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[72] τὴν τοίνυν περιφανῶς ἐγνωσμένην ξένην εἶναι καὶ ἐφ᾽ ᾗ μοιχὸν οὗτος ἐτόλμησε λαβεῖν, εἰς τοσοῦτον ὕβρεως καὶ ἀναιδείας ἦλθεν Στέφανος οὑτοσὶ καὶ Νέαιρα αὑτηί, ὥστε ἐτόλμησαν μὴ ἀγαπᾶν εἰ ἔφασκον αὐτὴν ἀστὴν εἶναι, ἀλλὰ κατιδόντες Θεογένην Κοιρωνίδην λαχόντα βασιλέα, ἄνθρωπον εὐγενῆ μέν, πένητα δὲ καὶ ἄπειρον πραγμάτων, συμπαραγενόμενος αὐτῷ δοκιμαζομένῳ καὶ συνευπορήσας ἀναλωμάτων, ὅτε εἰσῄει εἰς τὴν ἀρχήν, Στέφανος οὑτοσί, καὶ ὑπελθὼν καὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ πριάμενος, πάρεδρος γενόμενος, δίδωσι τὴν ἄνθρωπον ταύτην γυναῖκα, τὴν τῆς Νεαίρας θυγατέρα, καὶ ἐγγυᾷ Στέφανος οὑτοσὶ ὡς αὑτοῦ θυγατέρα οὖσαν· οὕτω πολὺ τῶν νόμων καὶ ὑμῶν κατεφρόνησεν.

[73] καὶ αὕτη ἡ γυνὴ ὑμῖν ἔθυε τὰ ἄρρητα ἱερὰ ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως, καὶ εἶδεν ἃ οὐ προσῆκεν αὐτὴν ὁρᾶν ξένην οὖσαν, καὶ τοιαύτη οὖσα εἰσῆλθεν οἷ οὐδεὶς ἄλλος Ἀθηναίων τοσούτων ὄντων εἰσέρχεται ἀλλ᾽ ἢ ἡ τοῦ βασιλέως γυνή, ἐξώρκωσέν τε τὰς γεραρὰς τὰς ὑπηρετούσας τοῖς ἱεροῖς, ἐξεδόθη δὲ τῷ Διονύσῳ γυνή, ἔπραξε δὲ ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως τὰ πάτρια τὰ πρὸς τοὺς θεούς, πολλὰ καὶ ἅγια καὶ ἀπόρρητα. ἃ δὲ μηδ᾽ ἀκοῦσαι πᾶσιν οἷόν τ᾽ ἐστίν, πῶς ποιῆσαί γε τῇ ἐπιτυχούσῃ εὐσεβῶς ἔχει, ἄλλως τε καὶ τοιαύτῃ γυναικὶ καὶ τοιαῦτα ἔργα διαπεπραγμένῃ;

[74] βούλομαι δ᾽ ὑμῖν ἀκριβέστερον περὶ αὐτῶν ἄνωθεν διηγήσασθαι καθ᾽ ἕκαστον, ἵνα μᾶλλον ἐπιμέλειαν ποιήσησθε τῆς τιμωρίας, καὶ εἰδῆτε ὅτι οὐ μόνον ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν καὶ τῶν νόμων τὴν ψῆφον οἴσετε, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς εὐλαβείας, τιμωρίαν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἠσεβημένων ποιούμενοι καὶ κολάζοντες τοὺς ἠδικηκότας. τὸ γὰρ ἀρχαῖον, ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, δυναστεία ἐν τῇ πόλει ἦν καὶ ἡ βασιλεία τῶν ἀεὶ ὑπερεχόντων διὰ τὸ αὐτόχθονας εἶναι, τὰς δὲ θυσίας ἁπάσας ὁ βασιλεὺς ἔθυε, καὶ τὰς σεμνοτάτας καὶ ἀρρήτους ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ ἐποίει, εἰκότως, βασίλιννα οὖσα.

Stephanos then ingratiated himself with a man named Theogenes, who had been selected as βασιλεύς (king archon), and married Phano to him. As the wife of the βασιλεύς, Phano performed special rites on behalf of the city. Apollodoros explains that when Athens was a monarchy the king’s wife performed the most holy sacrifices. 

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τήν...γνωσμένην ξένην εναι: “this woman who was acknowledged to be an alien....” The accusative is picked by αὐτήν a couple of lines down and treated as the subject of εἶναι ἀστήν in indirect statement.

τοσοτον: as often, takes a genitive of measure (“such a pitch/degree of…”) (G. 507.c, S. 1325)

μ γαπν ε φασκον: “to not be satisfied if they claimed that,” i.e., “to not be content with claiming that”

κατιδόντες < κατεῖδον

Κοιρωνίδην: “of the genos Koironidai.” This is actually a correction of the MSS, which read Καθωκίδην, referring to the deme Kothokidai, but we learn that Theogenes’ deme is Erchia in §84, so the manuscript reading must be corrupt.

βασιλέα: the βασιλεύς was one of the three main archons or magistrates (along with the eponymous archon and polemarch) selected by lot for one-year terms. The duties of the βασιλεύς were primarily religious in nature (overseeing festivals, sacrifices, sacred land, and trials pertaining to religious matters).

δοκιμαζομέν: “The help referred to here [συμπαραγενόμενος] could consist of general advice on the dokimasia process, including details such as the choice and presentation of witnesses, appearance as witness or (if an objection was lodged) assistance with the presentation of the case” (Carey 1992: 122).

συνευπορήσας < συνευπορέω; the participle modifies Στέφανος οὑτοσί, below.

ναλωμάτων: i.e., the costs the βασιλεύς incurred in purchasing new clothing appropriate for his office, and furniture or other equipment necessary for his religious duties. (Note that Stephanos, earlier presented as a poor man with only an οἰκίδιον, is now portrayed as rich, since in this instance it helps Apollodoros’ case.)

εσει < εἰσ-εἶμι; the subject is Theogenes.

πελθών < ὑπέρχομαι, “getting into his good graces”

τν ρχήν: “a magistracy,” namely the post of πάρεδρος

πάρεδρος: each of the three major archons had two πάρεδροι or assistants, whom they selected for themselves, and who themselves had to undergo a δοκιμασία. In none of our sources are the exact duties of πάρεδροι spelled out.

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θυε τ ρρητα ερά: “made the secret sacrificial offerings,” part of the Anthesteria, a festival held in honor of Dionysos on the 11th, 12th, and 13th of Anthesterion (February/March). The first day of the festival was called the Pithoigia, on which wine jars were opened; the second day was the Choes, a day of drinking and revelry; and the third was the Chytroi, which commemorated the dead. Most likely the sacrifices being referred to here are those on the second day, the Choes; however, it is possible Apollodoros is condensing events that actually took place over the entire festival.

προσῆκεν: impersonal use, with accusative person + infinitive

οσα: concessive circumstantial participle

ἀλλ’ ἤ: “except”

το βασιλέως γυνή: the wife of the βασιλεύς played a special role in the religious life of the city, including being “married off” to Dionysos in a special ceremony; this was a way of ritually incorporating Dionysos (who comes from afar) into the city.

ξώρκωσεν < ἐξορκόω, “administered the oath to”

γεραράς: literally, “the revered women,” a term used for priestesses of Dionysos selected by the βασιλεύς for a one-year term.

πηρετούσας < ὑπηρετέω (+ dat.); governs ἱεροῖς, “rites, sacrifices”

γυνή: take as predicate.

τά πάτρια: “ancestral customs”

οόν τ’ στίν: οἷός τ’ εἰμί is an idiomatic way of saying “to be able”; here it is impersonal: “it is possible” (+ dat. of person).

πς ποισαί γε τ πιτυχούσ εσεβς χει: “how is it pious for any chance person to do.” The direct object of ποιῆσαι is the preceding clause.πιτυχούσ < ἐπιτυγχάνω: as a substantive participle, often has the sense of “any chance person”

λλως τε καί: “especially”

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κριβέστερον: comparative adverb

καθ’ καστον: “each at a time,” i.e., “one by one”

τιμωρίας; gen. object of ἐπιμέλειαν

οσετε < φέρω, + ψῆφον, “to give a vote”

τς...ελαβείας: genitive governed by an implied ὑπέρ

σεβημένων < ἀσεβέω; participle here in neuter

τό...ρχαον: adverbial accusative

δυναστεία: Apollodoros simplifies the development of Athenian monarchy (from the kings to the βασιλεύς archon) by compressing it into two stages.

εί: “at any given time” (see §46)

περεχόντων < ὑπερέχω: as substantive, has the sense of “the powerful, those having authority”; here, genitive of possession

ατόχθονας: the Athenians defined themselves as native inhabitants of their land, literally sprung from the earth of Attica (i.e., “autochthonous”).

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περιφανής –ές: visible from all sides; manifest, clear; adv. -νῶς conspicuously, notably, evidently

ξένη: a female guest, a foreign woman

μοιχός –ο : an adulterer, paramour, debaucher

βρις –εως : outrage, insolence

ναίδεια -ας : shamelessness, impudence, effrontery

Στέφανος: Stephanos

Νέαιρα: Neaira

γαπάω γαπήσω γάπησα γάπηκα γάπημαι γάπηθην: love, show affection; be pleased

φάσκω φάσκσω φασκσα ––– ––– –––: say, affirm, think, claim

στή –ς : fem. of ἀστός

κατεδον (aor. of καθοράω): to behold, discern

Θεογένης: Theogenes

λαγχάνω λήξομαι λαχον εληχα ––– –––: to obtain by lot; to file suit (absol. and with δίκην)

εὐγενής –ές: well-born, generous

πένης –ητος : laborer, poor man

πειρος –α –ον: inexperienced of, ignorant

συμπαραγίγνομαι: help

δοκιμάζω: to examine for office-holding

συνευπορέω: to contribute towards (+ gen.)

νάλωμα: expenditure, cost

εσειμι: to go into

πέρχομαι πελεύσομαι/πειμι πλθον πελήλυθα ––– –––: fawn upon, insinuate oneself into another’s good graces

πρίαμαι/νέομαι νήσομαι/νηθήσομαι πριάμην/ωνήθην ώνημαι: to buy

πάρεδρος –ον: one who sits beside, an assistant

γγυάω: to betroth

καταφρονέω καταφρονήσω κατεφρόνησα καταπεφρόνηκα καταπεφρόνημαι κατεφρονήθην: disdain, scorn, despise

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ρρητος –ον: not to be spoken, not to be divulged

εσέρχομαι εσελεύσομαι εσλθον εσελήλυθα ––– –––: to come to court

οἷ: to where

θηναος –α –ον: Athenian

ξορκόω: to administer an oath (to someone, + acc.)

γεραρός -ά -όν: majestic, venerable; αἱ γεραραί, venerable priestesses of Dionysos

πηρετέω πηρετήσω πηρτησα πηρτηκα πηρτημαι πηρετήθην: to minister to, serve (+ dat.)

κδίδωμι κδώσω ξέδωκε κδέδωκα κδέδομαι ξεδόθην: to give in marriage

Διόνυσος: Dionysos

πάτριος –α –ον: of or belonging to one's father, paternal

γιος: devoted to the gods, sacred, holy

πόρρητος –ον: forbidden, secret

πιτυγχάνω πιτεύξομαι πέτυχον πιτετύχηκα: to happen upon

εσεβής –ές: pious, religious, righteous

διαπράσσω διαπράξω διέπραξα διαπέπραχα (or διαπέπραγα) διαπέπραγμαι διεπράχθην: pass over, accomplish

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νωθεν: from the beginning

διηγέομαι διηγήσομαι διηγησάμην ––– διήγημαι διηγήθην: set out in detail

πιμέλεια: care, attention

τιμωρία –ας : help, vengeance, torture

ψφος –ου : small stone; vote; judgment

ελάβεια: discretion, caution, circumspection

σεβέω σεβήσω σέβησα σέβηκα σέβημαι σεβήθην: to be impious, commit sacrilege, sin against

κολάζω κολάσω κόλασα κεκόλακα κεκόλαμαι κολάσθην: chastise, punish

ρχαος –α –ον: ancient, old-fashioned, primitive

δυναστεία –ας : monarchy

βασιλεία –ας : kingship

περέχω περσχήσω/περξω περσχον περσχηκα περσχημαι περεσχθην: to excel

ατόχθων or –ον gen .–ονος: sprung from the land itself

θυσία –ας : offering, sacrifice

σεμνός –ή –όν: holy; august

εκότως: suitably, fairly

βασίλιννα : queen; wife of the ἄρχων βασιλεύς

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Suggested Citation

Deborah Kamen, Pseudo-Demosthenes: Against Neaira. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/against-neaira/72-74