Selection 3 (3.30.1-8)

[3.30.1] Sunt omnia, ut dīxī, facilia nātūrae, utique quae ā prīmō facere cōnstituit, ad quae nōn subitō sed ex dēnūntiātō vēnit. iam autem ā prīmō diē mundī, cum in hunc habitum ex īnfōrmī ūnitāte discēderet, quandō mergerentur terrēna dēcrētum est; et nē sit quandōque velut in novō opere dūra mōlītiō, ōlim ad hoc maria sē exercent. [3.30.2] nōn vidēs ut flūctus in lītora tamquam exitūrus incurrat? nōn vidēs ut aestus fīnēs suōs trānseat et in possessiōnem terrārum mare indūcat? nōn vidēs ut illī perpetua cum claustrīs suīs pugna sit? quid porrō? istinc tantum unde tumultum vidēs metus est, ē marī et magnō spīritū ērumpentibus fluviīs? [3.30.3] ubi nōn umorem natura disposuit, ut undique nōs cum voluisset adgredī posset? mentior nisi ēruentibus terram ūmor occurrit, et quotiēns aut avāritia nōs dēfodit aut aliqua causa penetrāre altius cōgit, ēruendī fīnis ā liquidō est. adice quod inmānēs sunt in abditō lacūs et multum maris conditī, multum flūminum per operta lābentium. [3.30.4] undique ergō erit causa dīluviō, cum aliae aquae subterfluant terrās, aliae circumfluant, quae diū coercitae vincent et amnēs amnibus iungent, palūdibus stāgna. omnium tunc mare ōra fontium implēbit, et maiōre hiātū solvet. quemadmodum corpora nostra [ā] dēiectū venter exhaurit, quemadmodum in sūdōrem eunt vīrēs, ita tellūs liquefiet et, aliīs causīs quiēscentibus, intrā sē quō mergātur inveniet. sed magis omnia coitūra crēdiderim.

[3.30.5] Nec longa erit mora exitiī: temptātur dīvelliturque concordia. cum semel aliquid ex hāc idōneā dīligentiā remīserit mundus, statim undique ex apertō atque abditō, supernē, ab īnfimō, aquārum fīet inruptiō. [3.30.6] nihil est tam violentum, tam incontinēns suī, tam contumāx īnfēstumque retinentibus, quam magna vīs undae. ūtētur lībertāte permissā, et iubente nātūrā, quae scindit circumitque complēbit. ut ignis dīversīs locīs ortus cito miscet incendium, flammīs coīre properantibus, sīc mōmentō sē redundantia plūribus locīs maria committent.

[3.30.7] Nec ea semper licentia undīs erit, sed perāctō exitiō generis hūmānī, extīnctīsque pariter ferīs, in quārum hominēs ingenia trānsierant, iterum aquās terra sorbēbit, iterum pelagus stāre aut intrā terminōs suōs furere cōget, et reiectus ē nostrīs sēdibus in sua sēcrēta pellētur ōceanus, et antīquus ōrdō revocābitur. [3.30.8] omne ex integrō animal generābitur, dabiturque terrīs homō īnscius scelerum et melioribus auspiciīs nātus. sed illīs quoque innocentia nōn dūrābit, nisi dum novī sunt. cito nēquitia subrēpit; virtūs difficilis inventū est, rectōrem ducemque dēsīderat; etiam sine magistrō vitia discuntur.

Selection 3 (3.30.1–8): The end of the world and regeneration.

Someday a Flood will destroy all life on earth, after which animals will reemerge.

This “world cycle” parallels, in miniature, the end of a cosmic cycle in ekpyrosis. The Flood will come from rain, exceptional tides, and the transformation of elements into water independently. The flood story of Deucalion and Pyrrha is common in Greek myth, and Roman versions of the flood can be found at Lucr. 5.411–15, Verg. Eclogues 6.41, and especially Ovid’s Metamorphoses 1.253–415 (a major influence on Seneca’s account, see Berno 2012). At the conclusion, Seneca writes how at the end of one “world cycle,” another soon begins, and things go downhill fast. This may resemble Stoic ideas of eternal recurrence, and some of the repetitions found in this section can be read as textual evocations of such a Groundhog Day sort of cycle.

Further Reading: For more about how this flood evokes floods of the Tiber and may have political significance, see Berno 2019.

[3.30.1] The Flood has been planned from the first day of the world. Terrestrial waters have been practicing for the deluge all along.

ut dixi: Seneca had written nihil difficile naturae est at NQ 3.27.2. There is ring composition both within this section and the book as a whole shown in this selection. This rhetorical technique not only stresses the points under consideration, but it also hints at the cyclical repetition of these cataclysms.

utique: “especially”

quae a primo facere constituit: quae is the accusative direct object of constituit; a primo = “from the beginning.” The verb constituo helps to personify nature, who has decided to do these things like a human being.

non subito sed ex denuntiato vēnit: “not suddenly but after due warning.” vēnit is perfect.

iam autem: “indeed, already”

a primo die mundi: for other descriptions of the first day of the world, see Lucr. 2.1105–1117, Verg. Georgics 2.336–42, and Ovid Metamorphoses 1.5–88, which is the most thorough depiction of the movement from primordial chaos to the world as we know it.

cum ... discederet: temporal cum clause (AG 545)

quando: “when,” “at what time,” introducing an indirect question after decretum est (AG 574).

terrena: “earthly things,” “the lands” (as opposed to the sea), neuter plural > terrenus -a -um.

ne sit quandoque velut in novo opere dura molitio: ne sit is a negative purpose clause (AG 563), “in order that, whenever it happens (quandoque), it is not tough work, as in (velut) a new endeavor.” Take the olim clause first in order to set up this clause. The seas have been “practicing” to do this for a long time. Note the personification of the seas.

se exercent: with expressions of past time like olim, the present tense can be used to denote an action continuing into the present: “are (and have long been) practicing” (AG 466).

ad hoc: “for this,” ad + accusative for purpose.

[3.30.2] Tidal activity and sea waves are indications of the coming flood.

non vides ut: the anaphora of this phrase invokes the reader’s own experience and sensory perception. One might also think of these repetitions like the waves coming to shore again and again. The ut here should be translated as “how” and it introduces an indirect question (AG 574).

tamquam exiturus: “as if it is about to come out.” exiturus is a future active participle and modifies fluctus.

aestus: “tide” (LS aestus I.C)

illi: refers back to the aestus and it is a dative of possession with the verb esse (AG 373).

claustris: “barriers,” “bounds”

quid porro: “what else?” “what further?” introducing a fourth, climactic rhetorical question.

istinc tantum unde … metus est: “Is there fear only (tantum) from that point (instinc) where you see a disturbance? ”There is more to be feared than meets the eye.

e mari ... fluviis: These are the visible sources, but Seneca will shortly list additional sources of water that could cause the flood.

[3.30.3] Natura has distributed waters below our feet as well as above ground and these can be called upon to help flood the earth as well.

ubi: “where”

ut… posset: purpose clause (AG 563), which helps to personify natura. Natura has a will (voluisset) and is interested in attacking (adgredi) us. The cum clause inside the purpose clause follows the sequence of tenses (AG 485) and the pluperfect subjunctive here shows that nature had planned this before its manifestation.

mentior nisi: “I am lying unless,” a strong assertion of the following claims about underground water.

eruentibus: “to those digging,” substantive use of the present active participle. Miners would encounter water, and it seems clear that many hydrological inventions were designed to help be able to dig deeper in search of gold and precious metals. Mining will be the subject of a digression in NQ 5 (see Selection 6).

avaritia nos defodit: “avarice sends us underground” to mine metals—a striking phrase, since the usual meaning of the verb is “to bury” (see OLD defodio 1.b). The language here will reappear at 5.15.3 (forms of defodio and eruere) and there is a sense that greed will “bury” us in our quest for wealth by mining, but also metaphorically will cause our death. Seneca often attacks greed in his dialogues and letters, and it features prominently when discussing Stoicism at Ep. 89.19–22 and 90.38–39.

a liquido: ablative of source (AG 403), but almost approaching an ablative of agent with liquido personified (the ablative of agent was originally an ablative of source, AG 405).

adice quod: “add (the fact) that… ”

multum maris ... multum fluminum: “much sea ... much river water.” multum + partitive genitive, stressing the quantity of water, rather than the number of seas and rivers. There is a striking amount of nasal sounds (“m” and “n”) in this passage – one wonders if Seneca thought such sounds evoked the sound of water.

multum fluminum … labentium: the rivers “slipping” through their underground channels evokes a similar phrase in both Vergil (Georgics 4.365–67) and Ovid (Metamorphoses 1.188–89). The metapoetics of water (e.g. the spring of Helicon or Callimachus’ preference for the pure stream than an epic muddy river) are often evoked by Seneca through such intertexts, see Trinacty 2018 for such metapoetics in the NQ and Worman 2015: 213-21 for Latin poetry more general.

[3.30.4] The sources of the deluge are multiple and surround us.

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Seneca appeals to the analogy that the world is like a body again to emphasize how this can happen. This is a natural event, especially in as much as nature/god are one.

undique ergo: ergo sums up, drawing the necessary conclusion from the evidence just cited. undique is strongly emphasized by its position: “from everywhere.”

diluvio: dative of possession.

aliae … aliae: “some … others” (AG 315)

diu coercitae: “though long restrained,” a concessive use of the perfect passive participle > coerceo.

iungent: the subject is still aliae.

omnium … ora fontium: ora is the direct object, omnium fontium genitive plural. Os can indicate the source of a stream, but also a “mouth,” thus Seneca once again personifies natural phenomena. The various underground waters and separate veins for the sea (NQ 3.14.3) are jumbled together in the flood to allow seawater to fill the rivers’ sources.

maiore hiatu solvet: the founts now “gape” more widely, a personification that may evoke Scylla (Sen. Medea 352) and Charybdis, who “swallows ships with its vast gaping mouth” (magno hiatu profundoque navigia sorbentem, Sen. Consolatio ad Marciam 17.2). See Swantek 2016.

quemadmodum … quemadmodum … ita: “just as … just as … so.” Two further analogies from the human body help to reinforce the point that this flood is natural (and explainable). Both analogies imply that the strength and matter of the human body can be liquefied. 

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In a different context, Aristotle writes against the use of this “sweat” metaphor at Meteorologica 357a24–357b7. By utilizing such an analogy, Seneca may be trying to defend it here contra Aristotle. Aristotle’s Meteorologica was a major source of Seneca’s thought in NQ, but on occasion Seneca asserts his own views.

deiectu: “by diarrhea,” a neologism of Seneca, for the more regular deiectio.

vires: > vis not vir.

aliis causis quiescentibus: “even if other causes are not active,” ablative absolute.

intra se: “by itself, alone” (LS intra II.C.2).

quo mergatur: the indefinite antecedent is omitted: "(a means) by which it might be overwhelmed," relative clause of characteristic (AG 534) or purpose (AG 531).

sed magis omnia coitura crediderim: understand esse: “But I would be more inclined to believe that all (these factors) will combine.” coitura > coeo -ire. The perfect subjunctive crediderim softens the assertion.

[3.30.5] When it happens, the Flood will happen quickly.

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There may be political overtones to the mundus not paying heed to the far-flung waters and paying the price. Elsewhere in the flood description, Seneca writes how it is a “revolution” (res novae, 3.28.7), so one should not discount possible jabs at Nero’s principate here, especially with the idea that the floods periodically occur during periods of excessive immorality, such as the rationale for Jupiter's flood in Ovid's Metamorphoses 1.163ff. (see Star 2021: 146-48 for more about a political reading of the flood).

temptatur divelliturque concordia: “the equilibrium is now being attacked and destroyed” by the violent action of terrestrial waters. concordia is both the proper harmony of the elements and nature, and has a political dimension, represented by the goddess Concordia.

cum semel: “as soon as, once” + future perfect, remiserit. The mundus is personified as being able to relax its diligence.

aliquid ex hac idonea diligentia: Seneca uses ex + ablative in place of a partitive genitive (AG 346).

ex aperto atque abdito, superne, ab infimo: Note Seneca’s variatio here of ex + ablative, the adverb superne, and ab + ablative.

[3.30.6] Nature will combine all the terrestrial waters to swamp the entire world. They will join quickly, like a single fire started from many sources.

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Seneca exalts the power of water and its powers of destruction. He compares the flood to a massive fire, which may remind modern readers of the Great Fire of Rome in 64 CE. From what scholars can tell, the majority of NQ was written before the fire, but it is possible that Seneca may have added or edited sections afterwards. If so, these comparisons to a conflagration might be a covert criticism that the world seems to be coming to an end under Nero. It must be said, however, that explicit references to Nero in this work are positive; see NQ 1.5.6 (with a quotation of Nero’s poetry), 6.8.3, and 7.21.3 (where his rule is described as laetissimo).

nihil est tam … tam … tam … quam: “nothing is so ... as” (AG 323).

incontinens sui: “not in control of itself,” “uncontrollable.”

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Although Seneca stresses water’s unruly violence, the Romans were masters in manipulating water, especially with their aqueducts (see Hodge 1992). The aqueduct park outside of Rome allows for stunning views of the remains of various aqueducts coming into the city.

infestumque retinentibus: “hostile to those who would restrain it.” infestus takes the dative (AG 384).

utetur libertate permissā: utor takes the ablative (AG 410). The freedom or independence (libertas) allowed is dependent on the orders of natura (iubente naturā) to cause the flood. There is a productive tension between ideas of freedom and control here.

quae ... complebit: i.e., complebit (ea loca) quae scindit circumitque. Omission of the antecedent of a relative pronoun is common when the antecedent is indefinite (AG 307.c).

ut … sic: “just as… so.” The speed (cito, properantibus) of a fire that joins various outbreaks into one great inferno is compared to the speed at which the various waters will come together to create the great flood. Seneca had stressed such speed at the opening of the flood section utilizing momento and cito at NQ 3.27.2 as well.

miscet incendium: the phrase probably evokes Vergil’s description of Sinon working the destruction of Troy: “And victorious Sinon kindles the fires together” (victorque Sinon incendia miscet, Verg. Aeneid 2.329).

se … committent: "the seas, overflowing in many locations, will join themselves together" into one body of water.

[3.30.7] After humans and beasts have been eradicated, the waters will recede and the cycle will begin again.

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In many ways, then, this world-end parallels the ekpyrosis of Stoic cosmology and hints at the idea of eternal recurrence. The Stoics believed that the cosmos would come to an end at the end of a “Great Year” and, because God is providential and perfect, when the world was reborn it would proceed in the exact same way it had previously. Thus, time could be seen as circular, and events will occur again and again ad infinitum. Seneca hints at this doctrine at the conclusion of his work through allusions to works that reference eternal recurrence and ring composition (see Long 1985). One may also wonder about the circular book roll now coming to an end in the right hand, but being rolled back up in the left to be reread in the same order again — would the physical material help to match the philosophical material? For Seneca’s sensitivity to the end of books and the materiality of the book, see Ep. 12 (on circular time and the conclusion of Book 1) and Henderson 2006: 124–37.

licentia undis erit: undis is dative of possession (AG 373). Where it was libertas in the previous section, now Seneca casts such freedom as disorderliness. Ovid had used licentia of the flood at Metamorphoses 1.309: obruerat tumulos immensa licentia ponti.

peracto exitio: “when the destruction is complete,” ablative absolute (AG 419). The phrase evokes the opening of the flood section where its purpose was ad exitium humani generis (3.27.1). Seneca elsewhere points out the transience of cities and political power (cf. Ep 71.12–15).

extinctis pariter feris, in quarum homines ingenia transierant: “when beasts, whose character humankind had taken on, have been wiped out as well.” This book stresses the way that various transformations occur (from elemental changes of air to water to the shocking idea of fish crossing onto land, NQ 3.17.1), so there should be no question that even the character of humankind could have changed into something else over time due to its depravity. Lucretius himself had mentioned that men lived “in the manner of beasts” (more ferarum, 5.931) before making “progress” in their civilization.

iterum … iterum: such repetition of word and idea is important for the sense that this happens again and again in the Stoic conception of the world.

intra terminos suos furere coget: the subject of coget is terra, the object is aquas.

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The phrase intra terminos suos was used by Seneca the Elder to describe the sea: “The sky does not move beyond its own bounds, the sea is tossed within its own boundaries” (Suas. 1.3: non procedit ultra spatia sua caelum, maria intra terminos suos agitantur). Intertexts thus can be used to double-down on the repetition of physical events. As words repeat, so do events.

reiectus … oceanus: there is concrete word-order here, in which the position of the Latin words help to create meaning. The ocean’s normal position is to encircle the earth and the adjective-noun phrase bookends the thought. secreta indicates the “haunts” where the ocean’s waters reside, but also evokes the secrets that the reader must investigate in this work (see Selection 1).

antiquus ordo: “the old orderly arrangement” of earth and water. This “ancient order” also evokes the “ancient age” as Seneca goes on to explain in the final section of the book.

[3.30.8] The reborn human race will go through a brief period of innocence and virtue but will soon descend into vice.

Though so far more focused on the physics of how the flood could occur, Seneca ends on a moralizing and pessimistic note, as he does at the conclusion of other books of the NQ (see the conclusions of 4b, 7, and 1). Now we see ethics intertwined with the physical investigation. Seneca raises the possibility that the cataclysmic flood is linked with the sinful actions of mankind.

omne ex integro animal generabitur: “each (kind of) animal will be produced anew.”

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With the end of the previous sentence this forms a clear intertext with Verg. Eclogue 4.5–7: “The final age of Cumaean song now has come; / the great order of the ages is born anew again” (ultima Cumaei venit iam carminis aetas; / magnus ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo). Vergil himself is writing about the coming of new Golden Age and evokes the idea of eternal recurrence in his poem. Seneca reveals that this Golden Age will be short-lived, while the repetition of language indicates how similar words and events will appear again in the next age (as they have in the past).

inscius scelerum: adjectives denoting remembering and forgetting take the genitive (AG 349). Elsewhere Seneca writes how primitive man may be ignorant of vice, but this is not the same as the willed virtue of a Stoic wise man (see Ep. 90).

melioribus auspicîs natus: auspicîs stands for the form auspiciīs and shows that the final -iis would have been pronounced as one syllable. The auspices were a way of telling the future by reading natural signs. Seneca discusses some aspects of auspicium more fully at 2.32.2–34.3.

illis: referring back to man, but now in the plural.

nisi dum novi sunt: “except while they are young.” One may wonder how many generations this is in Seneca’s calculation, but the point is that such innocence is short- lived.

nequitia subrepit: Seneca also shows vices “creeping in” at Ep. 7.2 and 90.6. At NQ 7.32.1, Seneca writes that nequitia has not quite perfected itself, but is still finding new outlets.

difficilis inventu: “difficult to find,” supine (inventu) with the adjective (AG 510).

desiderat: “requires”

etiam: “even”

etiam sine magistro vitia discuntur: this recalls the concluding sentence of the preface:“For nothing is more obvious than these beneficial sayings which are learned to fight our folly and fury, which we curse but do not dismiss” (nihil est autem apertius his salutaribus quae contra nequitiam nostrum furoremque discuntur, quae damnamus nec ponimus, NQ Seneca does this to connect the flood “digression” to the physics and ethics of the larger book. One may wonder here about Seneca’s own position as magister of Nero in his youth. Is there an apology here for the current behavior of the princeps?

utīque: certainly, by all mean; especially

dēnūntiō –āre: to announce, declare

habitus habitūs m.: condition, state, character

īnfōrmis –e: shapeless, formless, ugly

ūnitās –ātis f.: unity, oneness

mergō –ere mersī mersus: sink, bury, overwhelm

terrēnus –a –um: earthly, terrestrial, land, earth

quandōque : whenever, at some time

mōlītiō –ōnis f.: effort, labour, work

incurrō –ere –currī (–cucurrī) –cursus: attack, run into 3.30.2

aestus aestūs m.: heat; tide, seething, raging (of the sea)

possessiō possessiōnis f.: possession, occupation, property

indūcō inducere indūxī inductus: to lead in

claustrum –ī n.: a means of closing, bolt, bar, barricade, fortress

porrō: in turn, further, next

istinc: from over there, from that thing

tumultus tumultūs m.: commotion, confusion, disturbance

ērumpō ērumpere ērūpī ēruptus: burst forth, break out

fluvius (fluvidus) fluvi(ī) m.: flowing water, stream, river

ūmor –oris m.: moisture, liquid 3.30.3

dispōnō dispōnere dispōsuī dispōsitus: distribute, arrange, assign

adgredior (aggredior) aggredī aggressus sum: to approach, undertake, begin

mentior mentīrī mentītus: to deceive, lie, fabricate

ēruō ēruere ēruī ērutus: to tear out, dig up, bring to light

ūmor –oris m.: moisture, liquid

avāritia avāritiae f.: greed

dēfodiō –ere –fōdī –fossus: to bury; to excavate; to send (someone) underground

penetrō penetrāre penetrāvī penetrātus: to go as far as, to reach (+ad + acc.)

ēruō ēruere ēruī ērutus: to tear out, dig up, bring to light

liquidus –a –um: clear, liquid

adiciō adicere adiēcī adiectus: to add, increase, to add to 

immānis immāne: huge, monstrous

abditus –a –um: hidden, secluded, out of the way

lacus lacūs m.: lake, pond, reservoir

multum multī n.: many things

operiō operīre operuī opertum: to cover, hide

lābor labī lapsus sum: to slip, pass, flow, sink, fall, pass, sink

dīluvium –iī n.: flood, deluge, inundation 3.30.4

subterfluō –ere — —: to flow beneath/below/underneath

circumfluō –fluere –flūxī —: to flow around; crowd round

coerceō coercēre coercuī coercitus: to enclose, encompass, confine, restrain

palūs –ūdis f.: swamp, marsh, bog

stagnum stagnī n.: pool, pond, marsh

hiātus –ūs m.: mouth, gape, open jaws

dēiectus –ūs m.: a throwing down, vomit, diarrhea

venter ventris m.: belly, stomach

exhauriō exhaurīre exhausī exhaustum: to drain out, empty out, remove

sūdor sūdōris m.: sweat

liquefīō –fierī –factus sum: to melt, dissolve, make liquid

mergō –ere mersī mersus: sink, bury, overwhelm

coeō coīre coīvō/coiī coitus: to come together, combine, unite

exitium exiti(ī) n.: destruction, ruin, end 3.30.5

tentō tentāre tentāvī tentātus: to try

dīvellō –ere –vellī –vulsus: to pluck apart, tear asunder, destroy

concordia concordiae f.: agreement, harmony

idōneus –a –um: suitable, fit, appropriate

dīligentia dīligentiae f.: diligence, care, frugality

remittō remittere remīsī remissum: to send back, yield, relax

apertus –a –um: uncovered, open, public

abditus –a –um: hidden, secluded, out of the way

supernē: above, from above

īnfimus –a –um: superlative of inferus-a-um below, lower

irruptiō –ōnis f.: breaking, bursting into, irruption

violentus –a –um: violent, savage 3.30.6 

incontinēns –entis: incontinent, dissoluteness

contumax –ācis: stubborn, obstinate

īnfestus –a –um: aggressive, hostile, dangerous

scindō scindere scidī scissum: to cut, rend, tear asunder, split

circumeo (circueō ) –īre –iī/–īvī circuitus: to travel around, inspect

compleō complēre complēvī complētus: to fill up

dīversus -a -um: different, diverse, opposite, contrary, conflicting

cito citius (comp.) citissime (superl.): quickly

incendium incendi(ī) n.: conflagration, fire

coeō coīre coīvō/coiī coitus: to come together, combine, unite

mōmentum –ī n.: movement, motion, instant, moment

redundō  –āre f.: to overflow

licentia licentiae f.: freedom, leave, liberty 3.30.7

peragō peragere perēgī perāctum: to carry through, complete, accomplish

exitium existi(ī) n.: destruction, ruin, end

exstinguō exstinguere exstinxī exstinctus: to extinguish

pariter: alike

fera ferae f.: wild beast

sorbeō –ēre –uī: to suck in, drink in, swallow

pelagus pelagī n.: sea, the open sea

terminus –ī m.: boundary, limit

furō furere: rage, rave, be furious

reiciō reicere reiēcī reiectum: to throw back, reject, disdain

sēcrētum –ī n.: hidden, secret

ōceanus –ī m.: ocean

generō generāre generāvī generātus: to beget, produce, create 3.30.8

īnscius –a –um: not knowing; unaware

melior melius: better

auspicium -ī n.: auspice, omen; beginning; (w. bonum) prosperity, success.

innocentia –ae f.: innocence

dūrō dūrāre dūrāvī dūrātus: to endure, hold out, harden

cito citius (comp.) citissime (superl.): quickly

nēquitia nēquitiae or nēquitiēs –ēī f.: worthlessness, badness

subrēpō –rēpere –rēpsī –rēptum: to creep, creep up on

rēctor –ōris m.: guide

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