88-90

[88] βούλομαι τοίνυν ὑμῖν, ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, καὶ τοῦ δήμου τοῦ Ἀθηναίων μαρτυρίαν παρασχέσθαι, ὡς σπουδάζει περὶ τὰ ἱερὰ ταῦτα καὶ ὡς πολλὴν πρόνοιαν περὶ αὐτῶν πεποίηται. ὁ γὰρ δῆμος ὁ Ἀθηναίων κυριώτατος ὢν τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει ἁπάντων, καὶ ἐξὸν αὐτῷ ποιεῖν ὅ τι ἂν βούληται, οὕτω καλὸν καὶ σεμνὸν ἡγήσατ᾽ εἶναι δῶρον τὸ Ἀθηναῖον γενέσθαι, ὥστε νόμους ἔθετο αὑτῷ καθ᾽ οὓς ποιεῖσθαι δεῖ, ἐάν τινα βούλωνται, πολίτην, οἳ νῦν προπεπηλακισμένοι εἰσὶν ὑπὸ Στεφάνου τουτουὶ καὶ τῶν οὕτω γεγαμηκότων.

[89] ὅμως δ᾽ ἀκούοντες αὐτῶν βελτίους ἔσεσθε, καὶ τὰ κάλλιστα καὶ τὰ σεμνότατα δῶρα τοῖς εὐεργετοῦσι τὴν πόλιν διδόμενα γνώσεσθε ὡς λελυμασμένοι εἰσίν. πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ νόμος ἐστὶ τῷ δήμῳ κείμενος μὴ ἐξεῖναι ποιήσασθαι Ἀθηναῖον, ὃν ἂν μὴ δι᾽ ἀνδραγαθίαν εἰς τὸν δῆμον τὸν Ἀθηναίων ἄξιον ᾖ γενέσθαι πολίτην. ἔπειτ᾽ ἐπειδὰν πεισθῇ ὁ δῆμος καὶ δῷ τὴν δωρεάν, οὐκ ἐᾷ κυρίαν γενέσθαι τὴν ποίησιν, ἐὰν μὴ τῇ ψήφῳ εἰς τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ἐκκλησίαν ὑπερεξακισχίλιοι Ἀθηναίων ψηφίσωνται κρύβδην ψηφιζόμενοι.

[90] τοὺς δὲ πρυτάνεις κελεύει τιθέναι τοὺς καδίσκους ὁ νόμος καὶ τὴν ψῆφον διδόναι προσιόντι τῷ δήμῳ πρὶν τοὺς ξένους εἰσιέναι, καὶ τὰ γέρρα ἀναιρεῖν, ἵνα κύριος ὢν αὐτὸς αὑτοῦ ἕκαστος σκοπῆται πρὸς αὑτὸν ὅντινα μέλλει πολίτην ποιήσεσθαι, εἰ ἄξιός ἐστι τῆς δωρεᾶς ὁ μέλλων λήψεσθαι. ἔπειτα μετὰ ταῦτα παρανόμων γραφὴν ἐποίησε κατ᾽ αὐτοῦ τῷ βουλομένῳ Ἀθηναίων, καὶ ἔστιν εἰσελθόντα εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον ἐξελέγξαι ὡς οὐκ ἄξιός ἐστι τῆς δωρεᾶς, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τοὺς νόμους Ἀθηναῖος γέγονεν.

Apollodoros explains the steps by which Athenians grant the exceptional honor of citizenship.

88

ξόν < ἔξεστι; accusative absolute (see §13)

δρον: take this word, along with its modifiers (καλὸν καὶ σεμνόν), as the predicate.

τ θηναον γενέσθαι: articular infinitive: “to become Athenian” means “to become a naturalized Athenian citizen.”

ποιεσθαι < ποιέομαι (middle of ποιέω), which often means “to adopt”; in a transferred sense it can mean to “adopt” someone into one’s polis, i.e., naturalize them.

πολίτην: take as the predicate; the object of ποιεῖσθαι is an understood τινά.

89

μως: some scholars think that there is a lacuna preceding ὅμως (proposing that something like “even though you know these laws…” has fallen out); others use the emendation ὑμεῖς δ’ ἀκούσαντες αὐτῶν βέλτιον εἴσεσθε (as does Dilts 2009).

ατν: genitive object of ἀκούοντες

βελτίους = βελτίονες (comparative of ἀγαθός)

βελτίους σεσθε: it has been pointed out that this is a patronizing way of speaking to the jury (Carey 1992: 130); Kapparis 1999: 88 therefore suggests emending the text to βέλτιον εἴσεσθε.

τ κάλλιστα κα τ σεμνότατα δρα: take as the object of λελυμασμένοι εἰσίν.

πόλιν: object of εὐεργετοῦσι. Euergetism, doing good services for the polis of Athens, was something that was highly encouraged and rewarded in kind.

λελυμασμένοι εσίν: perfect middle < λυμαίνω (“soil, dishonor, outrage, offend”), periphrastic as usual for 3 pl. pf. mid.-pass. (see §48 and S. 408); the subject is Stephanos and others of his ilk.

νδραγαθίαν ες: “good services to,” see §73; ἀνδραγαθία, literally “the quality of being a good man,” was the defining virtue that qualified one for naturalization.

κυρίαν: “valid”

πιοσαν < ἐπιειμί; that is, the next Assembly meeting

περεξακισχίλιοι: over 6,000: the typical number required for quorum.

ψηφίσωνται: this is the second vote to ratify the grant of citizenship; the first took place at the previous Assembly meeting. The additional requirement of a second vote is hard to date precisely.

κρύβδην: the use of secret ballots and urns (see below) is more typical of the courts than the Assembly.

90

γέρρα: these are likely movable wicker fences. A plausible suggestion (Hansen 1984: 241-47) is that they were temporary barriers set up to monitor access to the Pnyx. Only citizens were let through at first, so that they could vote; after the vote, the barriers were taken down and non-citizens (and other spectators) could come through to witness the proceedings.

κύριος ν ατς ατο: “being himself master of himself,” i.e., independent and free from any pressure brought by non-citizens

σκοπται πρς ατόν: the prepositional phrase, to be taken closely with the verb, intensifies the idea of introspection.

λήψεσθαι: deponent future of λαμβάνω: supply as its object δωρεάν (that is, the gift of citizenship)

παρανόμων γραφήν: “an indictment for illegality,” see §5.

ποίησε: “(the law) made it possible (to bring)” 

κατ’ ατο: i.e., against the candidate for citizenship. Technically, however, the γραφή is brought not against him but against the man who proposed that said person be given citizenship.

στιν: note the accent: here with its sense of “it is possible”; it can take a dative or (as here) accusative of person for whom something is possible, plus infinitive.

88

θηναος –α –ον: Athenian

μαρτυρία –ας : witness, testimony, evidence

σπουδάζω σπουδάσομαι σπούδασα σπούδακα σπούδασμαι σπουδάσθην: make haste, be eager, do hastily

πρόνοια –ας : foresight, care

ξεστι: it is possible

σεμνός –ή –όν: holy; august

δρον –ου τό: gift

πολίτης –ου : citizen, freeman

προπηλακίζω προπηλακι προυπηλάκισα ––– προπεπηλάκισμαι προυπηλακίσθην: to bespatter with mud; mistreat insultingly

γαμέω γαμ γημα γεγάμηκα γεγάμημαι –––: marry

89

μως: still, nevertheless

κάλλιστος –η –ον: finest

εεργετέω: to do well, do good, to benefit

λυμαίνω: damage; (mid.) soil, dishonor, outrage, offend

νδραγαθία –ας : bravery, manly virtue, the character of a brave honest man

πειδάν: whenever (ἐπειδή + ἄν, in indefinite or general clauses with subjunctive)

δωρεά –άς : a gift, present

ποίησις –εως : a making, creation

ψφος –ου : small stone; vote; judgment

πειμί πέσομαι ––– ––– ––– –––: to come after

κκλησία –ας : assembly

περεξακισχίλιοι: over six thousand

ψηφίζω ψηφιζι ψήφισα ψήφικα ψήφισμαι ψήφισθην: vote

κρύβδην: secretly

90

πρύτανις –εως ὁ:  prytanis, member of the tribe presiding in the Athenian βουλή or ἐκκλησία

καδίσκος: a voting urn

πρόσειμι: approach

εσειμι: to go into

γέρρον: an object made of wicker-work, wicker shield or fence

παράνομος: acting contrary to law, lawless

εσέρχομαι εσελεύσομαι εσλθον εσελήλυθα ––– –––: to come to court

δικαστήριον –ου τό: a court of justice

ξελέγχω ξελέξω ξέλεξα ξέλεχα ξέλεγμαι ξελέχθην: to convict; to verify, prove

article nav
Previous
Next

Suggested Citation

Deborah Kamen, Pseudo-Demosthenes: Against Neaira. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/against-neaira/88-90