Quōs ubi cōnfertōs ārdēre in proelia vīdī,

incipiō super hīs: 'Iuvenēs, fortissima frūstrā

pectora, sī vōbīs audentem extrēma cupīdō

certa sequī, quae sit rēbus fortūna vidētis:350

excessēre omnēs adytīs ārīsque relictīs

dī quibus imperium hoc steterat; succurritis urbī

incēnsae. moriāmur et in media arma ruāmus.

Ūna salūs victīs nūllam spērāre salūtem.'

Sīc animīs iuvenum furor additus. Inde, lupī ceu355

raptōrēs ātrā in nebulā, quōs improba ventris

exēgit caecōs rabiēs catulīque relictī

faucibus exspectant siccīs, per tēla, per hostīs

vādimus haud dubiam in mortem mediaeque tenēmus

urbis iter; nox ātra cavā circumvolat umbrā.360

Quis clādem illīus noctis, quis fūnera fandō

explicet aut possit lacrimīs aequāre labōrēs?

Urbs antīqua ruit multōs domināta per annōs;

plūrima perque viās sternuntur inertia passim

corpora perque domōs et rēligiōsa deōrum365

līmina. Nec sōlī poenās dant sanguine Teucrī;

quondam etiam victīs redit in praecordia virtūs

victōrēsque cadunt Danaī. crūdēlis ubīque

lūctus, ubīque pavōr et plūrima mortis imāgō.


    cōnfertus, a, um: crowded together, 2.347. (cōnferciō, crowd together)

    super: (adv.), above, 4.684, et al.; above, from above, 10.384; moreover, 4.606; besides, 1.29; more than enough, 2.642; remaining, surviving, left (with ellipsis of esse), 3.489, et al.; still (or above), 4.684; of time, in, during, 9.61.

    exterreō, uī, itus, 2, a.: to frighten; alarm, startle, terrify, 3.307; flutter in terror, 5.505; p., exterritus, a, um, startled; roused, 4.571.

    excēdō, cessī, cessus, 3, n.: to go out or away; depart, 6.737; flee from, 1.357; withdraw from, 5.380; retire, 9.789.

    adytum, ī, n.: the inaccessible; the innermost part of a temple, accessible only to the priest; a shrine, sanctuary, oracle, 2.115; the interior of a tomb, or shrine of the dead, 5.84.

    succurrō, currī, cursus, 3, n.: to run up; run to assist; with dat., to aid, succor, relieve, help, 1.630; impers., succurrit, it comes into the mind, occurs, seems, 2.317. (sub and currō)

    incendō, cendī, cēnsus, 3, a.: to set fire to, burn, 2.353; kindle, 3.279; illuminate, 5.88; (fig.), of the mind, fire, inflame, 1.660; arouse, rouse to action, 5.719; excite, irritate, enrage, madden, provoke, 4.360; disturb, rend, fill, 10.895.

    ruō, ruī, rutus, 3, n. and a.: to fall with violence; tumble down, fall, freq.; fall in battle, 10.756; of the sun, go down, set, 3.508; rush forward, 2.64; of the chariot of Nox, hasten up; ascend, rise, 2.250; advance, 10.256; plunge, rush, 2.353; flee, 12.505; tremble, quake, 8.525; hasten, pass away, 6.539; cause to fall; cast down, 9.516; plow, 1.35; cast, throw up, 1.85; throw up or together, 11.211.

    lupus, ī, m.: a wolf, 3.428, et al.

    ceu: (adv. and conj.), as, just as, 5.88; as if, 2.438, et al. (ce-ve)

    raptor, ōris, m.: a plunderer, robber; adjectively, plundering, 2.356. (rapiō)

    āter, tra, trum: (adj.), black; dark, gloomy, 1.60, et al.; smoky, lurid, 7.456; 4.384; clotted, dark, 3.622; soiled, blackened, 2.272; (fig.), sad, fatal, 6.429; venomous, deadly; of the odor of smoke, 12.591.

    nebula, ae, f.: a cloud, 10.82; mist, fog, 1.412.

    improbus, a, um: (adj.), not good; bad; malicious, wicked; cruel, 2.80; savage, 10.727; furiously impelled, destructive, 12.687; unappeasable, ravenous, rapacious, 12.250; importunate, raging, 2.356; of military devices, with warlike craft, 11.512; with murderous intent, 11.767; subst., m., shameless, impudent boaster, braggart, 5.397; wretch, 4.386.

    venter, tris, m.: the belly, 3.216; (fig.), hunger, 2.356.

    rabiēs, em, ē, f.: madness, frenzy, fury, fierceness, 2.357, et al.; of inanimate things, 5.802, et al.

    catulus, ī, m.: a young dog; a whelp, the young of wild animals; a cub, whelp, 2.357.

    faucēs, ium, f.: the jaws, throat, 2.358; (fig.), mouth, entrance, jaws, 6.241; defiles, 11.516.

    siccus, a, um: (adj.), dry, 3.135; thirsty, dry, hungry, fasting, 2.358; nearly equivalent to carēns or prīvātus, with abl. foll., drained of blood, 8.261; hence, thirsting for blood, 9.64; subst., siccum, ī, n., dry ground, sand, or land, 10.301.

    vādō, 3, n.: to go, walk, advance, go on, 2.396, et al.; rush, 2.359; move, speed on, 8.702; imperat., vāde, away, go on! 3.462.

    cavus, a, um: (adj.), hollow, 1.81; concave, 8.599; arching, vaulted, 2.487; cavae manūs, the palms of the hands, 12.86.

    circumvolō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to fly around or surround in flying; hover round, swoop round, 3.233; enshroud, cover, 2.360.

    clādēs, is, f.: destruction; slaughter, carnage, 2.361; scourge, destroyers, 6.843.

    explicō, āvī or uī, ātus or itus, 1, a.: to unfold; deploy, draw out, extend; describe, tell, 2.362.

    possum, potuī, posse, irreg. n.: to be able; can, 1.242, et al.; to avail, have influence, power, 4.382. (potis and sum)

    aequō, āvī, ātus, 1, a. and n.: to make equal in size, number, weight, etc., 1.193; 5.419; to equalize, divide equally, 1.508; make equal in length, 9.338; in height, raise to, 4.89; to equal, be equal to; to be as high as, on a level with; keep pace with, 6.263; return equally, requite, 6.474; lift, exalt, 11.125; p., aequātus, a, um, made equal or even; steady, 4.587. (aequus)

    dominor, ātus sum (pass. inf., dominārier, 7.70), 1, dep. n.: to be lord or master; rule, reign, be supreme, 2.363; foll. by abl. w. in, 2.327; by abl. without in, 6.766; and in 1.285; take possession, overrun, prevail. (dominus)

    sternō, strāvī, strātus, 3, a.: to spread out, spread, 1.700; stretch on the ground, strike down, slay, 1.190; cast down, prostrate, devastate, 2.306; make level, smooth, calm, 5.763; spread, cover, 8.719; strew, litter; overthrow, conquer, 6.858; pass. (in middle sense), sternor, ī, to stretch one's self, lie down, 3.509.

    iners, inertis: without ability; without force; inactive, inanimate, indolent; feeble, timid, 9.730; helpless, lifeless, 2.364; of the voice, weak, 10.322.

    passim: (adv.), here and there, in all directions; everywhere, 2.364, et al. (passus)

    religiōsus, a, um: adj. (religiō), devout; sacred, holy, 2.365.

    nec or neque: (adv. and conj.), and not; neither, nor, 1.643, et al.; in prohibition, 3.394, et al.; neque (nec) — neque (nec), neither — nor, 5.21, et al.; nec — et, or -que, may be rendered neither — nor, 12.801; 2.534; nec nōn, and also, nor less, 6.183; nec nōn et, and also, 1.707.

    Teucrī, ōrum, m.: the Trojans, descendants of Teucer, 1.38, et al.; adj., Teucrian, Trojan, 9.779, et al. (Teucer)

    redeō, īvī or iī, itus, īre, irreg. n.: to go, come back, return; retreat, 9.794.

    praecordia, ōrum, n.: the diaphragm or midriff; the vital parts; the heart, 9.413; the heart as the seat of courage, 2.367; spirit, heart, 9.596. (prae and cor)

    Danaī, ōrum, m.: the Greeks, 2.327.

    crūdēlis, e: adj. (crūdus), unfeeling, ruthless, cruel, inhuman, 2.124; relentless, 1.547; unnatural, 6.24; mortal, deadly, 2.561; bloody, 1.355; bitter, 1.361.

    ubīque: (adv. of place), wheresoever; anywhere, 1.601; everywhere, 2.368.

    lūctus, ūs, m.: a mourning; sorrow, grief, woe, lamentation, 2.298, and freq.; personif., 6.274. (lūgeō)

    pavor, ōris, m.: a trembling, panic, fear, terror, 2.229; throbbing; eager, trembling, anxiety, 5.138. (paveō)

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    Suggested Citation

    Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5. https://dcc.dickinson.edu/vergil-aeneid/vergil-aeneid-ii-347-369