Homer, Iliad XXII 289-336

ἦ ῥα, καὶ ἀμπεπαλὼν προΐει δολιχόσκιον ἔγχος,

καὶ βάλε Πηλεΐδαο μέσον σάκος οὐδ᾽ ἀφάμαρτε:290

τῆλε δ᾽ ἀπεπλάγχθη σάκεος δόρυ: χώσατο δ᾽ Ἕκτωρ

ὅττί ῥά οἱ βέλος ὠκὺ ἐτώσιον ἔκφυγε χειρός,

στῆ δὲ κατηφήσας, οὐδ᾽ ἄλλ᾽ ἔχε μείλινον ἔγχος.

Δηΐφοβον δ᾽ ἐκάλει λευκάσπιδα μακρὸν ἀΰσας:

ᾔτεέ μιν δόρυ μακρόν: ὃ δ᾽ οὔ τί οἱ ἐγγύθεν ἦεν.295

Ἕκτωρ δ᾽ ἔγνω ᾗσιν ἐνὶ φρεσὶ φώνησέν τε:

ὢ πόποι ἦ μάλα δή με θεοὶ θάνατον δὲ κάλεσσαν:

Δηΐφοβον γὰρ ἔγωγ᾽ ἐφάμην ἥρωα παρεῖναι:

ἀλλ᾽ ὃ μὲν ἐν τείχει, ἐμὲ δ᾽ ἐξαπάτησεν Ἀθήνη.

νῦν δὲ δὴ ἐγγύθι μοι θάνατος κακός, οὐδ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ἄνευθεν,300

οὐδ᾽ ἀλέη: ἦ γάρ ῥα πάλαι τό γε φίλτερον ἦεν

Ζηνί τε καὶ Διὸς υἷι ἑκηβόλῳ, οἵ με πάρος γε

πρόφρονες εἰρύατο: νῦν αὖτέ με μοῖρα κιχάνει.

μὴ μὰν ἀσπουδί γε καὶ ἀκλειῶς ἀπολοίμην,

ἀλλὰ μέγα ῥέξας τι καὶ ἐσσομένοισι πυθέσθαι.305

ὣς ἄρα φωνήσας εἰρύσσατο φάσγανον ὀξύ,

τό οἱ ὑπὸ λαπάρην τέτατο μέγα τε στιβαρόν τε,

οἴμησεν δὲ ἀλεὶς ὥς τ᾽ αἰετὸς ὑψιπετήεις,

ὅς τ᾽ εἶσιν πεδίον δὲ διὰ νεφέων ἐρεβεννῶν

ἁρπάξων ἢ ἄρν᾽ ἀμαλὴν ἤ πτῶκα λαγωόν:310

ὣς Ἕκτωρ οἴμησε τινάσσων φάσγανον ὀξύ.

ὁρμήθη δ᾽ Ἀχιλεύς, μένεος δ᾽ ἐμπλήσατο θυμὸν

ἀγρίου, πρόσθεν δὲ σάκος στέρνοιο κάλυψε

καλὸν δαιδάλεον, κόρυθι δ᾽ ἐπένευε φαεινῇ

τετραφάλῳ: καλαὶ δὲ περισσείοντο ἔθειραι315

χρύσεαι, ἃς Ἥφαιστος ἵει λόφον ἀμφὶ θαμειάς.

οἷος δ᾽ ἀστὴρ εἶσι μετ᾽ ἀστράσι νυκτὸς ἀμολγῷ

ἕσπερος, ὃς κάλλιστος ἐν οὐρανῷ ἵσταται ἀστήρ,

ὣς αἰχμῆς ἀπέλαμπ᾽ εὐήκεος, ἣν ἄρ᾽ Ἀχιλλεὺς

πάλλεν δεξιτερῇ φρονέων κακὸν Ἕκτορι δίῳ320

εἰσορόων χρόα καλόν, ὅπῃ εἴξειε μάλιστα.

τοῦ δὲ καὶ ἄλλο τόσον μὲν ἔχε χρόα χάλκεα τεύχεα

καλά, τὰ Πατρόκλοιο βίην ἐνάριξε κατακτάς:

φαίνετο δ᾽ ᾗ κληῗδες ἀπ᾽ ὤμων αὐχέν᾽ ἔχουσι,

λαυκανίην, ἵνα τε ψυχῆς ὤκιστος ὄλεθρος:325

τῇ ῥ᾽ ἐπὶ οἷ μεμαῶτ᾽ ἔλασ᾽ ἔγχεϊ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς,

ἀντικρὺ δ᾽ ἁπαλοῖο δι᾽ αὐχένος ἤλυθ᾽ ἀκωκή:

οὐδ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἀπ᾽ ἀσφάραγον μελίη τάμε χαλκοβάρεια,

ὄφρά τί μιν προτιείποι ἀμειβόμενος ἐπέεσσιν.

ἤριπε δ᾽ ἐν κονίῃς: ὃ δ᾽ ἐπεύξατο δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς:330

Ἕκτορ ἀτάρ που ἔφης Πατροκλῆ᾽ ἐξεναρίζων

σῶς ἔσσεσθ᾽, ἐμὲ δ᾽ οὐδὲν ὀπίζεο νόσφιν ἐόντα

νήπιε: τοῖο δ᾽ ἄνευθεν ἀοσσητὴρ μέγ᾽ ἀμείνων

νηυσὶν ἔπι γλαφυρῇσιν ἐγὼ μετόπισθε λελείμμην,

ὅς τοι γούνατ᾽ ἔλυσα: σὲ μὲν κύνες ἠδ᾽ οἰωνοὶ335

ἑλκήσουσ᾽ ἀϊκῶς, τὸν δὲ κτεριοῦσιν Ἀχαιοί.

Hector's spear finds its mark but bounces off Achilles' shield. Hector asks Deiphobus for another, but when Deiphobus is nowhere to be seen Hector realizes that Athena has deceived him and that the gods are calling him to his death. Resolving to die courageously, he draws his sword and charges at Achilles. Achilles, his divine armor gleaming, aims his spear at the vulnerable spot and drives it through Hector's neck. 

The moment towards which Homer has been drawing us since at least Book Fifteen has now arrived. Hector’s death is the dramatic climax of the poem and, true to his practice, the poet holds the moment and marks its importance with similes. [read full essay]

291: ἀπεπλάγχθη: “glanced off of” + gen., 3rd sg. aor. pass. > ἀποπλάζω, a verb found only in the aor. pass. σάκεος: gen. of separation.

292: ὅττι: = ὅτι, “because.” οἱ: “his” = αὐτῷ.

293: στῆ δὲ κατηφήσας: “he stood there downcast.” στῆ: unaugmented 3rd sg. root aor. > ἵστημι. ἄλλ᾽: = ἄλλο, “another.”  

294–295: ᾔτεε explains ἐκάλει, hence the asyndeton (Monro).

294: ἐκάλει: “he called (by name)” + acc., = ἐκάλε-ε, impf. μακρὸν: “loudly,” adverbial acc.

295: ᾔτεε: impf. > αἰτέω with a double acc., “asked x (acc.) for y (acc.).” ὃ δ᾽: “but this one,” Deiphobus. οὔ τί: “not at all.” οἱ: dat. obj. of ἐγγύθεν. ἦεν: 3rd sg. impf. > εἰμί, Att. ἦν.

296: ἔγνω: 3rd sg. aor. > γιγνώσκω. ᾗσιν ἐνὶ φρεσὶ: “in his mind.” ᾗσιν: = ἑῇσιν,  fem. dat. pl. > ἑός. ἐνὶ: = ἐν.

297: ἦ μάλα δή: “quite truly now.” θάνατόνδε: “to death,” -δε implies place to which (Monro 335.2).

298: ἐφάμην: “I thought,” 1st sg. impf. > φημί (see 22.247). Δηΐφοβονἥρωα: acc. subject of inf. παρεῖναι: inf. > πάρ-ειμι.

299: ὅ μὲν: “this one,” supply ἐστί. ἐν: “within”

300: μοι: dat. obj. of ἐγγύθεν (“near me”) or possessive dat. pers. pronoun (“my death”).

301: ἀλέη: predicate, add linking ἐστἰ (“there is no escape”). ἦ γάρ ῤα πάλαιἦεν: “since indeed, it seems, this was long since dearer.” ἄρα + impf. ( > εἰμί) indicates that the predestination of an event is realized ex post facto” (de Jong on 356). τό γε: “this,” i.e. Hector’s death. φίλτερον: “dearer,” comparative > φίλος.

302: Ζηνί τε καὶυἷι: “to Zeus and the … son.” πάρος γε: “previously at least,” see 301.

303: πρόφρονες: “with forward mind,” i.e. “energetic(ally).” As often the nom. adj. is best translated as an adverb. εἰρύατο: plpf. > ἐρύω, “had drawn … (from danger),” i.e. “had rescued,” see 6.403 for a similar use.

304: μὴ μὰνἀπολοίμην: “Truly may I not perish,” aor. opt. of wish > ἀπόλλυμι. μάν (= μήν) has an assertive force. ἀσπουδί: “without an effort,” tamely (Monro).

305: μέγα ῥέξας τι: “having done something great,” nom. sg. aor. ptc. > ῥέζω. This sentiment is in direct contrast to ἀσπουδί above. ἐσσομένοισι: “for (those) to come,” people in the future, fut. ptc. > εἰμί. See 6.358 for Helen’s similar awareness. πυθέσθαι: aor. inf. of purpose (Goodell 565.a).

306: εἰρύσσατο: aor. mid. > ἐρύω, “draw, unsheathe” a sword.

307: τό: “which,” relative. τέτατο: “was suspended,” unaugmented intransitive plpf. mid. > τείνω.

308: ἀλεὶς: “gathering himself together,” “having contracted his body,” nom. aor. pass. ptc. > εἴλω, here deponent. See LSJ s.v. εἴλω I.B.2. ὥς τεὅς τε: “just as an eagle who,” epic τε in both the simile and the dependent relative clause (Monro 332.b).

309: εἶσιν: 3rd sg. pres. > εἶμι (Goodell 385).

310: πτῶκα: “cowering” (πτήσσω): πτώξ is also used as a substantive to denote a hare (17.676) (Monro).

311: ὣς: “so,” closing the simile from 308.

312: ὁρμήθη: “rushed,” intransitive use of the aor. pass. μένεος: gen. > μένος. ἐμπλήσατο: "filled with" + gen., aor. mid. > ἐμ-πίπλημι.

313: ἀγρίου: to be scanned ἀγγρίοο (Monro). πρόσθεν κάλυψε: lit. “put (acc.) over as a covering in front of (gen.),” πρόσθεν governs the gen. στέρνοιο.

314: κόρυθι: dat. governed by ἐπί of ἐπι-νεύω (Monro 145.6). Shaking the helmet plume, like brandishing a spear, serves to intimidate the opponent (de Jong). 

315: περισσείοντο: "waved," in an intimidating fashion, impf. pass. > περι-σείομαι.

316: ἃς: relative, antecedent is ἔθειραι. ἵει: = ἵε-ε, 3rd sg. impf. > ἵημι. λόφον ἀμφὶ: = ἀμφὶ λόφον. θαμειάς: used predicatively, “set thick” (Monro).

317: οἷος δ᾽ὣς: “as … so,” a simile. ἀστὴρἕσπερος: “the evening star,” the planet Venus appearing low in the western sky at sunset. εἶσι: 3rd sg. pres. > εἶμι. νυκτὸς ἀμολγῷ: dat. time when (Goodell 527.c).

318: ἵσταται: 3rd sg. pres. mid. > ἵστημι.

319: αἰχμῆςεὐήκεος: gen. source governed by the prefix ἀπ- of ἀπέλαμπε, “it shined,” a rare impersonal use of this verb. ἣν: relative, antecedent αἰχμῆς.

320: δεξιτερῇ: dat. of means, with χείρ understood.

321: εἰσορόων: nom. sg. ptc. > εἰσορῶν. ὅπῃ εἴξειε μάλιστα: “where it (Hector’ body) might give way,” i.e. “where it would offer least resistance” or “where it would offer most space.” εἴξειε is an oblique optative depending on εἰσορόων (“looking on and asking himself where…” (de Jong).

322–4: “the rest of his body the bronze armor as good as completely covered … but flesh showed where the collar-bones separate the neck from the shoulders, the gullet, where loss of life is quickest” (de Jong).

322: τοῦ δὲ: “(as for the rest) of this one,” i.e. Hector, depending on ἄλλο. καὶ ἄλλο τόσον μὲνδ’: “as for the rest (of him), so much … but,” i.e. “as for the rest of his body, (the armor covered) so much of his flesh.” ἄλλο is an acc. of respect which introduces the subordinate τόσον clause. καί is adverbial. ἔχε: “protected,” “covered,” 3rd sg. with neut. pl. subject.

323: τὰ: relative, acc. obj. of ἐνάριξε. Πατρόκλοιο βίην: “mighty Patroclus,” a common Homeric periphrasis. ἐνάριξε: “stripped (acc.) off of (+ acc.),” this verb governs a double acc. κατακτάς: nom. aor. ptc. > κατακτείνω.

324: φαίνετο: “it (flesh) appeared,” “showed,” understand χρώς from 322. : “where,” “in which place,” dat. sg. fem. of the relative pronoun (Goodell 236). κληΐδεςἔχουσι: “collarbone separates.” αὐχέν᾽: "neck," = αὐχένα. acc. sg. obj.

325: λαυκανίην: “the neck,” re-stating αὐχέν᾽. ἵνα τε: “where… (is),” epic τε in generalizing statement (Monro 332.b).

326: τῇ: “in this (place),” “there,” dat. sg. demonstrative pronoun, correlative with ᾗ in 234. ἐπὶ οἷ μεμαῶτ’: “(Hector) rushing upon him,” i.e. upon Achilles. οἷ: dat. sg. personal pronoun, here used reflexively (as indicated by the accent), = ἑαυτῷ. μεμαῶτ’: = μεμαῶτ(α), acc.

328: ἀπ᾽τάμε: “cut off,” so-called tmesis, aor. > ἀποτέμνω.

329: ὄφραπροτιείποι: “so as to make him say something,” this is a special use of ὄφρα, to express the natural consequences expected in circumstances. Scholars adhering to the normal use of ὄφρα + subj. in a purpose clause have suggest that the gods or fate are arranging these events, but no gods are mentioned in the present scene (de Jong; see Monro 307).

330: ἤριπε: “crashed down (to the ground),” intransitive aor. > ἐρείπω.

331: Ἕκτορ: vocative direct address. που: “I suppose.” ἔφης: “you thought that (you),” impf. > φημί + acc. subj. and inf. (see 22.280). Πατροκλῆα: acc. obj. of ptc. ἐξεναρίζων, which here means simply “slay” rather than specifically “rob of arms” (see 323).

332: σῶς: “safe,” predicate nominative in indirect discourse with no change in subject. ἔσσεσθαι: fut. dep. mid. inf. > εἰμί. οὐδὲν: “not at all,” an adverbial acc. ὀπίζεο: “you did not at all reckon with me,” = ὀπίζε(σ)ο, unaugmented 2nd sg. dep. mid. impf. This is the only instance the verb has a human rather than divine object (de Jong).

333: τοῖο: “of him,” = τοῦ, best taken as objective genitive with ἀοσσητὴρ (“of him a champion,” see 15.254), though gen. with ἄνευθεν (“apart from him”) with anastrophe is also possible. ἀοσσητὴρ: Achilles is referring to how he stayed by the ships as Patroclus fought and died in battle. μέγ᾽: “far,” “by far,” “greatly,” adv. acc. ἄνευθεν: “in the background,” explained by νηυσὶν ἔπι κ.τ.λ. (Monro)

334: ἔπι: “beside,” anastrophe. λελείμμην: “I had been left,” i.e. “I stayed,” plpf. pass. > λείπω.

335: ὅς: “(I) who,” relative. τοι: = σοι, “your (knees),” possessive dat. sg. pronoun (see 22.122). γούνατ’ ἔλυσα: “I loosened your knees,” i.e., gravely wounded or killed.

336: τὸν δὲ: “but this one,” Patroclus, in contrast with σὲ μὲν.

ἠμί, impf. ἦ: to say, speak. ἦ καί is used after a speech that is reported, where the same subject is continued for the following verb.

ἄρα, ῥά (enclit.), ἄρ, ῥ᾿: so, then, as you know, you know, it seems. Very often it marks an action as natural, or reminds of something recently said. It also marks transitions.

ἀναπάλλω: to swing, brandish

προίημι: to send forth, send forward; hurl

δολιχόσκιος –ον: casting a long shadow

ἔγχος –εος τό: spear, lance

Πηλεύς gen. –ῆος and έος : Peleus, king of the Myrmidons. He was the son of Aeacus, husband of Thetis, and father of Achilles.290

σάκος -εος τό: a shield

ἀφαμαρτάνω, aor. partic. ἀφαμαρτούσῃ: to miss the target, fail to reach the mark; to lose, be bereft (+ gen.)

τῆλε: at a distance, far off, far away

ἀποπλάζω: to spring back, rebound

δόρυ, gen. δόρατος or δουρός: timber, beam, spear

χώομαι: to be angry, be wroth, be incensed

Ἕκτωρ: Hector, the most distinguished warrior of the Trojans, son of Priam and Hecabe, and husband of Andromache.

οἱ (enclitic, dat. 3rd pers. pron.): (to) him, (to) her

βέλος –εος τό: missile, arrow, spear, stone

ὠκύς ὠκεῖα ὠκύ: quick, swift, fleet

ἐτώσιος: in vain, useless

ἐκφεύγω, 2nd aor. ἔκφυγε(ν): to escape, flee from

κατηφέω, aor. partic. κατηφήσας: to be downcast, to be confused

μέλινος: ashen

Δηίφοβος: Deïphobus, son of Priam and Hecabe, and brother of Hector

λεύκασπις: white-shielded

αὔω: to burn, light a fire, get a light

μιν: him, her, it295

ἐγγύθεν: from near, nearby

ἑός ἑή ἑόν: his, her own

φρήν φρενός ἡ: heart, mind

φωνέω, aor. φώνησεν: to speak

πόποι: alas!

ἥρως ἥρωος ὁ: hero, warrior

ἐξαπατάω ἐξαπατήσω ἠξαπάτησα ἠξαπάτηκα ἠξαπάτημαι ἠξαπατήθην: to deceive

Ἀθήνη and Ἀθηναίη: Athena

ἐγγύθι or ἐγγύς: near (+gen.)300

ἄνευθε: without; far away (+gen)

ἀλέη: an escape

πάλαι: formerly, a long time ago; now for a long time, a long time since

φίλτερος –α –ον: dearer

Ζεύς Διός ὁ: Zeus, son of Cronus, the husband and brother of Hera and the wisest and mightiest of the gods.

ἑκηβόλος: far-darting, far-shooting

πάρος: before, formerly

πρόφρων –ονος: with ready heart, zealous; (adv.) προφρονέως, readily, graciously, zealously

ἐρύομαι, εἰρύομαι, ἔρυμαι, or εἴρυμαι, impf. ἔρυτο, aor. εἰρύσατο and ἐρύσσατο, aor. inf. εἰρύσσασθαι: to protect, preserve, save, defend, observe, ward off

αὖτε: again, on the other hand, however, but

μοῖρα –ας ἡ: portion, fate, lot

κιχάνω, fut. κιχήσεσθαι, aor. κιχήσατο, aor. subj. κιχείω [κιχῶ], aor. partic. κιχήμενον: to find, come to, overtake

μήν or μάν: surely, certainly, in truth

ἀσπουδί: without a struggle

ἀκλεής: inglorious

ῥέζω: to do, perform, offer305

ἐρύω: to drag, pull, tear; draw up, raise, balance

φάσγανον: a sword

λαπάρα -ας ἡ: the soft part of the body, flank

τείνω, aor. τεῖνεν, τεῖναν, aor. partic. τείνας, plpf. pass. τέτατο: to stretch, draw tight; to tie; pass. to be stretched tight, be suspended

στιβαρός: compact, strong, stout, sturdy

οἰμάω, aor. οἴμησε(ν): to swoop, rush on

εἴλω, aor. pass. ἄλεν, subj. εἰλέωσι: to hold back, detain

ἀετός or αἰετος: an eagle

ὑψιπέτης: high-flying, soaring

πεδίον –ου τό: a plain

νέφος –εος τό: a cloud, mass

ἐρεβεννός: dark, gloomy

ἁρπάζω ἁρπάσομαι ἥρπασα ἥρπακα ἥρπασμαι ἡρπάσθην: to snatch away, seize, steal away310

ἀρνός: lamb

ἀμαλός: tender

πτώξ: the cowering animal

λαγώς or λαγωός: hare

τινάσσω, aor. ἐτίναξε: to shake, brandish

Ἀχιλλεύς -έως or -ῆος ὁ: Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis, leader of the Myrmidons and Hellenes in Thessaly, the mightiest warrior before Troy, and the principal hero of the Iliad.

μένος –εος τό: might, force, strength, prowess, courage

ἐμπίμπλημι ἐμπλήσω ἐνέπλησα ἐμπέπληκα ἐμπέπλησμαι ἐωεπλήθην: fill quite full

ἄγριος –α –ον: wild, savage, harsh

πρόσθεν: before, in front

στέρνον –ου τό: the breast, chest

καλύπτω, aor. (ἐ)κάλυψε(ν): to cover with

δαιδάλεος: richly ornamented

κόρυς –υθος ἡ: a helmet

ἐπινεύω, aor. ἐπένευσα: to nod

φαεινός –ή –όν: bright, brilliant, radiant

τετράφαλος: with four horns315

περι(σ)σείομαι, impf. περισσείοντο: to shake around, wave around

ἔθειρα: horse hair, plume

χρύσε(ι)ος –η –ον: golden, of gold

Ἥφαιστος: Hephaestus, son of Zeus and Here, god of fire and maker of wonderful arms and armor.

λόφος –ου ὁ: neck of a man or a horse; crest of a helmet, made from a horse's mane; hillock, high place, hill

θαμέες –εῖαι –έα: crowded, thick

οἷος –α –ον: of what sort, what kind of, what, such as, as

ἀστήρ –έρος ὁ: star

ἀμολγός: darkness, νυκτός ἀμολγῷ 'in the dead of night'

ἕσπερος: evening, evening-star

αἱχμή –ῆς ἡ: spear-point

ἀπολάμπω: to shine, gleam

εὐήκης: well-pointed, sharp

πάλλω, aor. πῆλε: to brandish, shake, cast (of lots), toss320

δεξιτερός: right

δῖος –α –ον: divine, noble, illustrious; marvelous, magnificent

εἰσοράω, 2nd aor. εἴσιδε, aor. inf. εἰσιδέειν: to look into, look upon, view, behold

χρώς χρωτός ὁ: skin, flesh, body

ὅπη: by which way

εἴκω, imperat. εἶκε, partic. εἴκων, aor. opt. εἴξειε, aor. partic. εἴξας: to give way, yield

τόσ(σ)ος: so great, so vast, so much, so long. adv. τόσ(σ)ον

χάλκεος: of bronze, bronze

τεῦχος –εος τό: (pl.) arms, armour

Πάτροκλος: Patroclus, son of Menoetius and Opus and comrade of Achilles. He is slain by Hector.

βία –ας ἡ: bodily strength, force, power, might

ἐναρίζω: to strip a slain foe of his arms

κατακτείνω: to kill, slay, murder

: which way, where, whither, in

κληίς –ῖδος: key; collar-bone

ὦμος ὤμου ὁ: shoulder (with the upper arm)

αὐχήν –ένος ὁ: the neck, throat

λαυκανίη: the throat325

ὄλεθρος -ου ὁ: ruin, destruction, death

τῇ: there

μέμαα, perf.: to be eager, rush on impetuously. μεμαότες: eager

ἀντικρύ: over against, straight on, outright, utterly

ἁπαλός: soft, tender

ἀκωκή: a point

ἀσφάραγος: windpipe

μελία: the ash

χαλκοβαρής: heavy with bronze, bronze

ὄφρα: in order that; as long as, until

ἀμείβω, aor. ἀμείψατο: to change, exchange; (mid.) to answer, reply

ἐρείπω, 2nd aor. ἤριπε(ν), aor. partic. ἐριπών: to dash down; instrans. to fall330

κονία or κονίη: dust, a cloud of dust

ἐπεύχομαι, aor partic. ἐπευξάμενος: to pray, boast over, exult

ἀτάρ: but, yet

ἐξεναρίζω, aor. ἐξενάριξε(ν): to strip of armor, despoil; to lay low

σῶς: safe

ὀπίζομαι, impf. ὠπίζετο: to have regard for

νόσφι: apart, separate, far from (+gen)

νήπιος -α -ον: infant, childish

ἀοσσητήρ: an ally, avenger

γλαφυρός -ά, -όν: hollow, hollowed

μετόπισθε: from behind, backwards, back

γόνυ, gen. γόνατος or γούνατος: knee335

κύων κυνός ὁ or ἡ: a dog

ἠδέ: and

οἰωνός: bird

ἑλκέω: to drag off, tear asunder

ἀεικής: unseemly, shameful; adv. ἀικῶς, in an unseemly way, horribly

κτερίζω: to bury with honors

Ἀχαιός: Achaian

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Suggested Citation

Thomas Van Nortwick and Geoffrey Steadman, Homer: Iliad 6 and 22. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-11-5.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/homer-iliad/homer-iliad-xxii-289-336