Homer, Iliad XXII 367-404

ἦ ῥα, καὶ ἐκ νεκροῖο ἐρύσσατο χάλκεον ἔγχος,

καὶ τό γ᾽ ἄνευθεν ἔθηχ᾽, ὃ δ᾽ ἀπ᾽ ὤμων τεύχε᾽ ἐσύλα

αἱματόεντ᾽: ἄλλοι δὲ περίδραμον υἷες Ἀχαιῶν,

οἳ καὶ θηήσαντο φυὴν καὶ εἶδος ἀγητὸν370

Ἕκτορος: οὐδ᾽ ἄρα οἵ τις ἀνουτητί γε παρέστη.

ὧδε δέ τις εἴπεσκεν ἰδὼν ἐς πλησίον ἄλλον:

ὢ πόποι, ἦ μάλα δὴ μαλακώτερος ἀμφαφάασθαι

Ἕκτωρ ἢ ὅτε νῆας ἐνέπρησεν πυρὶ κηλέῳ.375

ὣς ἄρα τις εἴπεσκε καὶ οὐτήσασκε παραστάς.

τὸν δ᾽ ἐπεὶ ἐξενάριξε ποδάρκης δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς,

στὰς ἐν Ἀχαιοῖσιν ἔπεα πτερόεντ᾽ ἀγόρευεν:

ὦ φίλοι Ἀργείων ἡγήτορες ἠδὲ μέδοντες

ἐπεὶ δὴ τόνδ᾽ ἄνδρα θεοὶ δαμάσασθαι ἔδωκαν,

ὃς κακὰ πόλλ᾽ ἔρρεξεν ὅσ᾽ οὐ σύμπαντες οἱ ἄλλοι,380

εἰ δ᾽ ἄγετ᾽ ἀμφὶ πόλιν σὺν τεύχεσι πειρηθῶμεν,

ὄφρά κ᾽ ἔτι γνῶμεν Τρώων νόον ὅν τιν᾽ ἔχουσιν,

ἢ καταλείψουσιν πόλιν ἄκρην τοῦδε πεσόντος,

ἦε μένειν μεμάασι καὶ Ἕκτορος οὐκέτ᾽ ἐόντος.

ἀλλὰ τί ἤ μοι ταῦτα φίλος διελέξατο θυμός;385

κεῖται πὰρ νήεσσι νέκυς ἄκλαυτος ἄθαπτος

Πάτροκλος: τοῦ δ᾽ οὐκ ἐπιλήσομαι, ὄφρ᾽ ἂν ἔγωγε

ζωοῖσιν μετέω καί μοι φίλα γούνατ᾽ ὀρώρῃ:

εἰ δὲ θανόντων περ καταλήθοντ᾽ εἰν Ἀΐδαο

αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ καὶ κεῖθι φίλου μεμνήσομ᾽ ἑταίρου.390

νῦν δ᾽ ἄγ᾽ ἀείδοντες παιήονα κοῦροι Ἀχαιῶν

νηυσὶν ἔπι γλαφυρῇσι νεώμεθα, τόνδε δ᾽ ἄγωμεν.

ἠράμεθα μέγα κῦδος: ἐπέφνομεν Ἕκτορα δῖον,

ᾧ Τρῶες κατὰ ἄστυ θεῷ ὣς εὐχετόωντο.

395

ἦ ῥα, καὶ Ἕκτορα δῖον ἀεικέα μήδετο ἔργα.

ἀμφοτέρων μετόπισθε ποδῶν τέτρηνε τένοντε

ἐς σφυρὸν ἐκ πτέρνης, βοέους δ᾽ ἐξῆπτεν ἱμάντας,

ἐκ δίφροιο δ᾽ ἔδησε, κάρη δ᾽ ἕλκεσθαι ἔασεν:

ἐς δίφρον δ᾽ ἀναβὰς ἀνά τε κλυτὰ τεύχε᾽ ἀείρας

μάστιξέν ῥ᾽ ἐλάαν, τὼ δ᾽ οὐκ ἀέκοντε πετέσθην.400

τοῦ δ᾽ ἦν ἑλκομένοιο κονίσαλος, ἀμφὶ δὲ χαῖται

κυάνεαι πίτναντο, κάρη δ᾽ ἅπαν ἐν κονίῃσι

κεῖτο πάρος χαρίεν: τότε δὲ Ζεὺς δυσμενέεσσι

δῶκεν ἀεικίσσασθαι ἑῇ ἐν πατρίδι γαίῃ.

Achilles strips the armor, and other Greeks stab Hector's lifeless body. Achilles at first urges an immediate assault on the city but, remembering that Patroclus lies unburied back by the ships, suggests they return singing a song of thanksgiving, since they have killed the main Trojan champion. Achilles attaches Hector's corpse to the back of his chariot with ox-hide straps threaded through its pierced ankles and sets off, dragging the body behind.

Achilles’ bloody armor, stripped off the dead body of yet another warrior, lies to one side, and the Myrmidons crowd around, desultorily stabbing Hector’s corpse. His voice is still in our ears, but now Hector is something like a grotesque tourist attraction. [read full essay]

367: ἦ: “he spoke,” 3rd sg impf. > ἠμί (Goodell 383).

368: τό: “and this,” ἔγχος. ἔθηχ᾽: = ἔθηκε. ὃ δ᾽: Achilles.

369: περίδραμον: “ran up and stood around,” aor. > περιτρέχω, only here in Homer (de Jong).

370: οἳ καὶ: “who also,” relative. καί emphasizes the fact that the relative clause contains an addition to the information contained in the main clause (de Jong).

371: οὐδ᾽ ἄρα οἵ τις ἀνουτητί γε παρέστη: “not one stood by without stabbing.” The litotes gives the statement a somewhat sardonic tone. οἵ: “beside him,” “him,” dat. governed by παρ- in compound παρ-ίστημι (Monro 145.6), the accent is due to the following τις. τις: “anyone.” παρέστη: 3rd sg. aor. > παρ-ίστημι.

372: τις εἴπεσκεν: “many a man would say,” -σκ- indicates iterative aor. (Monro 48–49), τις and the verb suggest that the one speech which is quoted represents many similar speeches (de Jong). ἐς: “at.”

373: ἦ μάλα δὴ: see 22.229. μαλακώτερος ἀμφαφάασθαι: “(Hector is) softer to handle,” i.e. easier to wound, explanatory (epexegetical) infinitives with μαλακώτερος (Goodell 565).

374: Ἕκτωρ: supply a linking verb ἐστί. : “than,” following μαλακώτερος. ἐνέπρησεν: aor. > ἐμ-πίμπρημι, a verb unattested in the present. πυρὶ κηλέῳ: dat. of means.

375: τις εἴπεσκε: see line 372. οὐτήσασκε: “(each) would stab,” “wound,” another iterative aor. with -σκ-. παραστάς: aor. ptc. > παρίστημι.

379: ἐπεὶ δὴ: “since in fact,” δή indicates that what Achilles says is evident to both himself and his addressees (de Jong). ἔδωκαν: i.e. allowed, 3rd pl. aor. > δίδωμι.

380: ὃς: relative. κακὰ πόλλ᾽ὅσ᾽ οὐ: “many evils, as many as all the rest did not do,” i.e. “more evils than all the rest.” ἔρρεξεν: aor. > ῥέζω.

381: εἰ δ᾽ ἄγετε: “now come…,” εἰ with an imperative (usually in connection with ἄγε/ ἄγετε) functions as an interjection. πειρηθῶμεν: “let us make trial of,” “attack,” hortatory subj., aor. pass. with mid. sense > πειράω, supply gen. object Τρώων.

382: ὄφρά κ’γνῶμεν: “so that we may know” (Monro 287.1.b). νόον ὅν τιν᾽ ἔχουσιν: lit. “the mind of the Trojans, whichever they have,” proleptic use of νόον. ἔτι: “further,” as the next step (Monro).

383–384:ἦε: “whether … or,” in apposition, introducing an alternative indirect question with the indicative.

383: πόλιν ἄκρην: “the acropolis.” To abandon it was to desert the city entirely. Cp. 24.383 ff. (Monro). τοῦδε πεσόντος: gen. abs., “now that this man has fallen.”

384: μεμάασι: “they are eager,” 3rd pl. > μέμονα, reduplicated perf. with pres. sense (Monro 36.5). καὶἐόντος: “although…,” gen. absolute, concessive in force. 

385: τί ἤ: “why indeed?” see 22.122. μοι: “with me.” φίλος: “my own,” “my dear,” as often, this adj. carries the meaning of a possessive.

386–387: note the forceful lack of connectives (a figure called asyndeton).

387: τοῦ δ᾽: Patroclus, genitive with verb of forgetting (Goodell 511.b). ἐπιλήσομαι: fut. > ἐπιλανθάνομαι. ὄφρ᾽: “as long as,” conditional temporal clause with ἄν + subj. (μετέω and ὀρώρῃ in the next line).

388: μετέω: 1st sg. pres. subj. > μέτειμι, “am among” + dat.  μοι φίλα γούνατ’ ὀρώρῃ: “my limbs have power to move.” ὀρώρῃ: 3rd sg. pf. subj. > ὄρνυμι. The pf. ὄρωρα means “move, stir oneself.” See LSJ s.v. ὄρνυμι A.1

389: The subject of καταλήθοντ(αι) is indefinite: “they forget” (Benner). “Men forget,” to be taken closely with εἰν Ἀΐδαο: “if the dead forget their dead, so will not I” (Monro).

390: καὶ κεῖθι: “even there,” -θι indicates place where, i.e. when Achilles is dead. μεμνήσομ’: = μεμνήσομαι, “will remember” + gen., fut. > μιμνήσκομαι.

391: νῦν δ’ ἄγ’: introduces imperatives and hortatory constructions (see 22.174). παιήονα: a paean, a song of thanksgiving, cp. 1.473 (Monro).

392: νεώμεθαἄγωμεν: “let us go and bring,” hortatory subjunctives.

393: ἠράμεθα: “we have carried off,” i.e. “we have won,” aor. mid. > αἴρω (Att. ἀείρω). ἠράμεθαἐπέφνομεν: the asyndeton is expressive and adds weight to ἐπέφνομεν. As the scholiast notes, the use of the plural “makes the victory a common one, in a typically Greek way” (de Jong). ἐπέφνομεν: 1st pl. reduplicated aorist > θείνω (Monro 36.5).

394: : “to whom,” obj of εὐχετόωντο. κατὰ: “throughout” (Monro 212.1). θεῷ ὣς: “as if to a god,” “like a god,” anastrophe. εὐχετόωντο: “prayed to” + dat., unaugmented impf. > εὐχετάομαι (= εὔχομαι).—

395: : “he spoke,” 3rd sg impf. > ἠμί (Goodell 383). ἀεικέαἔργα: “disfiguring deeds,” it does not so much imply wrong deeds (for Achilles to commit) as shameful deeds (for Hector to suffer) (de Jong). μήδετο: “devised (+ acc) for (+ acc),” governs a double acc., unaugmented dep. mid. impf. (Goodell 534).

396–398: “He pierced the tendons of both feet at the back from heel to ankle, attached straps of ox-hide (to the pierced feet), bound (the straps) to his chariot, and let the head drag (over the ground)” (de Jong).

396: τέτρηνε: unaugmented aor. > τετραίνω. τένοντε: dual acc.

397: ἐξῆπτεν: impf. > ἐξ-άπτω.

398: κάρη: acc. sg. neut.

399: ἀναβὰς: nom. sg. aor. ptc. > ἀναβαίνω. ἀνάἀείρας: tmesis, aor. ptc. > ἀναίρω, ἀνά often means “up and off” or “off.”

400: μάστιξέν ῥ’ ἐλάαν: “he whipped (the horses) to make them go,” "whipped his steeds to a run" (Benner). ἐλάαν: pres. inf. > ἐλαύνω, here a loosely attached inf. of purpose (Goodell 565). τὼοὐκ ἀέκοντε πετέσθην: “these two (horses) sped on not unwillingly,” dual nom. with impf. 3rd pers. dual.

401: τοῦἦν ἑλκομένοιο κονίσαλος: “there was a cloud of dust of him (Hector) as he was dragged,” i.e. “a cloud of dust arose created by him being dragged.” ἀμφὶ δὲ: “and round (about),” adverbial.

402: πίτναντο: “streamed,” impf. > πίτνημι.

402–403: ἅπανχαρίεν: modify neuter κάρη. πάρος χαρίεν: “formerly beautiful.”

403: κεῖτο: impf. > κεῖμαι. δυσμενέεσσι δῶκεν: “gave (him) to the enemy.”

404: ἀεικίσσασθαι: “to disfigure, abuse” a loosely attached aor. mid. infinitive of purpose (Goodell 565). ἑῇ: “his,” Hector’s, possessive > ἑός.

ἠμί, impf. ἦ: to say, speak. ἦ καί is used after a speech that is reported, where the same subject is continued for the following verb.

 

ἄρα, ῥά (enclit.), ἄρ, ῥ᾿: so, then, as you know, you know, it seems. Very often it marks an action as natural, or reminds of something recently said. It also marks transitions.

 

νεκρός –οῦ ὁ: a dead body, corpse

 

ἐρύω: to drag, pull, tear; draw up, raise, balance

 

χάλκεος: of bronze, bronze

 

ἔγχος –εος τό: spear, lance

 

ἄνευθε: without; far away (+gen)

 

ὦμος ὤμου ὁ: shoulder (with the upper arm)

 

τεῦχος –εος τό: (pl.) arms, armour

 

συλάω: to strip off

 

αἱματόεις: bloody, covered with blood

 

περιτρέχω, aor. περίδραμον: to run up from every side

 

Ἀχαιός: Achaian

 

θεάομαι or θηέομαι, aor. θηήσαντο: to gaze in wonder at, admire370

 

φυή: growth, stature

 

ἀγητός: admirable, wondrous

 

Ἕκτωρ: Hector, the most distinguished warrior of the Trojans, son of Priam and Hecabe, and husband of Andromache.

 

οἱ (enclitic, dat. 3rd pers. pron.): (to) him, (to) her

 

ἀνουτητί: adv. without dealing a wound

 

παρίστημι: to make to stand

 

πλησίος –α –ον: near, close to

 

πόποι: alas!

 

μαλακός: soft, gentle

 

ἀμφαφάομαι, inf. ἀμφαφάεσθαι: to handle

 

ἐμπρήθω, impf. ἐνέπρηθον, fut. ἐμπρήσειν, aor. ἐνέπρησε(ν): to set fire to, burn

 

κήλεος: burning, blazing

 

οὐτάω: to wound, hurt, hit375

 

ἐξεναρίζω, aor. ἐξενάριξε(ν): to strip of armor, despoil; to lay low

 

ποδαρκής –ές: swiftfooted, epithet of Achilles

 

δῖος –α –ον: divine, noble, illustrious; marvelous, magnificent

 

Ἀχιλλεύς -έως or -ῆος ὁ: Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis, leader of the Myrmidons and Hellenes in Thessaly, the mightiest warrior before Troy, and the principal hero of the Iliad.

 

πτερόεις πτερόεσσα πτερόεν: feathered, winged

 

ἀγορεύω, aor. ἀγόρευσε: to speak, say, tell

 

φίλος –η –ον: friend; loved, beloved, dear

 

Ἀργεῖος –η –ον: of/from Argos, Argive

 

ἡγήτωρ –ορος ὁ: a leader, commander, chief

 

ἠδέ: and

 

μέδων –οντος ὁ: leader, counselor, commander

 

δαμάζω: to overpower, tame, conquer, subdue

 

ῥέζω: to do, perform, offer380

 

σύμπας –πᾶσα –πᾶν: all together, all at once, all in a body

 

ἄγε: come! come on! well!

 

ὄφρα: in order that; as long as, until

 

Τρῶες: Trojans

 

νόος: mind, perception

 

καταλείπω, fut. καταλείψουσι, 2nd aor. κάλλιπον: to leave behind, abandon

 

ἄκρος –α –ον: uttermost, topmost, highest, at the top, end, edge, or surface of; πόλις ἄκρη, ἄκρη πόλις, 'upper city' (=ἀκρόπολις)

 

μέμαα, perf.: to be eager, rush on impetuously. μεμαότες: eager

 

τίη: why? wherefore?385

 

διαλέγω διαλέξω ἐδιάλεξω ἐδιάλεχα ἐδιάλεγμαι ἐδιαλέχθην: to pick out one from another, to pick out

 

νέκυς -υος ὁ: a dead body, a corpse, corse

 

ἄκλαυστος –ον: unwept

 

ἄθαπτος –ον: unburied

 

Πάτροκλος: Patroclus, son of Menoetius and Opus and comrade of Achilles. He is slain by Hector.

 

ἐπιλανθάνομαι, fut. ἐπιλήσομαι: to forget (+gen)

 

ζωός or ζώς: alive, living

 

μέτειμι: be among; (+dat and gen) have a share in

 

γόνυ, gen. γόνατος or γούνατος: knee

 

ὄρνυμι: to stir, stir up

 

καταλήθομαι: to forget utterly

 

ᾍδης, gen. Ἀίδεω and Ἄϊδος, dat. Ἄϊδι, Ἀϊδωνῆι: Hades, god of the unseen lower world. His realm is the home of the dead, and in the Iliad it is beneath the earth, while in the Odyssey Odysseus sails to it, across Oceanus, and finds in it a faint, ghostly imitation of life on earth.

 

ἀτάρ: but, yet390

 

ἐκεῖθι: there, in that place

 

ἑταῖρος –ου ὁ: a comrade, companion, mate

 

ἀείδω, impf. ἄειδον: to sing

 

παιήων –ονος ὁ: song of thanksgiving, paean

 

κόρος or κοῦρος -ου ὁ: boy, young man

 

γλαφυρός -ά, -όν: hollow, hollowed

 

νέομαι: to go

 

κῦδος -εος τό: glory, renown

 

θείνω, aor. ἔπεφνον, πέφνε, inf. πεφνέμεν: to strike, beat, wound; to batter, kill (only in forms with redupl. πεφ-)

 

ἄστυ ἄστεος τό: a city, town

 

εὐχετάομαι, inf. εὐετάασθαι: to pray

 

ἀεικής: unseemly, shameful; adv. ἀικῶς, in an unseemly way, horribly395

 

μήδομαι, aor. μήσατο: to contrive, plan

 

μετόπισθε: from behind, backwards, back + gen.

 

τετραίνω, aor. τέτρηνε: to bore through, pierce

 

τένων –οντος ὁ: tendon

 

σφυρόν: the ankle

 

πτέρνη: heel

 

βόειος: of oxhide

 

ἐξάπτω, impf. ἐξῆπτεν: to attach

 

ἱμάς –άντος ὁ: a strap

 

δίφρος: footboard of a chariot, chariot box, chariot; stool, low seat

 

κάρη κρατός τό: head

 

ἕλκω: to draw, drag

 

ἀναβαίνω: to go up, mount, to go up to

 

κλυτός –ή –όν: famed, glorious, magnificent

 

ἀείρω: to lift, heave, raise up

 

μαστίζω, aor. μάστιξεν: to whip400

 

ἀέκων –ουσα –ον: against one's will, unwilling

 

πέτομαι, 2nd aor. ἔπτατο, aor. partic. πταμένη: to fly, speed on

 

κονίσαλος: a cloud of dust

 

χαίτη: (pl.) hair, mane

 

κυάνεος: dark-blue, dark, black

 

πίτνημι, impf. pass. πίτναντο: to spread out, float

 

κονία or κονίη: dust, a cloud of dust

 

πάρος: before, formerly

 

χαρίεις –ίεσσα –ίεν: graceful, beautiful, pleasing; superl. χαριέστατος

 

Ζεύς Διός ὁ: Zeus, son of Cronus, the husband and brother of Hera and the wisest and mightiest of the gods.

 

δυσμενής –ές: hostile, evil-minded; (pl.) enemies

 

ἀεικίζω, fut. ἀεικιῶ, aor. subj. ἀεικίσσωσι, aor. mid. inf. ἀεικίσσασθαι: to treat unseemly, insult, disfigure

 

ἑός ἑή ἑόν: his, her own

 

γαῖα –ας ἡ: a land, country

 

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Suggested Citation

Thomas Van Nortwick and Geoffrey Steadman, Homer: Iliad 6 and 22. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-11-5.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/homer-iliad/homer-iliad-xxii-367-404