree the subject matter will dictate a repetition of words, Seneca is also having fun with “reflecting” language.

eadem ratione: “in the same way” (AG 412)

quid enim impedit quominus: “for what gets in the way so as to prevent,” i.e. “what is there to prevent?” Verbs of hindering take quominus (= ut eo minus) and the subjunctive (AG 558).

tot … quot: “as many… as”

ad exhibendam solis effigiem: ad + gerundive for purpose (AG 506). exhibendam agrees with effigiem.

in illa sententia sunt: “have the following opinion,” which is given by the ut result clause.

in illis: “among these”

alteram ... alteram: “one ... the other.” With the second, supply imaginem esse.

disposita sunt ita ut: introducing a result clause (AG 537).

alteri sit conspectus alterius: “one has a view of the other.” alteri is dative of possession with the verb “to be” (AG 373). 

nihil enim refert quid sit: “for it makes no difference what it is” (LS refert II). quid sit is an indirect question (AG 574).

ita … sic: “just as … so.” The sic also triggers the upcoming result clause (ut … conspiciant).

[1.13.2] Only certain kinds of clouds in certain positions can produce these images.

debent ... hae nubes quae hoc praestant densae esse, leves: order: hae nūbēs quae hoc praestant dēbent esse dēnsae, leves .... The antecedent of hoc would be a single parhelion.

lēvēs: “smooth” > lēvis, not levis (“light”)

†naturae solis†: the reading of the manuscripts is nonsensical here and the editor does not trust various emendations. Hine suggests either deleting these words as a marginal gloss that has intruded on the text, or else emending to vicinae soli (“near the sun”).

ob hoc: “on account of this”

similia lunaribus circulis: “similar to moon-shaped discs”

ex <re>percussu: “from the reflection.” The textual emendation <re> helps to clarify that it is the reflection that causes these to shine.

oblique accepto sole: “when they are struck obliquely by the sun,” ablative absolute.

si … fuerit … dissipatur: a mixed condition with future more vivid protasis and present general apodosis (AG 516). Clouds too close to the sun are dispersed by the sun’s rays.

quia apud nos quoque specula: Seneca assumes that what happens on earth is replicated in the atmosphere. These sorts of parallels from personal experience are common in ancient scientific accounts.

acies nostra: “our vision.” The Stoics believed vision involved a rays moving from our eyes to an external object. For more on Stoic ideas about optics (and Book 1 of the NQ) see the illuminating discussion in Bartsch 2006: 58–66, 103–114.

[1.13.3] Parhelia foretell rain.

historica lingua: ablative after utar (AG 410). It is interesting that Seneca switches back to the language used by historians here (see above, 1.11.2). Possibly it signals a desire for ring-composition in this section.

a parte austri: “in the southern part of the sky.” The southern winds were notorious for their rain, see Ovid Met. 1.66: pluvio … austro, which Seneca quotes at NQ 5.16.1.

si Arato credimus: Aratus (3rd c. BCE) was the author of a Greek hexameter poem on astronomy, Phaenomena (“Visible Signs”). His work was widely read in Rome, and there are several preserved Latin translations, one by Cicero, and another by the famous general Germanicus. Aratus’ discusion of parhelia as predictors of rain is at lines 880–889.

[1.14.1] Other glowing lights in the sky: putei, pithiae, and chasmata.

tempus est: “it is time” + infin. (AG 504 note 2).

ardores: “glowing lights,” caused by lightning, meteors, etc.

volubiles: “whirling past” (Corcoran)

putei: the various atmospheric fires resemble familiar shapes from everyday life. In this case, the “wells” have a circular “crown” (the mouth of the well) and a downward, circular “cave” of light.

effosae … specu: dative after similis. specus is variable in gender (AG 106). is a common alternate ending for the dative of the fourth declension.

in orbem: “in a circular shape.”

pithiae: pithias -ae f. (πίθιας) is a celestial phenomenon resembling a fiery barrel or storage jar, Greek πίθος, Latin dolium. Preserved Roman dolia hold as much as 2,463 litres. See Pliny, N.H. 2.90: pitheus doliorum cernitur figura.

vel fertur vel uno loco flagrat: the pithias can either move or be stationary.

chasmata: “chasms,” a kind of comet known to Aristotle, who says they “get their appearance of depth from light breaking out of a dark blue or black mass of air” (Meteorologica Book 1, Part 5, 342a).

dehiscens in abdito: “gaping in hiding,” a description no clearer than that of Aristotle.

[1.14.2] The colors of these phenomena are variable.

ruboris acerrimi: genitive of quality (AG 345). Acerrimus is the superlative form of the adjective acer (see AG 125 for superlatives in –rimus).

quidam micantes: Seneca changes the construction and starts to use nominative forms of adjectives here and with fulvi. This is less about the color than the way the light shines.

‘flammarum longos … tractus’: Vergil, Georgics 1.367, discussing “falling stars” as weather signs. Seneca quotes the same line at NQ 7.20.1, where similar phenomena are examined.

[1.14.3] Falling stars move so quickly that we can only discern their trails and not the objects themselves.

hae velut stellae: “these so-called stars.” Seneca sees them not as stars but as things produced in various ways in the atmosphere. See below, 1.14.5.

cum … discernat: cum causal clause (AG 549). Seneca admits to the fallibility of the senses (especially, in this book, sight). In so doing he implicitly critiques Epicurean epistemology, which maintained that the senses are always reliable.

tanta est ... ut dispiciantur … prendatur: result clauses (AG 537). prendatur > pre(he)ndo -ere, “take in visually,” “get sight of” (OLD prehendo 7.a).

summa: “the movement as a whole” (LS summa II.C.1)

magis qua ierit stella quam qua eat: magis … quam (AG 407) with qua introducing indirect questions (ierit, eat are subjunctive, following the sequence of tenses, AG 575).

[1.14.4] Lightning likewise appears as a track because it moves faster than our eyes can follow.

These shooting stars are a lot like lightning, whose path we cannot trace because of its speed. Lightning will be the subject of the following book of NQ.

igne continuo: ablative of means

et unde exiluerit et quō pervēnerit: “where it started and where it ended,” indirect questions. exiliuerit pf. subj. > ex(s)ilio -ilīre -iluī, “leap out,” “start out.” See below, prosiliunt (1.14.5), which has much the same meaning.

oculis nostris occurrit universum: “meets our eyes as a unity” (see OLD universus 4.b, “undivided”). occurro takes the dative.

per quod deiectus est: “(the space) through which it fell,” subject of occurrit.

extenti corporis: genitive of quality (AG 345). The thin expression of the lightning is not its true form, but merely marking the path of its flight. The traditional way a lightning bolt was viewed can be seen in Greek and Roman sculpture and in coins minted at Elis.

per omne: supply spatium.

neque ... in impetum valent: “are too weak for the impact.” Lightning packs quite a punch, and Seneca believes that thin and extenuated forces could not produce such damage.

[1.14.5] “Falling stars” are produced by friction, or involve earthly materals falling in the atmosphere.

prosiliunt: “come suddenly into being,” like exiliunt, 1.14.4.

adtritu aëris ignis incensus … impellitur: a two-part process: first the flame breaks out through friction, then it is moved by wind (both adtritu and vento are ablative of means).

oportunitate: “favorable quality”

terrena: “earthly materials.” Comets are in fact composed of dust, rock, and frozen gases.

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It might come as a surprise that that there is earthly material in the atmosphere, but Seneca could have inferred this from the fact that meteorites are found on the ground. One fell at Aegospotami in 467 BCE and was a local attraction for centuries afterwards. The philosopher Anaxagoras had supposedly predicted the event. The existence of “earthly” materials in space also explains why these fires fall through the atmosphere.

pabulum suum subsequens: “following its own type of fuel.” The fuel for such fires helps to explain their course, like the flame at the end of a long fuse.

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At NQ 7.21.2 Seneca says, discussing the path of comets, “where a vein of fuel leads it, there it moves, and it does not advance as a star but is fed as a fire” (qua illum vena pabuli sui duxit, illa repit nec ut stella procedit sed ut ignis pascitur). Lucretius believed that stars, as fires, must have fuel. Discussing explanations of why the stars move, he suggests as one possibility that “they can creep (serpere) along on their own, in whatever direction their food (cibus) calls and summons them as they go” (Lucretius, On the Nature of Things 5.523–25).

ideoque: “and for that reason,” because it is falling (defluit)

[1.14.6] The colors of such celestial fires differ according to the fuel and the intensity of the fire; they foretell windy weather.

refert: “it matters,” introducing an indirect question.

quantum et quam vehemens: supply est: “how great and how intense (is).”

quo incenditur: “(the force) by which it is set aflame.” The vague antecedent is omitted, as usual (AG 307.c).

eiusmodi lapsus: “falling lights of this type,” subject of significant.

quidem: “and what is more,” adding a reinforcement

ab eā parte:“from the same direction” (LS pars I.13). Seneca divides the winds and sky into quadrants at 5.16.1–5.17.4. For a schema, see this wind rose.

historicus -i m: a historian

bīnī –ae –a: two at a time, in pairs, double

ternī –ae –a: three at a time, three each

Graecus (Grāius) –a –um: Greek, of Greece

παρήλιον = parhēlion (parēlion –iī n.: mock sun, sun dog

propinquus –a –um: near, neighboring

vīsō vīsere vīsī vīsus: to look at

similitūdō similitūdinis f.: likeness

imitor imitārī imitātus sum: to imitate, copy, mimic

figūra figūrae f.: form, shape

ārdor ārdōris m.: flame, fire, brightness

hebetō hebetāre hebetāvī hebetātus: blunt, deaden, make faint/dim

languidus –a –um: languid

Vergilius (Virgilius) –iī m.: Vergil

Rhaeticus –a –um: of the Rhaeti, a mountain people north of the Po and south of Danube

cella cellae f.: storeroom, wine cellar, larder

contendō contendere contendī contentus: to compete with, vie with + dat.

Falernum –ī n.: Falernian, a kind of wine

παρήλιον = parhēlion (parēlion –iī n.: mock sun, sun dog 1.11.3

nūbēs nūbis f.: cloud, mist

spissus –a –um: thick, dense

speculum –ī n.: mirror

παρήλιον = parhēlion (parēlion –iī n.: mock sun, sun dog

dēfīniō dēfīnīre dēfīnīvī/dēfīniī dēfīnītus: to define, limit, determine, settle, assert

nūbēs nūbis f.: cloud, mist

rotundus –a –um: round, circular, spherical

splendidus –a –um: shining, clear, brilliant, splendid

quis quid (after sī nisī ne or num): anyone/thing, someone/thing

effigiēs –eī or effigia –ae f.: copy, image, likeness, ghost

placidus –a –um: calm, quiet

lacus lacūs m.: lake, pond, reservoir

atquī or atquīn: nevertheless; indeed

sublīmis sublīme: elevated, lofty, heroic, noble

idōneus –a –um: suitable, fit, appropriate

dēfectiō dēfectiōnis f.: eclipse 1.12.1

dēprehendō dēprehendere dēprehendī dēprehensus: to apprehend, detect, indicate. 

pēlvis –is f.: shallow bowl, basin

oleum –ī n.: oil

pic picis f.: pitch, aviscous liquid made by cooking the resin from various kinds of trees

pinguis pingue: thick

ūmor –oris m.: moisture, liquid

liquidus –a –um: clear, liquid, melodious

immōtus –a –um: unmoved, unchanged, unrelenting

notō notāre notāvī notātus: to mark, sign, censure

oppōnō oppōnere opposuī oppositum: to place opposite, oppose

tantō: by so much

subiciō subicere subiēcī subiectus: to throw under, put up for auction

abscondō abscondere abscondī / abscondidī absconditus / absconsus: to hide, conceal, bury, engulf

competō –petere –petīvī or –petiī –petītum: to meet, coincide, agree, happen at the same time

incurrō –ere –currī (–cucurrī) –cursus: attack, run into

perficiō perficere perfēcī perfectus: to accomplish, perfect

dēfectiō dēfectiōnis f.: eclipse

intercipiō –ere –cēpī –ceptus: cut off, intercept, steal

lībrāmentum –ī n.: straight line

limpidus –a –um: clear 1.12.2

nūbēs nūbis f.: cloud, mist

trānsmittō –ere –mīsī –missus: go across, go through

mōbilis –e: movable, loose

sordidus –a –um: dirty, filthy, shabby

mōbilis –e: movable, loose

ēmittō ēmittere ēmīsī ēmīssus: let go, send out, cast, expel

sordidus –a –um: dirty, filthy, shabby

maculōsus –a –um: spotted, dirty

bīnī –ae –a: two at a time, in pairs, double 1.13.1

παρήλιον = parhēlion (parēlion –iī n.: mock sun, sun dog

impediō impedīre impedīvī/impediī impedītus: to impede, hinder, prevent

quōminus or quō minus: that not, from

quot: how many , as many as (indeclinable)

nūbēs nūbis f.: cloud, mist

exhibeō exhibēre exhibuī exhibitum : to present, furnish, exhibit, produce

effigiēs –eī or effigia –ae f.: copy, image, likeness, ghost

simulācrum simulācrī n.: image, likeness, form

exsistō –sistere –stitī: to emerge, appear, be visible, be

speculum –ī n.: mirror

dispōnō dispōnere dispōsuī dispōsitus: distribute, arrange, assign

cōnspectus conspectūs m.: sight, view, aspect, look

effigiēs –eī or effigia –ae f.: copy, image, likeness, ghost

speculum –ī n.: mirror

illic: in that place, there

sublīmis sublīme: elevated lofty heroic noble

nūbēs nūbis f.: cloud, mist

dispōnō dispōnere dispōsuī dispōsitus: distribute, arrange, assign

cōnspiciō cōnspicere cōnspexī cōnspectus: to catch sight of, behold

nūbēs nūbis f.: cloud, mist 1.13.2

dēnsus –a –um: thick, dense

splendidus –a –um: shining, clear, brilliant, splendid

plānus –a –um: level, flat

ēiusmodī: of that sort, of such a kind

simulācrum simulācrī n.: image, likeness, form

lūnāris –e : of or belonging to the moon, lunar

circulus –ī m.: orbit, circle

repercussus –ūs m.: reflection, rebound

oblīquus –a –um: slanting, indirect, covert

resplendeō –ēre: to shine brightly (with reflected light), radiate light

īnfrā: below

nūbēs nūbis f.: cloud, mist

propior propius; proximus –a –um: nearer; nearest

dissipō –āre: to scatter, disperse, dissipate

radius radi(ī) m.: ray; beam

remittō remittere remīsī remissum: to send back, yield, relax

speculum –ī n.: mirror

abdūcō abdūcere abdūxī abductus: to lead/take away

recursus –ūs m.: running back; return; retreat

pluvia –ae (sc. aqua) f.: rain, rain shower 1.13.3

historicus –a –um: of history, historical

indicium indici(ī) n.: information, evidence

utīque: certainly, by all means, at any rate

Auster –trī m.: the south wind, south

māximus –a –um: greatest; maxime: most, especially, very much

nūbēs nūbis f.: cloud, mist

ingravēscō ingravēscere: to increase, grow heavier

utrimque: from/on both sides

effigiēs –eī or effigia –ae f.: copy, image, likeness, ghost

Arātus –ī m.: 3rd c. BCE author of a Greek hexameter poem on astronomy, Phaenomena (“Visible Signs”).

percurrō –ere –cucurrī (–currī) –cursus: to run through, treat in succession, look over 1.14.1

dīversus -a -um: different, diverse, opposite, contrary, conflicting

figūra figūrae f.: form, shape

aliquā: in any direction

ēmicō ēmicāre ēmicuī ēmicātus: flash out, dart out, shoot out

aliquā: in any direction

ārdor ārdōris m.: flame, fire, brightness

nōnnumquam: sometimes

fīgō fīgere fīxī fīxus: to fix, fasten

haereō haerēre haesī haesus: cling, be attached to (+dat.); be in doubt; linger, stay

volūbilis –e: turning, spinning, whirling, revolving, moving

cōnspiciō cōnspicere cōnspexī cōnspectus: to catch sight of, behold

puteus –ī m.: well

corōna corōnae f.: garland; crown

intrōrsum or intrōrsus: inwardly, within

recessus –ūs m.: recess, corner, secret spot

effodiō –ere –fōdī –fossus: to dig out, mine, excavate

specus –ūs m./f.: cave

pithias –ae f.: a celestial phenomenon that resembles a fiery jar

vāstus –a –um: empty; vast

rotundus –a –um: round, circular, spherical

dōlium –ī n.: a large, wide-mouthed, globular jar (image of a preserved example)

flagrō flagrāre flagrāvī flagrāturus: to burn

chasma –tis n.: a chasm, fissure in earth, a celestial phenomenon that resembles this

dēsideō dēsidēre dēsēdī: to settle, subside, sink

dehīscō –ere: to gape

abditus –a –um: hidden, secluded, out of the way

ostentō ostentāre ostentāvī ostentātus: to display

rubor rubōris m.: redness 1.14.2

ēvānidus –a –um: vanishing, passing away

micō micāre micuī: to twinkle, tremble, glitter, flash

aequālis –e: equal, of the same age

ēruptiō –ōnis f.: a breaking out, bursting forth

radius radi(ī) m.: ray; beam

fulvus –a –um: reddish yellow, golden, tawny, deep yellow

albēscō –ere: to become white, whiten

trāctus –ūs m.: track, course, train

ex(s)iliō ex(s)ilīre ex(s)iluī: to spring forth 1.14.3

transvolō –āre: to fly across; fly over

porrigō porrigere porrēxī porrēctum: to stretch forth

immēnsus –a –um: immeasurable, boundless, endless, vast

celeritās celeritātis f.: quickness

discernō –ere –crēvī –crētus: to distinguish one thing from another; determine

trānsitus trānsitūs m.: passing over, transit, transition

quācumque: wherever, wheresoever

igneus –a –um: fiery

vēlōcitās –ātis f.: swiftness, speed

mōtus mōtūs m.: movement, earthquake (esp with terrae), motion

dispiciō –ere –spexī –spectus: to discern, perceive, make out

summus –a –um: highest

pre(he)ndō –ere prendī prēnsum: to lay hold of, grasp, snatch, seize, catch, apprehend, comprehend

continuus –a –um: connected 1.14.4

signō signāre signāvī signātus: to mark, stamp, coin

vīsus vīsūs m.: vision, look

tarditās –ātis f.: slowness of movement/action

subsequor sequī secūtus sum: pursue, follow closely after

mōmentum –ī n.: movement, motion, instant, moment

ex(s)iliō ex(s)ilīre ex(s)iluī: to spring forth

fulmen fulminis n.: a lightning flash, thunderbolt

cito citius (comp.) citissime (superl.): quickly

trānsiliō –īre –īvī (–iī or –uī): to leap over; pass over

ūniversus –a –um: all together, whole, entire

dēiciō dēicere dēiēcī deīctum: to throw down, eject

extendō –ere –tendī –tentus (–tēnsus): to stretch forth; stretch

extenuō –āre –āvī –ātum: to make small, reduce, rarefy. 

prōsiliō –īre –uī (–īvī or –iī): to leap or spring forth 1.14.5

atterō atterere atterīvī attrītus: wear down or away; weaken

incendō incendere incendī incensus: to set fire to, burn

praeceps praecipitis: headlong

impellō impellere impulī impulsum: strike, force, compel

attrītus –ūs m.: friction, chafing

nōnnumquam: sometimes

opportūnitās –ātis f.: occasion, opportunity, suitableness

sublīmis sublīme: elevated lofty heroic noble

siccus –a –um: dry

calidus (caldus) –a –um: warm, hot

terrēnus –a –um: earthly, terrestrial, land, earth

pābulum –ī n.: food, fuel, nourishment

subsequor sequī secūtus sum: pursue, follow closely after

dēfluō –ere –fluxī –fluxus: to flow down; sail down

vēlōx –ōcis: fast

dīversus -a -um: different, diverse, opposite, contrary, conflicting 1.14.6

incendō incendere incendī incensus: to set fire to, burn

vehemēns –ntis: violent

incendō incendere incendī incensus: to set fire to, burn

significō significāre significāvī significātus: show, express, make known, indicate, portend

ēiusmodī: of that sort, of such a kind

lāpsus –ūs m.: fall, flight, slipping, slide

ērumpō ērumpere ērūpī ēruptus: burst forth, break out

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