1-3

[1] πολλά με τὰ παρακαλοῦντα ἦν, ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, γράψασθαι Νέαιραν τὴν γραφὴν ταυτηνὶ καὶ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς ὑμᾶς. καὶ γὰρ ἠδικήμεθα ὑπὸ Στεφάνου μεγάλα, καὶ εἰς κινδύνους τοὺς ἐσχάτους κατέστημεν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ, ὅ τε κηδεστὴς καὶ ἐγὼ καὶ ἡ ἀδελφὴ καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἡ ἐμή, ὥστε οὐχ ὑπάρχων ἀλλὰ τιμωρούμενος ἀγωνιοῦμαι τὸν ἀγῶνα τουτονί· τῆς γὰρ ἔχθρας πρότερος οὗτος ὑπῆρξεν, οὐδὲν ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν πώποτε οὔτε λόγῳ οὔτε ἔργῳ κακὸν παθών. βούλομαι δ᾽ ὑμῖν προδιηγήσασθαι πρῶτον ἃ πεπόνθαμεν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ, ἵνα μᾶλλόν μοι συγγνώμην ἔχητε ἀμυνομένῳ, καὶ ὡς εἰς τοὺς ἐσχάτους κινδύνους κατέστημεν περί τε τῆς πατρίδος καὶ περὶ ἀτιμίας.

[2] ψηφισαμένου γὰρ τοῦ δήμου τοῦ Ἀθηναίων Ἀθηναῖον εἶναι Πασίωνα καὶ ἐκγόνους τοὺς ἐκείνου διὰ τὰς εὐεργεσίας τὰς εἰς τὴν πόλιν, ὁμογνώμων καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ἐγένετο ὁ ἐμὸς τῇ τοῦ δήμου δωρεᾷ, καὶ ἔδωκεν Ἀπολλοδώρῳ τῷ υἱεῖ τῷ ἐκείνου θυγατέρα μὲν αὑτοῦ, ἀδελφὴν δὲ ἐμήν, ἐξ ἧς Ἀπολλοδώρῳ οἱ παῖδές εἰσιν. ὄντος δὲ χρηστοῦ τοῦ Ἀπολλοδώρου περί τε τὴν ἀδελφὴν τὴν ἐμὴν καὶ περὶ ἡμᾶς ἅπαντας, καὶ ἡγουμένου τῇ ἀληθείᾳ οἰκείους ὄντας κοινωνεῖν πάντων τῶν ὄντων, ἔλαβον καὶ ἐγὼ γυναῖκα Ἀπολλοδώρου μὲν θυγατέρα, ἀδελφιδῆν δ᾽ ἐμαυτοῦ.

[3] προεληλυθότος δὲ χρόνου λαγχάνει βουλεύειν Ἀπολλόδωρος· δοκιμασθεὶς δὲ καὶ ὀμόσας τὸν νόμιμον ὅρκον, συμβάντος τῇ πόλει καιροῦ τοιούτου καὶ πολέμου, ἐν ᾧ ἦν ἢ κρατήσασιν ὑμῖν μεγίστοις τῶν Ἑλλήνων εἶναι καὶ ἀναμφισβητήτως τά τε ὑμέτερα αὐτῶν κεκομίσθαι καὶ καταπεπολεμηκέναι Φίλιππον, ἢ ὑστερίσασι τῇ βοηθείᾳ καὶ προεμένοις τοὺς συμμάχους, δι᾽ ἀπορίαν χρημάτων καταλυθέντος τοῦ στρατοπέδου, τούτους τ᾽ ἀπολέσαι καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις Ἕλλησιν ἀπίστους εἶναι δοκεῖν, καὶ κινδυνεύειν περὶ τῶν ὑπολοίπων, περί τε Λήμνου καὶ Ἴμβρου καὶ Σκύρου καὶ Χερρονήσου,   

The speech begins with a brief introduction by Theomnestos (§1–15). Although Theomnestos is technically the one bringing the suit against Neaira, the bulk of the speech is delivered by Apollodoros.

Theomnestos gives his reasons for joining Apollodoros in prosecuting Stephanos.

1

γράψασθαι: that is, to bring a legal charge called a γραφήThere were two main types of suits in classical Athenian courtsδίκαι (private suits, which could be brought only by the injured party) and γραφαί (public suits, which could be brought by anyone, for crimes thought to injure the community as a whole).

τν γραφν ταυτηνί: object of γράψασθαι, the cognate or internal accusative (G. 536, S. 1563 ff.). In the Attic dialect the demonstrative οὗτος can be strengthened by the suffix -ι: οὑτοσί, αὑτηί, τουτί, “this man here, this woman here.” This so-called deictic iota (G. 210, S. 333.g) appears frequently in this speech. 

εσελθεν < εἰσέρχομαι

καὶ γάρ: when γάρ follows καί, translate it as “indeed,” rather than “for.”

δικήμεθα < ἀδικέω

μέγαλα: adverbial accusative (G. 536–540, S. 1606-1611); in this instance, a neuter accusative adjective used as adverb (G. 230, S. 1609)

κατέστημεν < καθίστημι

ὅ τε κηδεστής: Apollodoros, the prime mover of the suit. Apollodoros is both brother-in-law and father-in-law to Theomnestos, since he is married to Theomnestos’ sister, and Theomenestos is married to Apollodoros’ daughter. See Introduction and Stemma.

πάρχων < ὑπάρχω, “as one taking the initiative”

γωνιομαι < ἀγωνίζομαι, “to contend in court,” (pass.) “to be on trial”

τόν γνα τουτονί: another cognate or internal accusative

παθών < πάσχω

πεπόνθαμεν < πάσχω

μυνομέν: modifies μοι

ς: adverbial, “how”

τιμίας: literally, ἀ-τιμία means “lack of honor,” but here it has its technical sense of “disenfranchisement.” The reasons for this potential ἀτιμία are explained further in §5-8.

2

ψηφισάμενου < ψηφίζομαι: literally, “to cast a pebble [ψῆφος]”; here, as often, it refers to a vote to pass a decree. Part of a genitive absolute, governing indirect statement.

θηναον: take as the predicate.

Πασίωνα καὶ κγόνους τος κείνου: take as the accusative subjects of the indirect statement. Pasion was a slave whose masters were bankers; he was manumitted by his masters for his good service, and eventually granted his citizenship for generous donations of shields and triremes to the state.

δωρε: naturalization is often described in the orators as a gift.

τῷ υεῖ τῷ κείνου: the son of Pasion. See Stemma.

γουμένου < ἡγέομαι; takes an indirect statement

τ ληθεί: “in truth, truly,” modifying οἰκείους, here in the sense “of the same family”

κοινωνεν: takes a genitive object

ντων: the substantive τὰ ὄντα often means “property.”

γυνακα: take as the predicate.

δελφιδν: it was not uncommon in Greece for uncles to marry nieces (nor, for that matter, for first cousins to marry).

3

λαγχάνει: citizens were selected by lot for the Boule (the council of Athens), 50 from each of the city’s 10 tribes. The term of office was one year.

δοκιμασθείς < δοκιμάζω: the δοκιμασία was an examination for office-holding, conducted by the Boule, to ascertain whether a candidate was fit to serve.

μόσας < ὄμνυμι

τν νόμιμον ρκον: after passing the δοκιμασία, the successful candidate was required to swear an oath, the content of which changed over time.  Excavation has revealed the underpinning of the stone identified as the Oath stone (lithos) of the Athenians, on the steps of the Royal Stoa.

συμβάντος < συμβαίνω

καιροκαὶ πολέμου: this crisis refers to two events of 349/8 BCE: when Olynthos turned to Athens for help against King Philip II of Macedon, and when Ploutarchos, tyrant of Eretria in Euboia, asked for assistance against rebels trying to overthrow him. [map]

ν  … Χερρονήσου: a very long relative clause

ν ἢ κρατήσασιν μν: “it was possible for you, if you won....” ν < ἐστί, used impersonally (LSJ εἰμί VI). κρατήσασιν is a participle used conditionally.  indicates that this is one alternative, and finds its correlate ἤ a couple of lines down.

μεγίστοις: take as the predicate.

τν λλήνων: partitive genitive

τά τε μέτερα: i.e., territories previously possessed by the Athenians that had been taken over by Philip; especially meant here is Amphipolis, which Philip took in 357.

κεκομίσθαι: “to have recovered” (LSJ κομίζω II.8).

 στερίσασιπροεμένοις: “or, if you came too late...and abandoned...,” participles used conditionally; προεμένοις < προ-ἵημι

τούτους: the allies

πολέσαι...δοκεν...κινδυνεύειν: infinitives dependent on the earlier ν, “it was possible to destroy...to seem...to risk (losing).”

ΛήμνουΧερρονήσου: this stands in apposition to ὑπολοίπων (“remaining [possessions]”). LemnosImbrosSkyros, and the Chersonese, raided by Philip in 351-49, were all key locations for Athens in their connections with the Black Sea region, from which they got most of their grain. [map]

1

παρακαλέω παρακαλῶ παρεκάλεσα παρακέκληκα παρακέκλημαι παρεκλήθην: urge, encourage

Ἀθηναῖος –α –ον: Athenian

Νέαιρα: Neaira

εἰσέρχομαι εἰσελεύσομαι εἰσῆλθον εἰσελήλυθα––––––: to come into court

Στέφανος: Stephanos

ἔσχατος –η –ον: furthest, uttermost, last

κηδεστής ὁ: son-in-law; father-in-law; brother-in-law

ἀδελφή –ῆς ἡ: sister

τιμωρέω τιμωρήσω ἐτιμωρησάμην τετιμώρηκα τετιμώρημαι ἐτιμωρήθην: help, avenge

ἀγωνίζομαι , ἀγωνιοῦμαι, ἠγωνισάμην ––– ἠγώνισμαι ἠγωνίσθην: to contend in court

ἔχθρα –ας ἡ: hatred, enmity

πώποτε: ever yet

προδιηγέομαι: to relate beforehand, premise

συγγνώμη –ης ἡ: forbearance, allowance, pardon

ἀμύνω ἀμυνῶ ἤμυνα ἤμυκα ἤμυμαι ἠμύνηθην: defend

ἀτιμία: dishonor; disenfranchisement

2

ψηφίζω ψηφιοῦμαι ἐψήφισα ἐψήφικα ἐψήφισμαι ἐψήφισθην: vote

Πασίων: Pasion

ἔκγονος –ον: born of, sprung from

εὐεργεσίαἡ: good deed, kindliness

ὁμογνώμων: of one's mind, like-minded

δωρεά –άς ἡ: a gift, present

Ἀπολλόδωρος: Apollodoros

χρηστός –ή –όν: useful, good, honest

οἰκεῖος α ον: domestic, of the house; related

κοινωνέω: have a share, take part in

ἀδελφιδῆ: a brother’s or sister’s daughter, a niece

ἐμαυτοῦ –ῆς: (of) myself

3

προέρχομαι προεῖμι προῆλθον προελήλυθα––––––: go forward, go on, advance

λαγχάνω λήξομαι ἔλαχον εἴληχα––––––: obtain by lot, have as portion; obtain an office by lot

δοκιμάζω: to examine for office-holding

ὄμνυμι(or ὀμνύω) ὀμοῦμαι ὤμοσα ὀμώμοκα ὀμώμο(σ)μαι ὠμόθην: to swear an oath

νόμιμος –η –ον: customary, lawful

ὅρκος –ου ὁ: oath

Ἕλλην –ος ὁ: Greek man

ἀναμφισβήτητος: undisputed, indisputable

καταπολεμέω: to war down, defeat utterly

Φίλιππος ὁ: Philip II of Macedon

ὑστερίζω: to come after, come too late

βοήθεια –ας ἡ: help, aid

προίημι προήσω προῆκα προεῖκα προεῖμαι προείθην: (in mid.) to desert, give up

σύμμαχος –ου ὁ: fighting together, allied; favorable

ἀπορία –ας ἡ: difficulty, perplexity

καταλύω καταλύσω κατέλυσα καταλέλυκα καταλέλυμαι κατελύθην: dissolve, destroy

στρατόπεδον –ου τό: camp, army

ἄπιστος –ον: not to be trusted

κινδυνεύω κινδυνεύσω ἐκινδύνευσα κεκινδύνευκα κεκινδύνευμαι ἐκινδυνεύθην: risk

ὑπόλοιπος –ον: left behind, staying behind

Λῆμνος –ου ἡ: Lemnos

Ἴμβρος –ου ἡ: Imbros

Σκῦρος –ου ἡ: Skyros, an island northwest of Chios, with a city of the same name, or, a town in Lesser Phrygia

Χερσόνησος ἡ: the (Thracian) Chersonese

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Suggested Citation

Deborah Kamen, Pseudo-Demosthenes: Against Neaira. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/against-neaira/1-3