(1) Post hunc Servius Tullius suscēpit imperium, genitus ex nōbilī fēminā, captīvā tamen et ancillā. Hic quoque Sabīnōs subēgit, montēs trēs, Quirīnālem, Vīminālem, Esquilīnum, urbī adiūnxit, fossās circum mūrum dūxit. Prīmus omnium cēnsum ōrdināvit, quī adhūc per orbem terrārum incognitus erat.

(2) Sub eō Rōma, omnibus in cēnsum dēlātīs, habuit capita LXXXIII mīlia cīvium Rōmānōrum cum hīs, quī in agrīs erant. Occīsus est scelere generī suī Tarquiniī Superbī, fīliī eius rēgis, cui ipse successerat, et fīliae, quam Tarquinius habēbat uxōrem.

    Servius Tullius, 578–534 BCE

    hunc: Tarquinius Priscus

    Servius Tullius: Servius Tullius built a temple to Diana on the Aventine and concluded a treaty with the Latin League which was still kept in the temple in Augustan times. The tradition that he was the son of a handmaiden and built the walls of Rome have generally been rejected, though he probably did have the ditches dug, as Eutropius states. His most important achievement was the holding of a census and the reorganization of Rome according to military units and property classes, which strengthened the monarchy against the nobility and balanced the interests of the middle class which provided Rome with legionary hoplites (Bird).

    genitus: from gignō, lit. "born" = "the son" (Hazzard).

    ex nōbilī fēminā: Florus describes his upbringing:

    Then Servius Tullius took over the state. The fact that his mother was a slave did not affect his political aspirations. Tarquinius’ wife Tanaquil recognized the child’s innate talents and cultivated them, saying that his fame was foretold in an omen: for she claimed a flame had appeared over his head. Therefore, when Tarquinius died, Tanaquil saw to it that Servius would stand in for the king temporarily, but the new king ruled so effectively that no one questioned his legitimacy. (Florus 1.1.168-175).

    montēs trēs: the Quirinal, Esquiline, and Viminal

    fossās circum mūrum: portions of the Servian wall still exist (Hazzard)

    omnium: take with prīmus instead of cēnsum

    cēnsum ōrdināvit: the number of Roman citizens was ascertained every five years, though not always with perfect regularity, for the assessment of taxes and the arrangement of military service. Originally the kings took the census. After the establishment of the Republic the duty was performed by the consuls. After 444 BCE, special officers, called censors, had charge of it. The census was concluded with the solemn ceremony of reviewing the newly constituted army, called a lustrum (Hazzard).

    q: antecedent is cēnsus

    per orbem terrārum: "through the whole world" 

    (2) : Tulliō

    omnibus in cēnsum dēlātīs: ablative absolute using a perfect passive participle from defero (AG 419).

    capita: "souls," cf. our expression "head of cattle" (Hazzard). However, this only includes Roman citizens, and not women, slaves, and non-citizens dwelling within Roman territory.

    scelere generī suī Tarquinī Superbī: see the next chapter, Brev. 1.8. generi is genitive singular from gener

    eius rēgis: "that king," Tarquinius Priscus

    ipse: Servius Tullius

    cui: "whom," dative object of successerat (AG 370); antecedent is eius regis

    fīliae: the villainous Tullia, younger daughter of Servius Tullius, and wife of Tarquinius Superbus. Along with her husband, she was said to have arranged the overthrow and murder of her father, securing the throne for her husband. She went so far as to drive her carriage over the corpse of her father, which had been pitched out into the street, at a spot ever after known as the "Street of Crime" (vicus sceleratus). French artist Jean Bardin (1732–1809) depicted the scene in a dramatic painting now in the Landesmuseum Mainz.

    uxōrem: "as his wife" (Hazzard), in apposition with quam

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates

    Servius, ī, m.

    Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, 578—534 B.C. 1

    captīvus, a, um [capiō], adj.

    captive; as subst., captīvus, ī, m., captīva, ae, f., captive, prisoner of war

    ancilla, ae, f. female slave, slave girl, maidservant
    Sabīnī, ōrum, pl. m.

    the Sabines, a race in central Italy, adjoining Latium on the east

    subigō, ere, ēgī, āctus to drive under, put down, conquer
    Quirīnālis, is (sc. collis) m.

    the Quirinal Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome

    Vīminālis, e [vīmen, an osier], adj.

    of osiers; as subst., Vīminālis, is, m. (sc. collis) the Viminal Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome

    Esquilīnus, ī, m.

    (sc. collis), the Esquiline, the largest of the seven hills of Rome

    adiungō, ere, iūnxī, iūnctus to join to, fasten to, add
    fossa, ae [fodiō, to dig], f. a ditch, pit, moat
    circum around
    cēnsus, ūs [cēnseō, to value], m.

    the census, an enumeration and classification of the people according to wealth

    ōrdinō, āre, āvī, ātus [ōrdō] to arrange, regulate
    incognitus, a, um [in + cognōscō], adj. unknown
    gener, erī, m. a son-in-law
    Tarquinius, ī, m.

    L. Tarquinius Superbus, the son of Priscus, the last king of Rome, 534—510 B.C.

    succēdō, ere, cessī, cessus

    to come up, advance; succeed, follow


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