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[94] Πλαταιῆς γάρ, ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, μόνοι τῶν Ἑλλήνων ὑμῖν ἐβοήθησαν Μαραθῶνάδε, ὅτε Δᾶτις ὁ βασιλέως Δαρείου στρατηγὸς ἀναχωρῶν ἐξ Ἐρετρίας Εὔβοιαν ὑφ᾽ ἑαυτῷ ποιησάμενος, ἀπέβη εἰς τὴν χώραν πολλῇ δυνάμει καὶ ἐπόρθει. καὶ ἔτι καὶ νῦν τῆς ἀνδραγαθίας αὐτῶν ὑπομνήματα ἡ ἐν τῇ ποικίλῃ στοᾷ γραφὴ δεδήλωκεν· ὡς ἕκαστος γὰρ τάχους εἶχεν, εὐθὺς προσβοηθῶν γέγραπται, οἱ τὰς κυνᾶς τὰς Βοιωτίας ἔχοντες.

[95] πάλιν δὲ Ξέρξου ἰόντος ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα, Θηβαίων μηδισάντων, οὐκ ἐτόλμησαν ἀποστῆναι τῆς ὑμετέρας φιλίας, ἀλλὰ μόνοι τῶν ἄλλων Βοιωτῶν οἱ μὲν ἡμίσεις αὐτῶν μετὰ Λακεδαιμονίων καὶ Λεωνίδου ἐν Θερμοπύλαις παραταξάμενοι τῷ βαρβάρῳ ἐπιόντι συναπώλοντο, οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ ἐμβάντες εἰς τὰς ὑμετέρας τριήρεις, ἐπειδὴ αὐτοῖς οἰκεῖα σκάφη οὐχ ὑπῆρχεν, συνεναυμάχουν ὑμῖν ἐπί τε Ἀρτεμισίῳ καὶ ἐν Σαλαμῖνι,

[96] καὶ τὴν τελευταίαν μάχην Πλαταιᾶσι Μαρδονίῳ τῷ βασιλέως στρατηγῷ μεθ᾽ ὑμῶν καὶ τῶν συνελευθερούντων τὴν Ἑλλάδα μαχεσάμενοι, εἰς κοινὸν τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τοῖς ἄλλοις Ἕλλησι κατέθηκαν. ἐπεὶ δὲ Παυσανίας ὁ Λακεδαιμονίων βασιλεὺς ὑβρίζειν ἐνεχείρει ὑμᾶς, καὶ οὐκ ἠγάπα ὅτι τῆς ἡγεμονίας μόνοι ἠξιώθησαν Λακεδαιμόνιοι ὑπὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων, καὶ ἡ πόλις τῇ μὲν ἀληθείᾳ ἡγεῖτο τῆς ἐλευθερίας τοῖς Ἕλλησιν, τῇ δὲ φιλοτιμίᾳ οὐκ ἠναντιοῦτο τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις, ἵνα μὴ φθονηθῶσιν ὑπὸ τῶν συμμάχων—

[97] ἐφ᾽ οἷς φυσηθεὶς Παυσανίας ὁ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων βασιλεὺς ἐπέγραψεν ἐπὶ τὸν τρίποδα τὸν ἐν Δελφοῖς, ὃν οἱ Ἕλληνες οἱ συμμαχεσάμενοι τὴν Πλαταιᾶσι μάχην καὶ τὴν ἐν Σαλαμῖνι ναυμαχίαν ναυμαχήσαντες κοινῇ ποιησάμενοι ἀνέθηκαν ἀριστεῖον τῷ Ἀπόλλωνι ἀπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων, “Ἑλλήνων ἀρχηγός, ἐπεὶ στρατὸν ὤλεσε Μήδων, / Παυσανίας Φοίβῳ μνῆμ᾽ ἀνέθηκε τόδε,” ὡς αὑτοῦ τοῦ ἔργου ὄντος καὶ τοῦ ἀναθήματος, ἀλλ᾽ οὐ κοινοῦ τῶν συμμάχων·

Digression on the Plataians, 94–106. The aim of this section is to contrast the worthy grant of citizenship to the Plataians, who risked their lives on behalf of the Athenians, with the usurpation of citizen rights by those who didn’t deserve them. In this section, Apollodoros draws heavily on Thucydides (History of the Peloponnesian War 2.2-6) with occasional deviations, most of which serve either to condense the narrative or to paint the Plataians in a flattering light. For a detailed account of how Apollodoros’ account is both similar to and different from Thucydides’, see Kapparis 1999 ad loc. 94–103.

The Plataians helped the Athenians during the Persian Wars at the Battle of Marathon, and assisted both the Athenians and the Spartans when Xerxes invaded Greece ten years later. The Spartan king Pausanias, however, inscribed a monument to Apollo in which he took sole credit for the Greeks’ victories at Salamis and Plataia. 

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Πλαταις = Πλαταιεῖς, “the men of Plataea,” a city in Boiotia, near Thebes.

Μαραθωνάδε: “to Marathon.” Marathon is a city 26 miles north of Athens. The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BCE, where the Athenians (with the help of the Plataians) defeated the Persians and drove them from Greece (at least until the Persian king Xerxes invaded in 480). The name was later borrowed by the founders of the modern Olympics for the well-known footrace, drawing on a mythologized version of these events. [map]

ρετρίαςEretria is a city in Euboia. Along with Athens, it was targeted by the Persian king Darius because these two cities had given aid to the Ionian Greek cities of Asia Minor when they (unsuccessfully) revolted in 499 BCE.

βοήθησαν: ”came to your aid” < βοηθέω

Δαρείου: King Darius I, a.k.a. Darius the Great

Εὔβοιαν ὑφ’ ἑαυτῷ ποιησάμενος: ”having put Euboia under him," i.e. subjugating Euboia

πέβη ες τν χώραν: “disembarked (from his ships) into (our) territory,” i.e., Attica, after crossing the strait from Euboia. πέβη < ἀπο-βαίνω

δυνάμει < δύναμις: “forces for war,” i.e., army (LSJ I.3). According to Herodotus 6.95, the fleet sent by Darius consisted of 600 triremes.

πόρθει ”began to plunder” < πορθέω; inchoative imperfect, denoting the beginning of an action (S. 1900)

ατν: the Plataians

τ ποικίλ στο: the Stoa Pokile, or Painted Stoa, was built in the first half of the fifth century in the north part of the Agora (reconstruction drawing).

γραφή: “picture,” “painting,” in this case one of the large wall frescoes that gave the Painted Stoa its name.

δεδήλωκεν: “shows, depicts,” pf. with present meaning marking an enduring result (S. 1946).

ς καστος...τάχους εχεν: “as much as each man abounded in speed,” i.e., as fast as each man could go, at full speed; ἔχω + gen.: “to be well off for, abound in” (LSJ B.II.2.b).

γέγραπται < γράφω: the subject is (the understood) ἕκαστος.

οχοντες: if the text is secure (a disputed point), this must stand in apposition to ἕκαστος.

τς κυνς τς Βοιωτίας: the distinctive Boiotian helmet was lightweight and allowed for good visibility. A fourth century BCE example can be seen in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

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Ξέρξου όντος π τν λλάδαXerxes, king of Persia, was the son of Darius I. He invaded Greece in 480 BCE.

μηδισάντων < μηδίζω: i.e., going over to the Persian side

τόλησαν: supply as subject the Plataians.

ΛεωνίδουLeonidas was a famous Spartan general.

Θερμοπύλαις: the Battle of Thermopylai took place in 480 BCE. While it saw a Persian victory, the Greeks (led by Leonidas) performed remarkably well. Apollodoros may be making up the Plataians’ involvement in the battle; at any rate, Herodotus does not mention their participation (Hdt. 7.202222).

τῷ βαρβάρῳ ἐπιόντι: dative governed by παραταξάμενοι, “drawn up against”

oκεα: “their own, belonging to them”

ὑπῆρχεν < ὑπάρχω, "to exist"

ρτεμισί: the Battle of Artemision was a series of naval engagements fought in 480 BCE.

Σαλαμνι: the Battle of Salamis, fought in 480 BCE, saw a decisive victory for the Greeks. According to Herodotus, the Plataians did not participate in this battle (Hdt. 8.44.1).

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τν τελευταίαν μάχην Πλαταισι: the Battle of Plataia (479 BCE) was another Greek victory. Πλαταισι = “at Plataia,” locative (S. 341)

κατέθηκαν...ες κοινόν: “deposited for public use,” as if the Plataians had won the victory as a gift to all the other Greeks. In fact, the Spartans had a key role, including overall command under Pausanias. According to Herodotus 9.28-29, the Athenians sent 8,000 hoplites, led by Aristides, along with 600 Plataian exiles.

Παυσανίας Λακεδαιμονίων βασιλεύς: in fact, he was regent of Leonidas’ son, who was too young to be king.

βρίζειν νεχείρει: “set out to insult,” referring to the events described in the next section. νεχείρει < ἐγχειρέω

οκ γάπα: “was not content”

ξιώθησαν: “were considered worthy of,” i.e., “were given”

γεμονίας: “supreme command,” genitive governed by ἠξιώθησαν

πόλις: Athens

τληθεί: “in truth”

γετο: “led,” esp. at the crucial naval battles of Artemision and Salamis. ἡγέομαι = “to be leader for someone (+ dat.) in something (+ gen.)”

φιλοτιμί: dative of respect, “in ambition,” i.e., in asserting leadership at the Battle of Plataia

Λακεδαιμονίοις: dative governed by ναντιοτο < ἐναντιόομαι; the subject of ἠναντιοῦτο is Athens

να μ φθονηθσιν: “so that they (the Athenians) would not become the objects of ill-will.” Athenian self-restraint is juxtaposed with the arrogance of the Spartan Pausanias. φθονηθσιν < φθονέω, aor. pass. subj. 3 pl.

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φ’ ος: that is, the honors accorded to the Spartans

φυσηθείς < φυσάω

ἀριστεῖον: take as predicate

ἀπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων: i.e., from the spoils of the barbarians

λεσε < ὄλλυμι

Φοίβ: i.e., Apollo

ς...ντος: ὡς + ptc. = “as if” (LSJ C.I.1)

αὑτο: reflexive pronoun, possessive genitive; note the predicate position.

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Πλαταιες -έων ο: Plataians, Attic nom. Πλαταιῆς, acc. -ᾶς

λλην –ος : Greek man

Μαραθών -νος : Marathon

Δτις: Datis

Δρεος : Darius

ναχωρέω ναχωρήσω νεχώρησα: withdraw, return

ρέτρια -ας : Eretria

Εβοια –ας : Euboia

ποβαίνω ποβήσομαι ποέβην ποβέβηκα ––– –––: step from

πορθέω πορθήσω ––– ––– ––– –––: destroy, sack

νδραγαθία –ας : bravery, manly virtue, the character of a brave honest man

πόμνημα: a remembrance, memorial

ποικίλος –η –ον: many colored, spotted, mottled

στοά: a portico, roofed colonnade, piazza

τάχος –ους τό: speed, quickness

προσβοηθέω: to come to aid, come up with succor

κυνέη –ης : a dog skin; cap, helmet, acc. κυνᾶς 

Βοιωτία –ας Boiotia

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Ξέρξης : Xerxes, king of Persia

λλας –αδος : Greece

Θηβαος –η/–α –ον: Theban

μηδίζω: to be a Mede in language, side with the Medes and Persians

φίστημι ποστήσω πέστησα (or πέστην) πέστηκα πέσταμαι πεστάθην: remove; revolt/cause to revolt

Βοιωτός –ή –όν: a Boiotian

μισυς μίσεια μισυ: half

Λακεδαιμόνιος –α –ον: Spartan

Θερμοπύλαι –νThermopylai

παρατάσσω: to place side by side, draw up in battle-order

βάρβαρος –ου : barbarian, foreign

πειμι: (go) come upon, approach, attack

συναπόλλυμι συναπολ συναπώλεσα συναπολώλεκα συναπωλέσθην: to destroy together; (mid.) perish together

μβαίνω μβήσομαι νέβην μβέβηκα ––– –––: step upon, board

τριήρης –ους trireme, a kind of warship

σκάφος -εος τό: a ship

συνναυμαχέω: to engage in a sea-fight along with

ρτεμίσιον –ου τόArtemision

Σαλαμίς –ος Salamis

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τελευταος –α –ον: last, uttermost

Πλαταιαί: Plataia

Μαρδόνιος: Mardonios

συνελευθερόω: to join in freeing from

λευθερία –ας : freedom

κατατίθημι καταθήσω κατέθηκα κατατέθηκα κατατέθην: put down; (mid.) lay aside, store up

Παυσανίας: Pausanias

βρίζω βριζι βρισα βρικα βρισμαι βρίσθην: insult, offend, disrespect

γχειρέω γχειρήσω νεχείρησα γκεχείρηκα: to attempt, undertake

γαπάω γαπήσω γάπησα γάπηκα γάπημαι γάπηθην: love, show affection; be content

γεμονία –ας : a leading the way, going first; supreme command

φιλοτιμία: love of distinction, ambition

ναντιόομαι ναντιοσθαι: to set oneself against, oppose, withstand + dat.

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φθονέω φθονήσω φθόνησα ––– φθόνημαι φθονήθην: to bear ill-will

σύμμαχος –ου ὁ: ally

φυσάω φυσήσω φύσησα ––– πεφύσημαι φυσήθην: blow up, puff up (with pride)

πιγράφω πιγράψω πέγραψα πιγέγραφα πιγέγραμμαι πεγράφθην: inscribe

τρίπους –ποδοςsacrificial tripod

Δελφοί ν οDelphi, site of the Delphic oracle

συμμάχομαι: to fight along with

ναυμαχία –ας : sea battle, lit. ship-fight

ναυμαχέω ναυμαχήσω ναυμάχησα: fight by sea

νατίθημι ναθήσω νέθηκα νατέθηκα ––– νέτέθην: to decorate, set up, dedicate

ριστεον τό: monument of valor, memorial

πόλλων –ωνος : Apollo

ρχηγός –όν: beginning, originating, principal

λλυμι λ λεσα (or λόμην) λώλεκα (or λωλα) ––– –––: destroy, lose

Μδος ὁ: Mede, Median

Φοβος –ου : Phoebus, epithet of Apollo, probably as god of light

μνμα –ατος τό: remembrance, memory

νάθημα –ατος τό: dedicated thing, votive gift, offering

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Suggested Citation

Deborah Kamen, Pseudo-Demosthenes: Against Neaira. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/against-neaira/94-97