In English

Aldrete, G.S. 2007. Floods of the Tiber in Ancient Rome. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Baleriaux, J. 2016. “Diving Underground: Giving Meaning to Subterranean Rivers.” In Valuing Landscape in Classical Antiquity: Natural Environment and Cultural Imagination, edited by J. McInerney and I. Sluiter, eds. 103–21. Leiden: Brill.

Barton, T. 1994. Ancient Astrology. London: Routledge.

Bartsch, S. 1994. Actors in the Audience: Theatricality and Doublespeak from Nero to Hadrian. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

———. 2006. The Mirror of the Self: Sexuality, Self-Knowledge, and the Gaze in the Early Roman Empire, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

———. 2017. “Philosophers and the State Under Nero.” In Bartsch, Freudenburg, and Littlewood: 151–63.

Bartsch, S. and D. Wray, eds. 2009. Seneca and the Self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bartsch, S. and A. Schiesaro, eds. 2015. The Cambridge Companion to Seneca. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bartsch, S., Freudenburg K, and C. Littlewood, eds. 2017. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Nero.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Berno, F.R. 2015. “Exploring Appearances: Seneca’s Scientific Works.” In Bartsch and Schiesaro: 82–92.

———. 2019. “Apocalypses and the Sage. Different Endings of the World in Seneca.” Gerión 37: 75–95.

Bobzien, S. 1998. Determinism and Freedom in Stoic Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brunt, P.A. 2013. Studies in Stoicism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Christenson, D. 2004. “Unbearding Morality: Appearance and Persuasion in Pro Caelio.CJ 100: 61–72.

Clay, D. 1992. “Columbus’ Senecan Prophecy.” AJP 113: 617–20.

Cleary, J.J. and G.M. Gurtler, eds. 2000. Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy 15. Leiden, Boston, and Köln.

Connors, C. and C. Clendenon. 2016. “Mapping Tartaros: Observation, Inference, and Belief in Ancient Greek and Roman Accounts of Karst Terrain.” CA 35: 147–88.

Courtney, E. 1993. The Fragmentary Latin Poets. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Craddock, P.T. 2016. “Classical Geology and the Mines of the Greeks and Romans,” in A Companion to Science, Technology, and Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome, edited by G.L. Irby, 197–216. Oxford: Blackwell.

Damschen, G. and A. Heil, eds. 2014. Brill’s Companion to Seneca: Philosopher and Dramatist. Leiden and Boston: Brill.

Elder, O. and A. Mullen, eds. 2019. The Language of Roman Letters: Bilingual Epistolography from Cicero to Fronto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Epstein, M.and R. Spivak, eds. 2019. The Latin of Science. Mundelein, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers.

Faraone, C.A. and F.S. Naiden, eds. 2012. Greek and Roman Animal Sacrifice: Ancient Victims, Modern Observers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Foucault, M. 1986. The Care of the Self (History of Sexuality Vol. III). New York: Vintage.

———. 2005. The Hermeneutics of the Subject: Lectures at the Collège de France 1981–1982. Trans. G. Burchell. New York: Picador.

Franco, C. 2018. “Animals. ” In The World Through Roman Eyes: Anthropological Approaches to Ancient Culture, edited by M. Bettini and W. Short, 275–99. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Furley, D. 2005. “Cosmology” in. The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy, edited by  K. Algra et al., 412–51. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Garani, M. 2020. “Seneca on Pythagoras’ mirabilia aquarum (NQ 3.20–1, 25–6; Ovid Met. 15.270–336).” In Garani, Michalopoulos and Papaioannou: 198–253.

Garani, M., Michalopoulos, A. and S. Papaioannou, eds. 2020. Intertextuality in Seneca’s Philosophical Writings. New York: Routledge.

Gauly, B.M. 2014. “Physics II: Cosmology and Natural Philosophy.” In Damschen and Heil: 363–78.

Gillespie, S. and P. Hardie. 2007. “Introduction,” The Cambridge Companion to Lucretius, edited by S. Gillespie and P. Hardie, 1–15. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gowers, E. 1997. The Loaded Table: Representations of Food in Roman Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Graham, D. 2010. The Texts of Early Greek Philosophy. Part 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

———. 2013. Science before Socrates: Parmenides, Anaxagoras, and the New Astronomy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Graver, M. 2000. “Commentary on Inwood.” In Cleary and Gurtler: 44–56.

Graver, M. and A.A. Long. 2015. Lucius Annaeus Seneca: Letters on Ethics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Griffin, M. 1976. Seneca: A Philosopher in Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gunderson, E. 2015. The Sublime Seneca. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hadot, P. 1995. Philosophy as a Way of Life. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

———. 2004 The Veil of Isis: An Essay on the History of the Idea of Nature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hankinson, R.J. 2003. “Stoicism and Medicine.” In Inwood 2003: 295–309.

Hannah, R. 2009. Time in Antiquity. London and New York: Routledge.

Henderson, J. 2006. “Journey of a Lifetime: Seneca, Epistle 57 in Book VI of EM.” In Seeing Seneca Whole, edited by K. Volk and G. Williams, 123–46. Leiden: Brill.

Hine, H.M. 1980. “The Manuscript Tradition of Seneca’s Natural Questions.CQ 30: 183–217.

———. 1981. An Edition with Commentary of Seneca Natural Questions, Book Two. New York: Ayer.

———. 1996a. L. Annaeus Seneca Naturalium Quaestionum Libros. Stuttgart and Leipzig: Teubner.

———. 1996b. Studies in the Text of Seneca’s Naturales Quaestiones. Stuttgart and Leipzig: Teubner.

———. 2006. “Rome, the Cosmos, and the Emperor in Seneca’s Natural Questions.” JRS 96: 42–72.

———. 2009. “Seneca’s Naturales Quaestiones 1960–2005 (part 1).” Lustrum 51: 253–329.

———. 2010a. “Seneca’s Naturales Quaestiones 1960–2005 (part 2).” Lustrum 52: 7–160.

———. 2010b. Seneca: Natural Questions. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Hodge, A.T. 1992. Roman Aqueducts and Water Supply. London: Duckworth.

Inwood, B. 2000. “God and Human Knowledge in Seneca’s Natural Questions.” In Clearly and Gurtler: 23–43. 

———, ed. 2003. The Cambridge Companion to Stoicism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

———. 2005. Reading Seneca: Stoic Philosophy at Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

———. 2009. “Why Physics?” in God and Cosmos in Stoicism, edited by R. Salles, 201–223. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jackson, R.B. 2002. At Empire’s Edge: Exploring Rome’s Egyptian Frontier. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Jannot, J.-R. 2005. Religion in Ancient Etruria. Trans. J.K. Whitehead. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Jones, M. 2014. “Seneca’s Letters to Lucilius: Hypocrisy as a Way of Life.” In Wildberger and Colish: 393–430.

Ker, J. 2009. The Deaths of Seneca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Konstan, D. 2015. “Senecan Emotions.” In Bartsch and Schiesaro: 174–86.

Kroonenberg, S. 2013. Why Hell Smells of Sulfur: Mythology and Geology of the Underworld. London: Reaktion Books Ltd.

Lehoux, D. 2012. What Did the Romans Know?: An Inquiry into Science and Worldmaking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Leitão, D.D. 1998. “Senecan Catoptrics and the Passion of Hostius Quadra (Sen. Nat. 1).” MD 41: 127–60.

Limburg, F.J.G. 2007. Aliquid ad mores: The prefaces and epilogues of Seneca’s Naturales Quaestiones. Diss. Leiden.

Long, A.A. 1985. “The Stoics on World-Conflagration and Everlasting Recurrence.” SJPh 23 Supplement: 13–37.

Marzano, A. 2007. Roman Villas in Central Italy: A Social and Economic History. Leiden: Brill.

Master, J. 2015. “The Shade of Sallust: History-writing in the Natural Questions of Seneca.” CP 110: 333–352.

Merrills, A. 2017. Roman Geographies of the Nile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mollea, S. 2019. “Naturales Quaestiones 4A Praef. 20 and Ep. 34.2: Approaching the Chronology and Non-Fictional Nature of Seneca’s Epistulae Morales.CQ 69: 319–34.

Motto, A.L. 1970. Guide to the Thought of Lucius Annaeus Seneca. Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert.

Newman, R.J. 1989. “Cotidie meditare. Theory and Practice of the meditatio in Imperial Stoicism.” ANRW 2.36.3: 1473–1517.

Osgood, J. 2017. “Nero and the Senate.” In Bartsch, Freudenburg, and Littlewood: 34–47.

Papaioannou, S. 2020. “Reading Seneca Reading Vergil.” In Garani, Michalopoulos, and Papaioannou: 107–29.

Roby, C.A. 2014. “Seneca’s Scientific Fictions: Models as Fictions in the Natural Questions.” JRS 104: 155–80.

Rosenmeyer, T.G. 1989. Senecan Drama and Stoic Cosmology. Berkeley: University of California Press.

———. 2000. “Seneca and Nature.” Arethusa 33: 99–119.

Rudich, V. 1997. Dissidence and Literature Under Nero: The Price of Rhetoricization. New York: Routledge.

Saller, R.P. 1994. Patriarchy, Property and Death in the Roman Family. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Santangelo, F. 2013. Divination, Prediction and the End of the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schiesaro, A. 2015. “Seneca and Epicurus: The Allure of the Other.” In Bartsch and Schiesaro: 239–51.

Scott, J. 1999. “The Ethics of the Physics in Seneca’s Natural Questions.” CB 75: 55–68.

Sellars, J. 2018. Hellenistic Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Serres, M. 2018. The Birth of Physics. Trans. D. Webb and W. Ross. London and New York:

Rowman & Littlefield.

Setaioli, A. 2007. “Seneca and the Divine: Stoic Traditions and Personal Developments.” IJCT 13: 333–368.

Setaioli, A. 2014. “Ethics III: Free Will and Autonomy.” In Damschen and Heil: 277–300.

Shearin, W.H. 2019 “‘The Deep-Sticking Boundary Stone’: Cosmology, Sublimity, and Knowledge in Lucretius’ De Rerum Natura and Seneca’s Naturales Quaestiones.” In Cosmos in the Ancient World, edited by P. Horkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 247–69.

Smith, R.S. 2014. “Physics I: Body and Soul.” In Damschen and Heil: 343–61.

———. 2014. “De Providentia.” In Damschen and Heil: 115–20.

Star, C. 2021. Golden Age and Apocalypse: The End of the World in Greek and Roman Thought. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Strunk, P.T. 2016. Divination and Human Nature: A Cognitive History of Intuition in Classical Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Taub, L. 2003. Ancient Meteorology. London and New York: Routledge.

———. 2020. “Astronomy in Its Contexts.” In Taub: 208–228.

———. (ed.) 2020. The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek and Roman Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thomas, R. 1988. Vergil Georgics I–II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Trinacty, C. 2018. “The Surface and the Depths: Quotation and Intertextuality in NQ 3.” TAPA 148: 361–92.

Tutrone, F. 2014. “Veniet Tempus (QNat. 7.25): Stoic Philosophy and Roman Genealogy in Seneca’s View of Scientific Progress.” Epekeina 4.2 (2014) 219–66.

———. 2017. “Seneca on the Nature of Things: Moral Concerns and Theories of Matter in Natural Questions 6.” Latomus 76: 765–89.

Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2003. “Seneca and the Pompeiian Earthquake.” In Seneca uomo politico e l’eta di Claudio e di Nerone, edited by A. De Vivo and E. Lo Cascio, 177–92. Bari: Edipuglia.

Wildberger, J. and M.L. Colish, eds. 2014. Seneca Philosophus. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter.

Williams, G.D. 2012. The Cosmic Viewpoint: A Study of Seneca’s Natural Questions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wilson, E. 2014. The Greatest Empire: A Life of Seneca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Woods, D. 2009. “Curing Nero: A Cold Drink in Context.” Classics Ireland 16: 40–48.

Worman, N. 2015. Landscape and the Spaces of Metaphor in Ancient Literary Theory and Criticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wright, M.R. 1995. Cosmology in Antiquity. London: Routledge.


In Italian, French, and German

Armisen-Marchetti, M. 1989. Sapientiae Facies: étude sur les images de Sénèque. Paris.

Beretta, M, Citti, F. and L. Pasetti, eds. 2012. Seneca e Le Scienze Naturali. Florence: Leo. S. Olschki.

Berno, F.R. 2003. Lo specchio, il vizio e la virtù. Studio sulle Naturales Quaetiones di Seneca. Bologna: Testi e Manuali per l’Insegnamento Universitario del Latino.

———. 2012. “Non Solo Acqua. Elementi per un diluvio universal nel terzo libro delle Naturales Quaestiones.” In Beretta, Citti and Pasetti: 49–68.

Chaumartin, F.-R. 1996. “La nature dans les Questions naturelles de Sénèque.” In Lévy: 177–90.

Codoñer Merino, C. 1979. Naturales Quaestiones, texto rev. y trad. 1: Lib. I–III. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas.

De Vivo, A. and E. Lo Cascio, eds. 2003. Seneca uomo politico e l’età di Claudio e di Nerone. Atti del Convegno internazionale (Capri 25–27 marzo 1999). Bari: Santo Spirito.

Gauly, B.M. 2004. Senecas Naturales Quaestiones. Naturphilosophie für die römische Kaiserzeit. Munich: Zetemata.

Oltramare, P. 1961. Sénèque: Questions naturelles. Paris : Les Belles Lettres.

Parroni, P. 2002. Seneca: Ricerche Sulla Natura. Milan: Fondazione Lorenzo Valla.

Vottero, D. 1989. Seneca, “Questioni Naturali.” Turin: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese.

———. 1998. Lucio Anneo Seneca: I Frammenti. Bologna: Patron.

Waiblinger, F.P. 1977. Senecas Naturales Questiones. Griechische, Wissenschaft und römische Form. Munich: Zetemata.

Suggested Citation

Christopher Trinacty, Seneca: Natural Questions: Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2022. ISBN: 978-1-947822-18-4