(1) Post vīgintī annōs Vēientānī rebellāvērunt. Dictātor contrā ipsōs missus est Fūrius Camillus, quī prīmum eōs vīcit aciē, mox etiam cīvitātem diū obsidēns cēpit, antīquissimam Ītaliaeque dītssimam.

(2) Post eam cēpit et Faliscōs nōn minus nōbilem cīvitātem. Sed commōta est eī invidia, quasi praedam male dīvīsisset, damnātusque ob eam causam et expulsus cīvitāte.

(3) Statim Gallī Senonēs ad urbem vēnērunt et, victōs Rōmānōs ūndecimō mīliāriō ā Rōmā apud flūmen Alliam secūtī, etiam urbem occupāvērunt; neque dēfendī quicquam nisi Capitōlium potuit. Quod cum diū obsēdissent et iam Rōmānī famē labōrārent, ā Camillō, quī in vīcīnā cīvitāte exulābat, Gallīs superventum est gravissimēque victī sunt.

(4) Posteā tamen etiam acceptō aurō nē Capitōlium obsidērent, recessērunt, secūtus eōs Camillus ita cecīdit, ut et aurum, quod hīs datum fuerat, et omnia quae cēperant militaria sīgna revocāret.

(5) Ita tertiō triumphāns urbem ingressus est et appellātus secundus Rōmulus, quasi et ipse patriae conditor.

    War with Veii, 396 BCE

    (1) Post vīgintī annōs: in ca. 405 BCE, according to tradition, Rome began a ten-year siege on Veii. This may have been magnified to equal that of Troy by the Greeks. In 396 BCE M. Furius Camillus, the dictator, captured Veii but was subsequently exiled to Ardea for misappropriating the spoils of war. Falisci was the name of the inhabitants of Falerii, not the town, which lay north of Veii (Bird).

    ipsōs: = eōs (Vēientānōs)

    aciē: "in battle"

    (2) eam: supply cīvitātem

    eī: "against him" (Bird). The object of envy (invidia) is usually in the dative case.

    quasi: "on the grounds that," a late meaning (Hazzard). See tamquam in Brev. 1.13.1.

    damnātusque: supply est

    expulsus: supply est

    Rome Captured by the Gauls, 390 BCE

    (3) Gallī Senonēs: by the beginning of the fourth century the Gallic Insubres had occupied much of Lombardy and the Boii and Senones had penetrated Italy south of the Po. In 391 BCE a mixed group of Gallic marauders under the Senonian chief Brennus invaded Etruria and menaced Clusium. The following summer the Romans and some Latin allies met the Gauls on the banks of the Allia, a tributary of the Tiber, and were overwhelmed. Allegedly the Gauls had between 30,000 and 70,000 men, the Romans only 15,000. By not pressing the attack the Gauls gave the Romans time to fortify the Capitol, but the rest of the city was devastated. The Romans on the Capitol held out for several months, then surrendered. A ransom of gold was paid and the Gauls departed (Bird).

    victōs Rōmānōs... secūtī: "having followed the Romans who were beaten"

    mīliāriō: milestone, see note on Brev. 1.4

    apud: "near"

    secūtī: from sequor, a deponent verb (AG 190). Supply eōs

    etiam: "even"

    neque... quicquam: "nothing"

    Quod: Capitolium

    obsēdissent: supply Gallī

    famē: "by hunger"

    ā Camillō: according to legend Camillus returned from exile in Veii with a force of Latins and Romans and twice defeated the Gauls on their way home. This story was invented to counterbalance Rome’s ignominious defeat and capture (Bird).

    ā Camillō... Gallīs superventum est: "The Gauls were surprised by Camillus" (LS superveniō II). Passive form is used impersonally (AG 207.d).

    gravissimēque victī sunt: subject is the Gallī. Florus sees the capture of Rome as an opportunity for urban growth:

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    The barbarians, growing tired of the stalemate, offered to end their siege at the cost of 1,000 pounds of gold. To add insult to injury, they threw a sword on top of the scale with the arrogant words, "Woe to the defeated!" [Vae victīs] However, Camillus attacked them from the rear and cut them down with such efficiency that he removed all traces of the Gallic invasion by bathing the city in the blood of their enemies. Romans ought to thank the gods for such a destruction; for the Gauls’ fire and flame destroyed the traces of Romulus’ poverty and his follower’s huts. What else was the fire for, if not to refine and sanctify a city destined to be the future home of gods and men? First defended by Manlius, then restored by Camillus, the city now began to rise up against its neighbors with more spiteful vigor. (Florus 1.7.62–76).

    (4) acceptō aurō: ablative absolute using a perfect passive participle (AG 419)

    nē Capitōlium obsidērent: negative purpose clause signaled by (AG 531)

    secūtus: from sequor; deponent verb (AG 190)

    ita cecīdit ut: "and cut them down so much that..." result clause signaled by ut (AG 537)

    triumphānssee triumphs

    urbem ingressus: from ingredior; deponent verb (AG 190)

    et ipse: “Camillus too,” as well as Romulus (Hazzard)

    patriae conditor: in addition to defeating the Gauls, Camillus persuaded the Romans not to abandon Rome, which had been devastated, and move to Veii, and he was chiefly responsible for the reconstruction of the city (Bird).

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates

    Vēientānī, ōrum, pl. m. the inhabitants of Vēiī
    rebellō, āre, āvī, ātus to wage war again, rebel
    dictātor, ōris [dictō, to stay often], m.

    a dictator, a magistrate with supreme power, chosen at times of supreme peril

    Fūrius, ī, m.

    the name of a Roman gens., C. Fūrius Placidus, consul 251 B.C.

    Camillus, ī, m.

    (M.) Fūrius Camillus, a famous Roman hero; L. Fūrius (Camillus), consul 349 B.C.

    obsideō, ēre, sēdī, sessus to besiege, occupy; watch closely
    Ītalia, ae, f. Italy
    dīs, dītis, adj., sup. dītissimus rich
    Faliscī, ōrum, pl. m.

    the inhabitants of Falerium, a town in Etruria, near Mount Soracte 2

    commoveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus

    to arouse, disturb, move, influence

    expellō, ere, pulī, pulsus

    to drive out or away, expel, dislodge

    Gallus, a, um

    pertaining to Gaul. Gallī, ōrum, pl. m., the Gauls. Gallus, ī, m. 3

    Senonēs, um, pl. m.

    (1) a people of Celtic Gaul; (2) the chief city of the Senones

    mīliārium, ī, n. a milestone, mile
    Allia, ae, f.

    a small river flowing into the Tiber from the east about 11 miles north of Rome

    Capitōlium, ī, n.

    the chief temple of Jupiter in Rome; the hill on which this stood, the Mōns Capitōlīnūs, the citadel as well as the chief sanctuary of Rome

    exsulō, āre, āvī, ātus [exsul, a banished person] to be in exile
    superveniō, īre, vēnī, ventus

    to come to the rescue, arrive; surpass

    graviter [gravis], adv., comp. gravius, sup. gravissimē

    weightily, vigorously, seriously, with dignity

    mīlitāris, e [mīles], adj.

    military; as subst., a soldier; rēs mīlitāris, the art of war, military operations 4

    triumphō, āre, āvī, ātus to celebrate a triumph 5
    Rōmulus, ī, m.

    the son of Rhea Silvia and Mars, the founder of Rome


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