Homer, Iliad XXII 177-223

τὸν δ᾽ αὖτε προσέειπε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη:

ὦ πάτερ ἀργικέραυνε κελαινεφὲς οἷον ἔειπες:

ἄνδρα θνητὸν ἐόντα πάλαι πεπρωμένον αἴσῃ

ἂψ ἐθέλεις θανάτοιο δυσηχέος ἐξαναλῦσαι;180

ἔρδ᾽: ἀτὰρ οὔ τοι πάντες ἐπαινέομεν θεοὶ ἄλλοι.

τὴν δ᾽ ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη νεφεληγερέτα Ζεύς:

θάρσει Τριτογένεια φίλον τέκος: οὔ νύ τι θυμῷ

πρόφρονι μυθέομαι, ἐθέλω δέ τοι ἤπιος εἶναι:

ἔρξον ὅπῃ δή τοι νόος ἔπλετο, μὴ δ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ἐρώει.185

ὣς εἰπὼν ὄτρυνε πάρος μεμαυῖαν Ἀθήνην:

βῆ δὲ κατ᾽ Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων ἀΐξασα.

Ἕκτορα δ᾽ ἀσπερχὲς κλονέων ἔφεπ᾽ ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς.

ὡς δ᾽ ὅτε νεβρὸν ὄρεσφι κύων ἐλάφοιο δίηται

ὄρσας ἐξ εὐνῆς διά τ᾽ ἄγκεα καὶ διὰ βήσσας:190

τὸν δ᾽ εἴ πέρ τε λάθῃσι καταπτήξας ὑπὸ θάμνῳ,

ἀλλά τ᾽ ἀνιχνεύων θέει ἔμπεδον ὄφρά κεν εὕρῃ:

ὣς Ἕκτωρ οὐ λῆθε ποδώκεα Πηλεΐωνα.

ὁσσάκι δ᾽ ὁρμήσειε πυλάων Δαρδανιάων

ἀντίον ἀΐξασθαι ἐϋδμήτους ὑπὸ πύργους,195

εἴ πως οἷ καθύπερθεν ἀλάλκοιεν βελέεσσι,

τοσσάκι μιν προπάροιθεν ἀποστρέψασκε παραφθὰς

πρὸς πεδίον: αὐτὸς δὲ ποτὶ πτόλιος πέτετ᾽ αἰεί.

ὡς δ᾽ ἐν ὀνείρῳ οὐ δύναται φεύγοντα διώκειν:

οὔτ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὃ τὸν δύναται ὑποφεύγειν οὔθ᾽ ὃ διώκειν:200

ὣς ὃ τὸν οὐ δύνατο μάρψαι ποσίν, οὐδ᾽ ὃς ἀλύξαι.

πῶς δέ κεν Ἕκτωρ κῆρας ὑπεξέφυγεν θανάτοιο,

εἰ μή οἱ πύματόν τε καὶ ὕστατον ἤντετ᾽ Ἀπόλλων

ἐγγύθεν, ὅς οἱ ἐπῶρσε μένος λαιψηρά τε γοῦνα;

λαοῖσιν δ᾽ ἀνένευε καρήατι δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς,205

οὐδ᾽ ἔα ἱέμεναι ἐπὶ Ἕκτορι πικρὰ βέλεμνα,

μή τις κῦδος ἄροιτο βαλών, ὃ δὲ δεύτερος ἔλθοι.

ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δὴ τὸ τέταρτον ἐπὶ κρουνοὺς ἀφίκοντο,

καὶ τότε δὴ χρύσεια πατὴρ ἐτίταινε τάλαντα,

ἐν δ᾽ ἐτίθει δύο κῆρε τανηλεγέος θανάτοιο,210

τὴν μὲν Ἀχιλλῆος, τὴν δ᾽ Ἕκτορος ἱπποδάμοιο,

ἕλκε δὲ μέσσα λαβών: ῥέπε δ᾽ Ἕκτορος αἴσιμον ἦμαρ,

ᾤχετο δ᾽ εἰς Ἀΐδαο, λίπεν δέ ἑ Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων.

Πηλεΐωνα δ᾽ ἵκανε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη,

ἀγχοῦ δ᾽ ἱσταμένη ἔπεα πτερόεντα προσηύδα:215

νῦν δὴ νῶι ἔολπα Διῒ φίλε φαίδιμ᾽ Ἀχιλλεῦ

οἴσεσθαι μέγα κῦδος Ἀχαιοῖσι προτὶ νῆας

Ἕκτορα δῃώσαντε μάχης ἄατόν περ ἐόντα.

οὔ οἱ νῦν ἔτι γ᾽ ἔστι πεφυγμένον ἄμμε γενέσθαι,

οὐδ᾽ εἴ κεν μάλα πολλὰ πάθοι ἑκάεργος Ἀπόλλων220

προπροκυλινδόμενος πατρὸς Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο.

ἀλλὰ σὺ μὲν νῦν στῆθι καὶ ἄμπνυε, τόνδε δ᾽ ἐγώ τοι

οἰχομένη πεπιθήσω ἐναντίβιον μαχέσασθαι.

Athena objects to rescuing a man fated to die, and Zeus retracts the suggestion. Athena travels quickly to the battelfield. The poet compares Hector's inability to elude Achilles to that of a deer running from a hunting dog, and a man pursued in a dream. As Hector and Achilles pass the springs for the fourth time Zeus weighs both men's fates in a balance and Hector's sinks towards Hades. Athena urges Achilles to rest while she persuades Hector to stand and fight.

Athena’s exuberantly malicious treatment of Hector, whose selflessness and devotion have cost him so much, is hard to contemplate, precisely because we know that she cannot care about anything for long. [read full essay]

177: τὸν δ᾽: Zeus.

178: οἷον ἔειπες: “what sort of thing you speak of!” an exclamatory use of the indirect interrogative, which may be used in independent clasuses to express surprise. Compare this to Hera's words at the death of Sarpedon, 16.441–2.

179: πεπρωμένον αἴσῃ: “destined by fate,” i.e. to die. "Fated," is a common meaning of the pf. pass. > πόρω (“to give”). 

180: ἐξαναλῦσαι: “deliver from” + gen., aor. act. inf.

181: ἔρδ’: “do (it),” i.e. “go ahead,” = ἔρδ(ε), 2nd sg. imper. τοι: = σοι. dat. sg. ἐπαινέομεν: uncontracted 1st pl. fut.

183: θάρσει: = θάρσε-ε. 2nd sg. pres. imperative. οὔ νυ τι: “not at all,” adverbial acc.

183–184: θυμῷ πρόφρονι: “with a sincere mind,” “in earnest,” “seriously,” dat. of manner equivalent to adverb. τοι: = σοι.

185: ἔρξον ὅπῃ δή τοι νόος ἔπλετο: “act in the way in which your mind is set” (de Jong). ἔρξον: aor. act. imper. > ἔρδω. δή: “precisely,” “exactly.” τοι: = σοι, “your,” the dative of the personal pronoun is often used in place of a possessive (Monro 143.1). ἔπλετο: “turned out to be,” “is.” μὴ δ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ἐρώει: “don’t rest any longer,” i.e., don’t hesitate. ἐρωέω means to draw back or rest from, leave, quit (war, drinking, etc.), normally with a genitive object (see LSJ s.v. ἐρωέω  I.2).

186: εἰπὼν ὄτρυνε: “by speaking such words he encouraged,” coincident use of the aorist participle, which means that the main verb and the participle describe the same action or different aspects of the same action (de Jong). μεμαυῖαν: "eager," fem. acc. sg. ptc. > μέμονα, reduplicated perfect with present sense. πάρος: “already.”

187: βῆ ἀΐξασα: “she went darting,” coincident participle (see line 186), with unaugmented root aor. > βαίνω and fem. sg. aor. ptc. > ἀΐσσω. κατ᾽: “down from,” + gen. place from which.

188: ἔφεπ᾽: = ἔφεπε, “kept following after,” 3rd sg. iterative impf. κλονέων ἔφεπ᾽: “kept in hand as he drove him on”: the phrase would naturally be used of an attack on a body of men: cp. 11.496 (Monro).

189: ὡς δ᾽ὅτε: “just as when,” introducing the third simile of the hunt (see 22.162). ὄρεσφι: “in the mountains” see 22.139. δίηται: subjunctive, either thematic aor. or athematic pres. > δίω. As often, the subjunctive appears in similes where the main action occurs repeatedly and indefinitely (Monro 289.2.a).

190: ὄρσας: nom. sg. aor. ptc. > ὄρνυμι. διά … διὰ: “through,” + acc. (Att. + gen.).

191: τὸν δ᾽: “this one,” i.e. the dog, the direct obj. in the subordinate clause is put into the main clause, in an instance of grammatical prolepsis (“him, even if the fawn manages to hide from (him)” (de Jong). εἴ πέρ: “even if,” concessive. τετ᾽: “both … and.” λάθῃσι: 3rd sg. aor. > λανθάνω.

192: ἀλλά: “yet.” ὄφρά κεν εὕρῃ: “until he finds it,” 3rd sg. aor. subj. > εὑρίσκω. The basic sense is temporal, but ὄφρά κεν also conveys purpose (Monro 287.1.b).

193: ὣς: “so,” closing the simile from 189. λῆθε: unaugmented epic impf. > λήθω (= λανθάνω).

194–195: “whenever he set about to make a dash straight for the Dardanian gate (to get) under (the protection of) its well-built towers” (de Jong). ὁρμήσειε: “set out for (+ gen.),” 3rd sg. aor. opt. in subordinate clause of repeated past action (ἄν + subj. in primary sequence) (Goodell 627, fn. 2). πυλάων Δαρδανιάων: gen. obj. of ὁρμήσειε (or ἀΐξασθαι, see 195 below) (Monro 151.c).

195: ἀΐξασθαι: “to dart,” either closely construed with ὁρμήσειε (“set out to dart”), or explanatory (epexegetical) infinitive of purpose (“set out for the gates, to dart beneath”). ὑπὸ: “to beneath,” + acc. place to which (Monro 283).

196: εἴἀλάλκοιεν: “in the hope that they might defend.” In Homeric Greek conditional clauses with the optative may have the sense of a purpose clause. The difference from regular purpose clauses is that the subject hopes to achieve something, here with optative in secondary sequence in attraction to ὁρμήσειε (de Jong; see Monro 314). οἷ: “from him.” βελέεσσι: uncontracted dat. pl. of means (Goodell 526.a).

197: προπάροιθεν: “beforehand,” temporal, though a blended temporal and local force (“before and in front of”) is possible. ἀποστρέψασκε: “kept driving back.” -σκ- indicates iterative impf. (Monro 48–9). παραφθὰς: “getting ahead of,” both in time and place, nom. sg. aor. ptc. > παραφθάνω. 

198: ποτὶ πτόλιος: “on the city side,” an exceptional use of ποτὶ + gen. While Hector runs along the wagon track, Achilles runs nearer to the city and hence debars him from reaching the walls and gate (de Jong).  

199: ὣς δ᾽: “just as,” beginning a simile. This is the only Homeric simile to refer to dreaming. While Aristarchus athetized (proposed for deletion) these lines as “shabby,” they are among the most haunting in the Homeric epics (and imitated to great effect by Vergil at Aeneid 12.908–14) (de Jong). δύναται: “(one) is able,” understand τις.

200: : “this one … that one,” demonstrative pronouns.  

201: ὣς: “so,” closing the simile from 199–200.ὃς: “this one … that one” both with δύνατο.

202: κενὑπεξέφυγενεἰ μήἤντετο: “could have escaped, if … were not drawing near,” a mixed contrary-to-fact condition (εἰ + impf. ind, ἄν/κε + aor. indic.) (Goodell 649). At this climactic point the singer gives up his usual reticence and steps forward qua narrator by inserting a rhetorical question, which adds pathos to the situation, as Hector is assisted by a god only temporarily (de Jong).

203: οἱ: “him,” dat. object of ἤντετ’ ἐγγύθεν. πύματόν τε καὶ ὕστατον: “for the last and final time,” i.e. “for the very last time,” both adverbial acc. (de Jong; see Goodell 540).

204: ὅς: “who,” i.e. Apollo, relative. οἱ: “his,” Hector’s. The dative of the personal pronoun is often used in place of a possessive (Monro 143.1). ἐπῶρσε: 3rd sg. aor. > ἐπόρνυμι.

205: λαοῖσιν: “to his people,” i.e. the Achaians. ἀνένευε: impf. > ἀνανεύω, Greeks indicated a negative by raising the chin. καρήατι: dat. sg. of means > κάρη. Achilles was between Hector and the walls, and the Greek army might therefore have attacked Hector on the other side, had not Achilles signed for them not to do so. This is mentioned as another reason why Hector escaped as he did: hence there should not be a full stop at the end of line 204 (Monro).

206: ἔα: = ἔαε, 3rd sg. impf. > ἐάω + inf. ἱέμεναι: “throw,” pres. inf. > ἵημι (Monro 85.2).

207: μήἄροιτο: “lest … win,” negative clause of purpose governing opt. (aor. opt. > ἄρνυμι) in secondary sequence after impf. ἔα (Monro 303.1). ὃ δὲ: “and he,” Achilles. ἔλθοι: continuing the negative purpose clause, with aor. opt. > ἔρχομαι in secondary sequence.

208: ὅτε δὴ: “just when.” δὴ implies exactness. τὸ τέταρτον: “the fourth time,” adv. acc. (Goodell 540).

209–212: these lines are a repetition of 8.69–72, except that Hector and Achilles are put for the Greeks and Trojans. The passage was known in later times as the ψυχοστασία, or “weighing of the souls” (Monro).

209: πατὴρ: Zeus

210: ἐν δ᾽: “and on them (the scales).” κῆρε θανάτοιο: “death-fates,” dual acc. κῆρε governing genitive.  

211: τὴν μὲντὴν δ’: “one fate … another fate,” specifying each of the two κῆρε above. 

212: ἕλκε δὲ μέσσα λαβών: “(Zeus) took the middle of the scales and raised them.” ἕλκω means not only “drag horizontally,” but also “draw up or down” (de Jong).

213: ᾤχετο εἰς Ἀΐδαο: “and tipped in the direction of the house of Hades,” impf. > οἴχομαι, εἰς + gen. meaning “to the house of” (Goodell 507.a). The heavier fate was the doomed one (Benner).

214: Πηλεΐωνα: “the son of Peleus,” i.e. Achilles, acc. of direction without preposition.

215: λίπεν: unaugmented aor. > λείπω. ἱσταμένη: pres. mid. ptc. > ἵστημι.

216: νῦν δὴ: “at this very moment,” “just now.” Διῒ: “to Zeus,” specifying dat. sg. with vocative φίλε (Goodell 527.b). ἔολπα: “I am confident,” intensive perfect > ἔλπω (Monro 61). νῷι: “that we,” dual 1st pl. acc. pronoun, acc. subj. of οἴσεσθαι (fut. dep. mid. inf. > φέρω).

217: Ἀχαιοῖσι: “for the Achaeans,” best taken as a dative of interest, in view of Achilles later words to the Greeks, “we have won,” though a dative of reference (“in the eyes of the Achaeans”) is also possible (de Jong).

218: δῃώσαντε: “killing,” dual nom. aor. act. ptc. περ ἐόντα: “though being,” concessive pres. ptc. > εἰμί, governed by Ἕκτορα and introducing acc. predicate ἄατον: “despite his insatiable lust for battle.”

219: οὔἔτι γ᾽: “no longer,” “at any rate,” or “at least,” γε is restrictive and emphatic. οἱἔστι: “is it possible for him,” impersonal ἔστι (= ἔξεστι) + dat. of reference (Goodell 523), with 3rd sg. personal pronoun (Monro 99). πεφυγμένονγενέσθαι: lit. “become escaped,” i.e. “escape,” perfect periphrastic infinitive (pf. mid. ptc. + aor. inf. γίγνομαι), governed by οἱ … ἔστι, with ptc. πεφυγμένον shifting from dat. to acc., as often in Homer. The perfect periphrastic construction adds a note of finality (de Jong). See 6.488 for another example. ἄμμε: acc. 1st pl. personal pronoun, Att. ἡμᾶς.

220: οὐδ᾽εἴ: “not even if.” κενπάθοι: “would suffer,” potential aor. opt. > πάσχω. πολλὰ: “many troubles,” “many things.” μάλα πολλὰ πάθοι: “should give himself ever so much trouble” (Benner).

221: προπροκυλινδόμενος: “groveling before” + gen., i.e., coming as a suppliant making requests. 

222: στῆθι: “stop!” “stand still!” aor. act. imper. > ἵστημι. ἄμπνυε: “get your breath,” aor. imper. > ἀνα-πνέω, with apocope and assimilation. τοι: = σοι, dat. with adj. ἐναντί-βιον.

223: πεπιθήσω: “I will persuade him,” 1st sg. reduplicated future > πείθω, derived from repuplicated aor. step πεπιθ-. The reduplication may imply a causative force (“make him obey”) (de Jong).

αὖτε: again, on the other hand, however, but

θεά –ᾶς ἡ: a goddess

γλαυκῶπις -ιδος: gleaming eyed, epithet of Athena

Ἀθήνη and Ἀθηναίη: Athena

ἀργικέραυνος: wielder of bright lightning, epithet of Zeus

κελαινεφής –ές: in dark clouds, cloud-wrapped (of Zeus), dark

οἷος –α –ον: of what sort, what kind of, what, such as, as

θνητός –ή –όν: mortal

πάλαι: formerly, a long time ago; now for a long time, a long time since

πόρω: to furnish, give, grant, bestow; pass. it is decreed by fate, it is destined, it is doomed

αἶσα: share, lot, allotted portion, term of life; κατὰ αἶσαν, as is due

ἄψ: backwards, back, back again180

δυσηχής: horrid

ἐξαναλύω: to release, set free

ἔρδω: to do, accomplish, perform

ἀτάρ: but, yet

ἐπαινέω, impf. ἐπῄνεον, aor. ἐπῄνησαν, aor. partic. ἐπαινήσαντες: to approve, applaud, give assent

ἀπαμείβομαι: to reply, answer

πρόσφημι, impf. προσέφη, aor. προσεῖπον or προσέειπον: speak to, address

νεφεληγερέτα: cloud-gatherer, epithet of Zeus

Ζεύς Διός ὁ: Zeus, son of Cronus, the husband and brother of Hera and the wisest and mightiest of the gods.

θαρσέω, imperat. θάρσει, aor. θάρσησε, aor. partic. θαρσήσας, perf. τεθαρσήκασι: to be of good courage, take heart, be bold

Τριτογένεια: Tritogeneia, surname of Athena. Perhaps the original meaning was 'water-born'

φίλος –η –ον: friend; loved, beloved, dear

τέκος -εος τό: a child

πρόφρων –ονος: with ready heart, zealous; (adv.) προφρονέως, readily, graciously, zealously

μυθέομαι: speak or talk of, describe, explain, relate

ἤπιος: gentle, mild, kind

ὅπῃ: where, in what way; as185

νόος: mind, perception

πέλω and πέλομαι, aor. as pres. ἔπλεο, ἔπλετο: to be

ἐρωέω, imperat. ἐρώει: to delay

ὀτρύνω: to stir up, rouse, egg on, spur on, encourage

πάρος: before, formerly

μέμαα, perf.: to be eager, rush on impetuously. μεμαότες: eager

Ὄλυμπος –ου ὁ : Olympus, a mountain situated between Thessaly and Macedonia, about 9,794 feet high, regarded as the abode of the supreme gods.

κάρηνον: summit

ἀίσσω [ᾄσσω], aor. ἠίξα, ἀίξας, aor. pass. as mid. ἠίχθη: to rush, hasten; καθ᾿ ἵππων ἀίξαντε, leaping down from the chariot; χαῖται ἀίσσονται, the (hair) mane floats

Ἕκτωρ: Hector, the most distinguished warrior of the Trojans, son of Priam and Hecabe, and husband of Andromache.

ἀσπερχές: eagerly, ceaselessly, hotly, vehemently

κλονέω: to drive in confusion, put to rout

ἐφέπω, aor. subj. ἐπίσπῃ: to meet; πότμον ἐπισπεῖν, meet one's fate, fulfill one's destiny

ὠκύς ὠκεῖα ὠκύ: quick, swift, fleet

Ἀχιλλεύς -έως or -ῆος ὁ: Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis, leader of the Myrmidons and Hellenes in Thessaly, the mightiest warrior before Troy, and the principal hero of the Iliad.

νεβρός: a fawn

ὄρος ὄρεος τό: mountain, hill

κύων κυνός ὁ or ἡ: a dog

ἔλαφος: a deer, stag

δίω: to flee; mid. to scare away, chase

ὄρνυμι: to stir, stir up190

εὐνή: a bed, couch

ἄγκος –εος τό: a valley, ravine

βῆσσα: a glen, dale

καταπτήσσω, aor. partic. καταπτήξας: to cower down

θάμνος: a bush, shrub, thicket

ἀνιχνεύω: to trace back

θέω θεύσομαι: to run

ἔμπεδος: firm, unshaken

ὄφρα: in order that; as long as, until

ποδώκης: swiftfooted

Πηλεύς gen. –ῆος and έος : Peleus, king of the Myrmidons. He was the son of Aeacus, husband of Thetis, and father of Achilles.

ὁσ(σ)άκις: as many times as, as often as

πύλη –ης ἡ: one wing of a pair of double gates; (pl.) gate

Δαρδάνιος: Dardanian

ἀντίος -α or -ιη -ον: opposite, against195

εὔδμητος: well-built

πύργος –ου ὁ : tower, turreted surrounding wall; (fig.) rampart, defense, defender

οἱ (enclitic, dat. 3rd pers. pron.): (to) him, (to) her

καθύπερθε(ν): from above, down from above

ἀλέξω, fut. partic. ἀλεξήσοντα: to ward off, defend

βέλος –εος τό: missile, arrow, spear, stone

τοσ(σ)άκις: so many times, so often

μιν: him, her, it

προπάροιθε: before, in front of

ἀποστρέφω, iterat. aor. ἀποστρέψασκε: to turn, drive back

παραφθάνω: to overtake, outstrip

πεδίον –ου τό: a plain

πέτομαι, 2nd aor. ἔπτατο, aor. partic. πταμένη: to fly, speed on

ὄνειρος –ου ὁ: a dream

ἄρα, ῥά (enclit.), ἄρ, ῥ᾿: so, then, as you know, you know, it seems. Very often it marks an action as natural, or reminds of something recently said. It also marks transitions.200

ὑποφεύγω: to flee away from, escape

μάρπτω, aor. inf. μάρψαι: to grasp, overtake

ἀλύσκω, aor. inf. ἀλύξαι: to flee from, shun, escape

κήρ κηρός ἡ: doom, death, fate

ὑπεκφεύγω, 2nd aor. ὑπεξέφυγε(ν) and ὑπέκφυγε: to escape

πύματος: uttermost, last; adv. πύματον, for the last time

ἄντομαι, inf. ἄντεσθαι, impf. ἤντετο: to meet, encounter

Ἀπόλλων: Apollo, son of Zeus and Leto, brother of Artemis, God of the sun and light, of song, of herds, of the bow, and of health and disease. He favors the Trojans against the Greeks.

ἐγγύθεν: from near, nearby

ἐπόρνυμι, impf. ἐπώρνυε, aor. ἐπῶρσε: to stir up, arouse, excite, strengthen

μένος –εος τό: might, force, strength, prowess, courage

λαιψηρός: nimble, swift

γόνυ, gen. γόνατος or γούνατος: knee

λαός –οῦ ὁ: the people205

ἀνανεύω: to refuse, deny

κάρη κρατός τό: head

δῖος –α –ον: divine, noble, illustrious; marvelous, magnificent

πικρός –ά –όν: pointed, sharp, keen

βέλεμνον: a dart, javelin, missile

κῦδος -εος τό: glory, renown

κρουνός: a spring

χρύσε(ι)ος –η –ον: golden, of gold

τιταίνω: to stretch, draw; mid. to gallop at full speed

τάλαντον –ου τό: a balance, scale

κήρ κηρός ἡ: the goddess of death, in full, Κὴρ Θανάτοιο; doom, fate

210τανηλεγής –έος: painful, bitter, cruel

ἱππόδαμος -ον: tamer of horses, epithet of heroes

ἕλκω: to draw, drag

ῥέπω: to sink, fall

αἴσιμος: fitting, suitable, due; αἴσιμα παρειπών 'advising what was apportioned'

ἦμαρ –ατος τό: day

οἴχομαι, impf. ᾤχετο: to go, go away; ᾤχετο ἀποπτάμενος, flew away

ᾍδης, gen. Ἀίδεω and Ἄϊδος, dat. Ἄϊδι, Ἀϊδωνῆι: Hades, god of the unseen lower world. His realm is the home of the dead, and in the Iliad it is beneath the earth, while in the Odyssey Odysseus sails to it, across Oceanus, and finds in it a faint, ghostly imitation of life on earth.

Φοῖβος: Phoebus, epithet of Apollo

ἱκάνω: to come, arrive

ἀγχοῦ: near, nigh215

πτερόεις πτερόεσσα πτερόεν: feathered, winged

προσαυδάω: to speak to, address

ἔλπω, mid. ἔλπομαι, partic. ἐλπόμενος, impf. ἔλπετο, perf. ἔολπα: to hope, expect, think, suppose

φαίδιμος -ον: illustrious, glorious

Ἀχαιός: Achaian

δηιόω: to slay

ἄατος: insatiable

Ἑκάεργος: the far-working, epithet of Apollo220

προπροκυλίνδομαι: to keep rolling before

αἰγίοχος -ον: Aegis-bearing, freq. epithet of Zeus. The aegis was the shield of Zeus, made by Hephaestus, described at Iliad 5.738 ff. Athena also holds it (or one).

ἀναπνέω, aor. ἀνέπνευσαν, aor. subj. ἀναπνεύσωσι, aor. inf. ἀμπνεῦσαι, 2nd aor. imperat. ἄμπνυε, 2nd aor. mid. ἄμπνυτο: to breathe again, take breath, recover

ἐναντίβιος: adv. face to face

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Suggested Citation

Thomas Van Nortwick and Geoffrey Steadman, Homer: Iliad 6 and 22. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-11-5.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/homer-iliad/homer-iliad-xxii-177-223