Vergil, Aeneid II 752-794

Prīncipiō mūrōs obscūraque līmina portae,

quā gressum extuleram, repetō et vēstīgia retrō

observāta sequor per noctem et lūmine lūstrō:

horror ubīque animō, simul ipsa silentia terrent.755

Inde domum, sī forte pedem, sī forte tulisset,

mē referō: Inruerant Danaī et tēctum omne tenēbant.

Īlicet ignis edāx summa ad fastīgia ventō

volvitur; exsuperant flammae, furit aestus ad aurās.

Prōcēdō et Priamī sēdēs arcemque revīsō:760

Et iam porticibus vacuīs Iūnōnis asӯlō

custōdēs lēctī Phoenīx et dīrus Ulixēs

praedam adservābant. hūc undique Trōïa gaza

incēnsīs ērepta adytīs, mēnsaeque deōrum

crātēresque aurō solidī, captīvaque vestis765

congeritur. puerī et pavidae longō ōrdine mātrēs

stant circum.

Ausus quīn etiam vōcēs iactāre per umbram

implēvī clāmōre viās, maestusque Creǖsam

nēquīquam ingemināns iterumque iterumque vocāvī.770

Quaerentī et tēctīs urbis sine fīne ruentī

īnfēlīx simulācrum atque ipsius umbra Creǖsae

vīsa mihi ante oculōs et nōtā maior imāgō.

Obstipuī, steteruntque comae et vōx faucibus haesit.

Tum sīc adfārī et cūrās hīs dēmere dictīs:775

'Quid tantum īnsānō iuvat indulgēre dolōrī,

ō dulcis coniūnx? Nōn haec sine nūmine dīvum

ēveniunt; nec tē comitem hinc portāre Creǖsam

fās, aut ille sinit superī rēgnātor Olympī.

Longa tibi exsilia et vāstum maris aequor arandum,780

et terram Hesperiam veniēs, ubi Lȳdius arva

inter opīma virum lēnī fluit agmine Thybris.

Illīc rēs laetae rēgnumque et rēgia coniūnx

parta tibī; lacrimās dīlēctae pelle Creǖsae.

Nōn ego Myrmidonum sēdēs Dolopumve superbās785

aspiciam aut Grāīs servītum mātribus ībō,

Dardanis et dīvae Veneris nurus;

sed mē magna deum genetrīx hīs dētinet ōrīs.

Iamque valē et nātī servā commūnis amōrem.'

Haec ubi dicta dedit, lacrimantem et multa volentem790

dīcere dēseruit, tenuīsque recessit in aurās.

Ter conātus ibī collō dare bracchia circum;

ter frūstrā comprēnsa manūs effūgit imāgō,

pār levibus ventīs volucrīque simillima somnō.

Manuscripts: M 752-780, 781-794 | P 752-759, 760-782, 783-794

752-794: Aeneas’s search for Creusa. Her shade appears to him and reveals her fate (Bennett).

752-756: principio...inde: = primum...deinde (Knapp).

752: obscura limina: i.e. the archways or the like (G-K). cf. opaca locorum, 725. There the darkness helped Aeneas, now it makes his search more difficult (Knapp).

753: qua: sc. via (Carter). vestigia retro observata sequor: “mark and follow back my steps” (F-B).

754: sequor: join retro with sequor (Frieze). lumine lustro: “scan with my eyes.” Note the assonance, as well as the intentional redundancy of expression (F-B).

755: horror: for the objects which occasion horror (Frieze). animo: understand est (Bennett). terrent: sc. me (Chase).

756: si forte pedem, si forte tulisset: The repetition of si forte emphasizes the hopelessness of the search as well as its diligence (G-K). The repetition denotes the mingled feelings of hope and fear (Frieze). “(to see) if perhaps, if perhaps, she had gone thither.” There is pathos in the repetition of si forte. The subjunctive is due to the implied indirect discourse. The language of Aeneas’s thought at the time would be: si tulerit (future perfect indicative) (Bennett). tulisset depends on the notion of “searching” which is implied in the sentence (P-H) (AG 576a).

757: The elision at the pause before inruerant suggests a gasp of horror (Austin 1964).

758: ilicet: “forthwith” (H-H). edax: often used of fire by the poets (Knapp). introduced here by Virgil into elevated style; after him, ignis edax became a common turn (Austin 1964).

759: exsuperant: In this literal sense (of the flames shooting up and over the top of the house) it seems to be used first by Virgil (Austin 1964).

760: Priami sedes: the palace (Carter).

761: porticibus vacuis Iunonis asylo: both ablatives are of the Place Where. Virgil might have said Junonis asyli (dependent upon porticibus), but by using the ablative he emphasizes the fact that the Greeks were already in the sanctuary, using as a place for storing booty the spot that had been consecrated to the protection of suppliants (Bennett). the word [asylo] severely condemns the use to which the Greeks are putting the temple. The shrine was built to preserve fugitives from captivity, not as a military guardhouse (Knapp). Perhaps Vergil is thinking of the shrine of Juno in the capitol of Rome (H-H). The temple of Juno was a place of refuge and safety, especially on the present occasion, because that goddess was reverenced more than any other by the Argives (Frieze).

762: custodes: a sardonic word to use of these safeguarders of stolen treasure (Austin 1964). Phoenix: the aged instructor of Achilles (see Il. ix. 168, 432) (G-K). He had been like a foster-father to Achilles from his boyhood, and was chosen, together with Ajax and Ulysses, to go to him on an embassy of pacification (Howson).

763: gaza: is Persian in origin, and is frequent in reference to royal and specifically oriental “treasure”: Virgil has chosen it well here, with all its implication of the wealth of the East (Austin 1964).

764: mensaeque deorum: tables on which sacred viands were offered to the gods (Bennett). Perhaps small tables and tripods of bronze, or of gold and silver (Frieze). -que here is correlative with the two phrases in the next line, forming together a detailed description of the gaza (Austin 1964).

765: auro solidi: = auro solido (H-H) (AG 403d). vestis: A collective noun (Storr). wall-coverings, tapestries, etc. (Carter).

766: congeritur: agreeing with the nearest subject (Bennett). note the tense. Fresh booty is constantly coming in (Knapp). pueri...matres: the women and children are to be sold as slaves, an important part of the booty (G-K).

767: The unfinished line stant circum is one of those that no one would wish completed: it is the equal of the broken line Euryali et Nisi (ix. 467) (Austin 1964).

768 ff.: This is one of Virgil’s most memorable passages. Aeneas’ cries ring through the hollow darkness, and the echoes are there in the lines: the repeated u-sounds, the assonance in etiam...umbram...Creusam, with nequiquam faintly heard at the elision, and in iactare, clamore, with implevi, vias enclosing the cry: the mocking echo in quaerenti...ruenti, with sine fine adding its lingering sound, and then the repeated i and o in the last two lines. And in 772 umbra Creusae takes up in a single line-ending the sound of two previous endings, per umbram, maestusque Creusam: and this deliberate use of umbra with two different meanings makes Creusa’s ghostly shape still more of a shadow in all that darkness (Austin 1964).

768: voces iactare: a strong phrase for “to send my voice” (Knapp).

769: Creusam: the actual cry “Creusa!” is assimilated to the construction (Austin 1964).

770: The line is onomatopoetic. Note the repetition and the polysyndeton (-que…-que) (F-B). ingeminans: “redoubling,” “repeating” the name “Creusa” (Page).

771 f.: The final scene of Aeneas’ search is introduced with a slowing of movement, emphasised by the rhyme of quaerenti and ruenti, and the assonance of i and o (Williams).

771: tectis: “among the houses” (G-K).  (mihi) quaerenti...furenti: dat. following visa (G-K).

772: infelix: transferred from Creusae to simulacrum (Bennett). simulacrum: a broad word, applicable to any counterfeit presentment of anything (Knapp).

773: nota maior imago: The dead become superhuman, and the ghosts are therefore of more than human size (F-B). This would seem to indicate a deification (G-K).

774: steterunt: Note the short penult in steterunt. The phenomenon is called Systole (Bennett). It is probable, however, that we have here the ancient pronunciation; at least the analogy of the language is in favour of it (Anthon).

775: adfari...demere: historical infinitives (F-B) (AG 463). It is perhaps better to supply visa to govern the infinitives in 775 rather than (as most do) to regard them as historic (Williams).

776: iuvat: understand te as object (Bennett).

777-778: non haec...eveniunt: this is the lesson of the book which Aeneas has been (understandably) so slow to learn (Williams).

777: non sine numine div(or)um: Litotes (Page). i.e. it is certainly with the will of Heaven (F-B).

779: fas: sc. est (F-B). may be subject of est to be supplied, or one of the subjects of sinit (Knapp). aut: here for nec (Bennett). ille: “Great Iuppiter,” “Iuppiter above,” the demonstrative suggesting the power and presence of the god (Sidgwick).

780: longa tibi exsilia: sc. sunt (F-B). sc. sunt obeunda (Chase). i.e. exile far away (G-K). the plural is due simply to the need of the metre, for which a plural epithet was more manageable (Austin 1964). arandum: fits only the nearer subject; see on legunt, i. 426. In translating sc. some general verb like “face,” “endure,” with exsilia (Knapp). Arandum goes strictly with aequor and loosely with exsilia as conveying the general meaning of “passing over” or “through” (Page).

781-782: Lydius...Thybris: the Tiber is called Lydian because Etruria, the land through which it mainly flowed, was, according to tradition, settled by Lydian colonists (Bennett). arva inter opima vir(or)um: An echo of the Georgics, in which the poet sang the glories of rural Italy (F-B). “rich in men”: others take virum with arva: “the rich lands tilled by the husbandmen” (H-H). Each word is carefully chosen by a poet who loved the soil of his country and saw in the restoration of its old homesteads carefully tilled by sturdy yeomen the great hope of renewed national greatness: arva from aro is strictly used for fields carefully cultivated by the plough as opposed to great tracts of land only used for pasture; opima indicates that they were kept in prime condition, fat and fertile; virum suggests the old yeomen farmers, each owning his own farm (as opposed to the slave-gangs on great estates), who once had formed the backbone of the Roman armies (Page). the point of virum is that Aeneas’ destined home is already peopled by the Italians who will contribute so much to the future race of Rome (Williams).

781: et: is emphatic: “and yet,” “and then” (Storr). Hesperiam: (the “Western” land from Hesperus the evening star) one of the numerous Greek names for Italy (Sidgwick).

782: leni fluit agmine: A term beautifully descriptive. The banks of the stream keep its waters in dense “column of march” (Anthon). Thybris: Virgil first uses this Greek form of the name; in two passages only (vii. 715, G. i. 499) he has the Italian name Tiberis, both in a specifically Roman or Italian context (Austin 1964).

783: Note the alliteration — res — regnum — regia (H-H). res laetae: a happy, settled state, both domestically and politically — the first positive suggestion of future happiness that Aeneas has yet heard (Austin 1964). regia coniunx: i.e. Lavinia, daughter of Latinus (F-B). notice that Aeneas does not conceal this part of the prophesy from Dido (Williams).

784: parta (est) tibi: parta is from pario (Bennett). The participle must also be supplied with res and regnum (Frieze). prophecy sees and describes the future as already present (Page). lacrimas Creusae: “tears for Creusa,” Creusae being an objective genitive (F-B) (AG 348).

785: non ego: note the emphatic position: so also Hector had this fear for Andromache: Il. 6, 454 (H-H).

786: servitum: supine, with a verb of motion (ibo) (F-B) (AG 509). supine, rare in elevated poetry, and adding a domestic touch here to Creusa’s words to her husband (Williams).

787: Dardanis...nurus: in apposition with the subject of ibo (Bennett).

788: magna de(or)um genetrix: The “Great mother of the Gods” is Cybele, a Phrygian deity whose worship was imported into Italy. She had a wild ritual, and many Phrygian myths were told about her. She is represented elsewhere in the Aeneid as being favourable to Aeneas, e.g. IX. 80, where she gives him her own trees for ships and prays Iuppiter to make them proof against storm.  Here she keeps Creusa’s shade as her companion and under her protection (Sidgwick). The speech of Creusa is artfully contrived to exculpate the hero from all blame for her loss, and to make his second marriage with Lavinia seem the performance of a divine command. But this express prophecy is ignored or forgotten in the third book, where the Trojans seek various lands, not knowing whither the fates would have them go. Probably the second book was composed after the third, and this portion would certainly have been modified had V. lived to revise the poem (Storr). detinet: as a follower in her train (Howson).

789: these final words are the only touch of pathos in Creusa’s serene explanation of what has happened to her (Williams). iamque vale: Eurydice’s words to Orpheus (G. iv. 497) (Austin 1964). nati: AG 348. Creusa reminds Aeneas that she is still his wife; he must be father and mother too to their little son: pietas from a fresh angle. How could Dido, as she listened, think that he could ever forget Creusa? (Austin 1964)

790: lacrimantem: scil. me (H-H). multa: with dicere (Carter).

792-794: These verses are translated from Homer, Odyssey XI. 206 ff., where Odysseus tries to embrace the shade of his mother (F-B). These three beautiful and pathetic lines (imitated, with perhaps less simplicity but more feeling, from Hom. Od. XI. 206) occur again in Book VI. 700, of the parting in the underworld between Aeneas and Anchises (Sidgwick).

792: ter: the regulation number for a series of unsuccessful or painful efforts (Carter). conatus: sc. sum (Chase). collo: AG 370. dare...circum: tmesis (G-K). The orig. construction of circumdare (here divided) is acc. of thing put round, and dat. of thing round which it is put. It easily gets secondary meaning “to surround”: then the construction follows that meaning, and takes acc. of thing surrounded, the covering being instrumental abl. (Sidgwick).

793: comprensa: = comprehensa (F-B).

794: par levibus ventis: par is in itself vague, since it can be used of equality of any kind, but is made clear by levibus; the imago is equal to the winds (air) in lightness (Knapp). somno: here for somnio (Bennett). a vision seen in sleep, rather than sleep itself (H-H). Sleep is imaginatively called “winged,” the suggestion perhaps coming from the beautiful Greek sculpture of the winged head of sleep (Sidgwick).


obscūrus, a, um: (adj.), dim, dark, dusky, obscure, 1.411; uncertain; of persons, unseen, 2.135; in the darkness, 6.268; pl., obscūra, ōrum, dim places; obscurity, uncertainty, 6.100.

gressus, ūs, m.: a stepping; step, walk, course, way, 1.401; of a ship, 5.162; air, mien, gait, 5.649; ferre gressum, to walk, 6.677; efferre gressum, to go forth or out, 2.753; comprimere gressum, to stop, stay one’s steps, 6.389. (gradior)

efferō, extulī, ēlātus, ferre, irreg. a.: to bear, or bring out or forth, 2.297; bear away, rescue, 3.150; raise, elevate, lift up or high, 1.127; elate, puff up, 11.715; efferre gressum or pedem, walk, go, come forth, 2.753; efferre sē, arise, 3.215. (ex and ferō)

retrō: (adv.), back, backwards, 2.753. (re-)

observō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to note, observe, mark, watch, 6.198; remember, 9.393; observe, respect, revere.

lūstrō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to purify by atonement, 3.279; go round the fields with the victims; hence to bless, ask for a blessing on; go or dance around an altar or the image of a god, 7.391; traverse, pass across, around, or over, 1.608; pass in review, parade before, 5.578; run through, 2.528; search, 1.577; observe, survey, 1.453; watch, mark, 11.763; of the sun, illuminate, 4.607. (lūstrum)

horror, ōris, m.: a roughening or bristling; (fig.), a shuddering; terror, dread, horror, dismay, 2.559; clashing din, 2.301. (horreō)

ubīque: (adv. of place), wheresoever; anywhere, 1.601; everywhere, 2.368.

silentium, iī, n.: of the absence of any kind of sound; noiselessness, silence, stillness, 1.730; pl., 2.255. (silēns)

inruō, ruī, 3, n. and a.: to rush in, break in, 2.757; rush on, 2.383; rush, 9.555.

Danaī, ōrum, m.: the Greeks, 2.327.

īlicet: (adv.), straightway, immediately, at once, instantly, 2.424. (īre and licet)

edāx, ācis: voracious; devouring, consuming, 2.758. (edō)

fastīgium, iī, n.: that which is carried to a point or apex; the apex or point of a pediment; a gable, upper part of a house; roof, pinnacle, battlement, 2.444; slope of a trench; (fig.), chief point, 1.342. (fastīgō)

volvō, volvī, volūtus, 3, a.: to roll, 1.86; roll along or down, 1.101; roll or cast up, 3.206; toss, hurl, 12.906; roll over, roll in the dust, 12.329; cast, hurl down, 1.116; 9.512; roll, wheel, 1.163; of books, open, unroll, 1.262; of the Fates, fix the circle of events, decree, ordain, dispose, 1.22; 3.376; of the mind, revolve, meditate, reflect upon, 1.305; pass, continue, live through, experience, endure, suffer, 1.9; rotam volvere, to complete a cycle, period; (pass.), volvī, roll over, roll, 10.590; turn or wind about, 7.350; to be shed, to flow, 4.449; roll on, revolve, 1.269.

exsuperō, āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.: to be completely above; mount upward, rise on high, 2.759; pass by, 3.698; pass over, 11.905; surpass, excel, 12.20; overrule, 7.591; surmount, 10.658; of wrath, boil over, 12.46.

furō, uī, 3, n.: to be mad; freq., to rave, be frantic, rage, 1.491; to be furious, burn, storm (for war), 7.625; to be burning or mad with love, 1.659; to be frenzied, in a frenzy, 6.100; inspired, 2.345; distracted with grief, 3.313; plunge madly, 9.552; boil, 7.464; with cognate acc., give vent to one's fury, 12.680.

aestus, ūs, m.: glowing heat; summer; a boiling; a billowy motion; waves of flame, flames, 2.706; wave, surge, 1.107; tide, sea, flood, 3.419; tide (of feeling), agitation, 4.532.

prōcēdō, cessī, cessus, 3, n.: to go or come forth or forward; advance, proceed, go on, 2.760; move, 4.587; elapse, pass by, 3.356; continue, 5.461.

Priamus, ī, m.: 1. Priam, son of Laomedon, king of Troy, 1.458, et al. 2. A Trojan youth, son of Polites and grandson of King Priam, 5.564.

revīsō, 3, a. and n.: to look at again; visit again, return to see; return to, 2.760; revisit, 3.318.

porticus, ūs, f.: a portico, porch, gallery, pillared hall, colonnade, hall, 3.353. (porta)

Iūnō, ōnis, f.: Juno, the Sabine and Roman name for the wife and sister of Jupiter, daughter of Saturn, 1.4, et al.; Iūnō īnferna, the Juno of the lower world, Proserpine, 6.138.

asȳlum, ī, n.: 1. A place of refuge; an asylum; a temple, sanctuary, 2.761. 2. The Asylum established by Romulus on the Capitoline, 8.342.

Phoenīx, īcis, m.: Phoenix, son of Amyntor, and companion of Achilles, 2.762.

dīrus, a, um: (adj.), accursed; portentous; fearful, dreadful, awful, dire, cruel, horrible, freq.; accursed, 2.261; unhallowed, impious, 6.373; foul, carrion, 3.262; wild, furious, ardent, 9.185; pl., dīra (adv.), fearfully, 10.572.

Ulixēs, is, eī or ī, m.: Ulysses, son of Laertes, king of Ithaca, and one of the Greek chiefs at Troy, distinguished for shrewdness and cunning, 2.44, et al.

adservō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to keep carefully; guard, watch, 2.763.

Trōius, a, um: (adj.), of Troy, Trojan, 1.119.

gāza, ae, f.: strictly, the Persian royal treasure; in gen., riches, wealth, treasure, 1.119. (a Persian word, Greek form, γάζα)

incendō, cendī, cēnsus, 3, a.: to set fire to, burn, 2.353; kindle, 3.279; illuminate, 5.88; (fig.), of the mind, fire, inflame, 1.660; arouse, rouse to action, 5.719; excite, irritate, enrage, madden, provoke, 4.360; disturb, rend, fill, 10.895.

adytum, ī, n.: the inaccessible; the innermost part of a temple, accessible only to the priest; a shrine, sanctuary, oracle, 2.115; the interior of a tomb, or shrine of the dead, 5.84.

crātēr, ēris, m., acc. sing. ēra, pl. ēras: a large mixing bowl or urn; mixer; bowl, 1.724; jar, 6.225.

solidus, a, um: (adj.), the whole, whole, entire, 6.253; massive, 2.765; solid, hard, 6.552; sound, unimpaired, 2.639.

captīvus, a, um: adj. (capiō), taken in war; captured, captive, 2.765; of a captive or of captives, 10.520; subst., captīvus, ī, m., a captive, 9.273.

congerō, gessī, gestus, 3, a.: to bring together; collect, heap up, 2.766; construct, build, 6.178.

pavidus, a, um: adj. (paveō, fear), trembling, alarmed, terror-stricken, 2.489; solicitous, trembling with expectation, eager, 5.575.

circum: (adv.), about, around; (prep. with acc.), around, about.

iactō, āvī, ātus, 1, freq. a.: to throw often or much; toss to and fro; toss, freq.; hurl, cast, 2.459; thrust out, 5.376; aim, 5.433; (fig.), throw out words, utter, say, 1.102; of the mind, revolve, meditate, 1.227; sē iactāre, boast, exalt one's self, rejoice, glory, 1.140; prae sē iactāre, to make pretense of, 9.134; p., iactāns, antis, arrogant, assuming, ambitious, 6.815. (iaciō)

Creūsa, ae, f.: the wife of Aeneas, and daughter of Priam, 2.562.

nēquīquam: (adv.), in vain, to no purpose, 2.515.

ingeminō, āvī, ātus, 1, a. and n.: a., repeat; redouble, multiply, increase, 7.578; name often, 2.770; n., shout again and again, 1.747; reëcho, 5.227; flash often or continuously, 3.199; be redoubled, return, 4.531.

īnfēlīx, īcis: (adj.), unlucky; unfortunate, luckless, unhappy, 1.475, et al.; sad, miserable, 2.772; of ill omen, ill-starred, ill-boding, fatal, 2.245; unfruitful.

simulācrum, ī, n.: an effigy, an image, 2.172; phantom, specter, ghost, apparition, 2.772; representation, image, 5.585. (simulō)

obstipēscō, stipuī (stupuī), 3, inc. n.: to become stupefied; to be astonished, amazed, 1.613.

faucēs, ium, f.: the jaws, throat, 2.358; (fig.), mouth, entrance, jaws, 6.241; defiles, 11.516.

haereō, haesī, haesus, 2, n.: to stick; foll. by dat., or by abl. w. or without a prep.; hang, cling, adhere, cling to, 1.476, et al.; stop, stand fixed, 6.559; halt, 11.699; adhere to as companion, 10.780; stick to in the chase, 12.754; persist, 2.654; dwell, 4.4; pause, hesitate, 3.597; be fixed or decreed, 4.614.

adfor, fātus sum, 1, dep. a.: to speak to; address, 1.663; beseech, supplicate, 2.700; bid adieu, farewell to, 2.644.

dēmō, dēmpsī, dēmptus, 3, a.: to take away, remove, 2.775. (dē and emō)

dictum, ī, n.: a thing said; word, 1.197; command, precept, injunction, 1.695; promise, 8.643. (dīcō)

īnsānus, a, um: (adj.), unsound; mad, insane, 6.135; inspired, 3.443.

indulgeō, dulsī, dultus, 2, n.: to be indulgent, kind, yielding, give way to, 2.776; yield to, indulge in, 4.51; favor, 8.512.

ō: (interj. expressing joy, grief, astonishment, desire, or indignation), O! oh! ah! w. voc., 2.281, et al.; w. sī and the subj., oh that, 11.415; sometimes placed after the word to which it relates, 2.281.

ēveniō, vēnī, ventus, 4, n.: to come out; come to pass, happen, 2.778.

nec or neque: (adv. and conj.), and not; neither, nor, 1.643, et al.; in prohibition, 3.394, et al.; neque (nec) — neque (nec), neither — nor, 5.21, et al.; nec — et, or -que, may be rendered neither — nor, 12.801; 2.534; nec nōn, and also, nor less, 6.183; nec nōn et, and also, 1.707.

fās, indecl. n.: divine right or law; duty, justice, 3.55; privilege, 9.96; as predicate with esse, permitted, lawful, proper, incumbent, 1.77, et al. (rel. to for)

rēgnātor, ōris, m.: one who reigns; sovereign, lord, 2.779, et al. (rēgnō)

Olympus, ī, m.: Olympus, the name of several mountains in Greece and Asia Minor, the most famous of which was Mount Olympus in the northeastern part of Thessaly; the home of the superior gods; heaven, Olympus, 1.374; referring to the gods, 8.533.

vāstus, a, um: (adj.), empty, void, wild, waste, 9.323; vast, unbounded, 1.118; huge, enormous, immense, 3.647; deep-, vast-, sounding, 1.245.

arō, āvi, ātus, 1, a. and n.: to plow; till, cultivate, 4.212; of navigation, to plow, 2.780; of age, to furrow, 7.417.

Hesperius, a, um: (adj.), of Hesperus; western (as related to Asia and Greece); Hesperian, Italian, 3.418.

veniō, vēnī, ventus: to come, freq.; come forth; approach, 6.755; rise, appear, 1.353; dawn, 10.241; to present one's self or itself, 5.344; descend, spring from, 5.373; impers., ventum est, we, they came or have come, 4.151.

Lӯdius, a, um.: (adj.) of Lydia; Lydian, 8.479; also Etruscan or Tuscan (as the Etrusci were supposed to have sprung from the Lydians), 2.781, et al.

opīmus, a, um: adj. (ops), rich, fertile, 1.621; sumptuous, 3.224; spolia opīma, the arms taken by a general from a general slain in battle, 6.855.

lēnis, e: (adj.), mild, 3.70; gentle, quiet, 2.782.

Thӯbris, idis, m.: an ancient king of Latium, 8.330.

dīligō, lēxī, lēctus, 3, a.: to love, 8.590; p., dīlēctus, a, um, loved, dear, 1.344.

Myrmidones, um, m.: the Myrmidons, Thessalian followers of Achilles, once dwelling in Aegina, where they had been transformed from ants to men in answer to the prayer of Aeacus, grandfather of Achilles, 2.7, et al.

Dolopes, um, m.: the Dolopians, a warlike tribe of Thessaly, followers of Pyrrhus at Troy, 2.7.

Grāius, a, um (dissyl.): (adj.), Greek, Greek, 2.598; subs., Grāius, iī, m., a Greek, 3.594.

Dardanis, idis, f.: a daughter or descendant of Dardanus, 2.787.

dīvus (dīus), a, um: (adj.), divine; godlike, 11.657; subst., dīvus, ī, m., a god, freq.; the image of a god, 12.286; dīva, ae, f., a goddess, 1.632, et al.

Venus, eris, f.: Venus, goddess of love and beauty, identified by the Romans with Aphrodite, daughter of Jupiter and Dione, 1.411, et al.; (meton.), love, lust, 6.26.

nurus, ūs, f.: a daughter-in-law, 2.501.

genetrīx, īcis, f.: she who brings forth; mother, 1.590, et al. (gignō)

dētineō, uī, tentus, 2, a.: to hold from or back; hold, detain, 2.788. (dē and teneō)

ōra, ae, f.: a margin, border, 12.924; coast, shore, 3.396; region, 2.91; rim, extremity, 10.477; pl., outline, compass, 9.528.

lacrimō, āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.: to shed tears, weep, 1.459. (lacrima)

tenuis, e: adj. (cf. tendō), stretched out; slender, thin, 4.278; light, 3.448; little, 10.511; airy, ethereal, 6.292; delicate, fine, 4.264; scanty, yielding a scanty livelihood, 8.409; reduced, perishing, sinking, 5.690; simple, trivial, humble.

recēdō, cessī, cessus, 3, n.: to go back, retire, withdraw, 12.129; recede, retreat, 2.633; stand apart, retire, 2.300; depart, 2.595; disappear, 3.72; vanish, 5.526.

ter: (num. adv.), thrice, three times, 1.94, et al. (trēs)

collum, ī, n.: the neck of men and animals, 1.654, et al.; of a plant, 9.436; pl., the neck, 11.692.

circumdō, dedī, datus, dare, 1, a.: to put or throw around; (with abl.), to encircle, surround, encompass, inclose with, 1.368; of dress, gird, 9.462; adorn, 6.207; set, 1.593; border, 4.137; (with dat.), throw around, 2.792; twine or coil around, 2.219; put round, 2.510.

bracchium, iī, n.: strictly, the forearm from the hand to the elbow; in general, the arm, 2.792, et al.; (fig.), limb, branch, of a tree, 6.282; sail-yard, 5.829; of walls, 3.535.

comprēndō, prēndī, prēnsus, 3, a.: to take hold of completely, seize, grasp, 2.793; inclose, include; catch, 7.73; to include in description, enumerate, describe, 6.626.

manus, ūs, f.: the hand, 1.487; freq.; (meton.), action, movement of the hand; work, art, handiwork, 3.486; prowess, heroic deed, action, 2.434; force, violence, 2.645; a collection of persons; a band, crew, troop; an army, 2.29; forces, 5.623; multitude, 6.660; pl., manūs, workmen, 11.329; dare manūs, to yield, 11.558; extrēma manus, the finishing hand or touch, 7.572.

effugiō, fūgī, 3, n. and a.: to flee forth or away; glide away, 2.226; get off, escape; speed along, 5.151; pass swiftly from, flee from, escape from, 2.793; 3.272; escape, 3.653. (ex and fugiō)

pār, paris: (adj.), equal, 1.705; like, 2.794; equal, well-poised, steady, 4.252; side by side, 5.580; well-matched, 5.114.

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Suggested Citation

Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5.