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[4] καὶ μελλόντων στρατεύεσθαι ὑμῶν πανδημεὶ εἴς τε Εὔβοιαν καὶ Ὄλυνθον, ἔγραψε ψήφισμα ἐν τῇ βουλῇ Ἀπολλόδωρος βουλεύων καὶ ἐξήνεγκε προβούλευμα εἰς τὸν δῆμον, λέγον διαχειροτονῆσαι τὸν δῆμον εἴτε δοκεῖ τὰ περιόντα χρήματα τῆς διοικήσεως στρατιωτικὰ εἶναι εἴτε θεωρικά, κελευόντων μὲν τῶν νόμων, ὅταν πόλεμος ᾖ, τὰ περιόντα χρήματα τῆς διοικήσεως στρατιωτικὰ εἶναι, κύριον δ᾽ ἡγούμενος δεῖν τὸν δῆμον εἶναι περὶ τῶν αὑτοῦ ὅ τι ἂν βούληται πρᾶξαι, ὀμωμοκὼς δὲ τὰ βέλτιστα βουλεύσειν τῷ δήμῳ τῷ Ἀθηναίων, ὡς ὑμεῖς πάντες ἐμαρτυρήσατε ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καιρῷ.

[5] γενομένης γὰρ τῆς διαχειροτονίας, οὐδεὶς ἀντεχειροτόνησεν ὡς οὐ δεῖ τοῖς χρήμασι τούτοις στρατιωτικοῖς χρῆσθαι, ἀλλὰ καὶ νῦν ἔτι, ἄν που λόγος γένηται, παρὰ πάντων ὁμολογεῖται ὡς τὰ βέλτιστα εἰπὼν ἄδικα πάθοι. τῷ οὖν ἐξαπατήσαντι τῷ λόγῳ τοὺς δικαστὰς δίκαιον ὀργίζεσθαι, οὐ τοῖς ἐξαπατηθεῖσιν. γραψάμενος γὰρ παρανόμων τὸ ψήφισμα Στέφανος οὑτοσὶ καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον, ἐπὶ διαβολῇ ψευδεῖς μάρτυρας παρασχόμενος ὡς ὦφλε τῷ δημοσίῳ ἐκ πέντε καὶ εἴκοσιν ἐτῶν, καὶ ἔξω τῆς γραφῆς πολλὰ κατηγορῶν, εἷλε τὸ ψήφισμα.

[6] καὶ τοῦτο μὲν εἰ αὐτῷ ἐδόκει διαπράξασθαι, οὐ χαλεπῶς φέρομεν· ἀλλ᾽ ἐπειδὴ περὶ τοῦ τιμήματος ἐλάμβανον τὴν ψῆφον οἱ δικασταί, δεομένων ἡμῶν συγχωρῆσαι οὐκ ἤθελεν, ἀλλὰ πεντεκαίδεκα ταλάντων ἐτιμᾶτο, ἵνα ἀτιμώσειεν αὐτὸν καὶ παῖδας τοὺς ἐκείνου, καὶ τὴν ἀδελφὴν τὴν ἐμὴν καὶ ἡμᾶς ἅπαντας εἰς τὴν ἐσχάτην ἀπορίαν καταστήσειεν καὶ ἔνδειαν ἁπάντων.

[7] ἡ μὲν γὰρ οὐσία οὐδὲ τριῶν ταλάντων πάνυ τι ἦν, ὥστε δυνηθῆναι ἐκτεῖσαι τοσοῦτον ὄφλημα· μὴ ἐκτεισθέντος δὲ τοῦ ὀφλήματος ἐπὶ τῆς ἐνάτης πρυτανείας, διπλοῦν ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαι τὸ ὄφλημα καὶ ἐγγραφήσεσθαι Ἀπολλόδωρος τριάκοντα τάλαντα ὀφείλων τῷ δημοσίῳ· ἐγγεγραμμένου δὲ τῷ δημοσίῳ, ἀπογραφήσεσθαι ἔμελλεν ἡ ὑπάρχουσα οὐσία Ἀπολλοδώρῳ δημοσία εἶναι, πραθείσης δ᾽ αὐτῆς εἰς τὴν ἐσχάτην ἀπορίαν καταστήσεσθαι καὶ αὐτὸς καὶ παῖδες οἱ ἐκείνου καὶ γυνὴ καὶ ἡμεῖς ἅπαντες.

Theomnestos describes Apollodoros’ public-spirited acts as a member of the Boule and Stephanos’ attempts to thwart Apollodoros and use the laws to ruin him and his family financially.

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ξήνεγκε < ἐκφέρω

προβούλευμα: a proposal put forward by the Boule to the Ekklesia (Assembly); in this case it is an “open” προβούλευμα, meaning that it does not recommend a particular course of action.

λέγον: agrees with προβούλευμα

τν δμον: accusative subject of διαχειροτονῆσαι in indirect statement

τὰ περιόντα χρήματα τς διοικήσεως: “the leftover money from the financial administration,” i.e., the budgetary surplus. περιόντα < περίειμι

στρατιωτικάθεωρικά: the stratiotic fund was designed to fund military endeavors, whereas the theoric fund was designed to fund festivals.

κελευόντωντν νόμων: scholars debate the relationship between Apollodoros’ proposal and these previous laws. At the very least, Theomnestos seems to be simplifying the situation. Most likely, there was one law that stated that, during wartime, any surplus was to go into the stratiotic fund, and another (later) law or laws that said that surplus should go into the theoric fund (without indicating whether this was only during peacetime). Apollodoros’ proposal likely aimed not to contradict the latter law but to leave the decision of what to do with the surplus up to the people. Carey 1992: 152-56 suggests that Apollodoros was prosecuted on the grounds that it was procedurally irregular for him to bring the matter to the Assembly (rather than putting together a board of lawmakers to sort out the conflicts between the laws).

κύριον: take as predicate adjective; governs the infinitive πρᾶξαι

γούμενος: Apollodoros is the antecedent

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στρατιωτικος: note the predicate position of this word; thus, “as stratiotic”

ν = ἐάν

μολογεται: take impersonally.

επών...πάθοι: sc. Ἀπολλόδωρος

ξαπατήσαντι < ἐξαπατάω; the antecedent is Stephanos, the dative is governed by ὀργίζεσθαι.

δίκαιον: sc. ἐστί

γραψάμενοςπαρανόμων: “indicting [the decree] for illegality”; παρανόμων is a genitive of charge or crime: G. 514, S. 1375. The procedure, a γραφὴ παρανόμων, was a public lawsuit alleging that a motion or decree was unconstitutional, either because it violated an existing law or because it was introduced through improper procedure. As with any γραφή, any Athenian who wished could bring this kind of suit.

φλε < ὀφλισκάνω, “had been a debtor to” + dat. The subject is Apollodoros.

δημοσί: “public treasury,” the neuter substantive of δήμοσιος

κ πέντε καὶ εκοσιν τν: “for 25 years.” ἐκ used of time means “from [that time],” i.e., “for [X amount of time]” (see LSJ A.II).

ελε τὸ ψήφισμα: “won a verdict against the decree” of Apollodoros. εἷλε < αἱρέω = “convict” (LSJ II.4.b).

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τιμήματος: “fine, penalty.” For certain crimes, the jurors determined the penalty after hearing alternative proposals presented by the two sides; for other crimes, the penalty was fixed.

δεομένων μν: “though we begged him” for a lighter penalty.

συγχωρσαι < συγχωρέω, “yield,” i.e., agree to a light penalty

πεντεκαίδεκα ταλάντων τιμτο: τιμάω (in the middle) as an Athenian legal term means “estimate the penalty”; ταλάντων is a genitive of price or value (G. 513, S. 1336). Fifteen talents is a very steep penalty; for reference, 6 obols = 1 drachma (the approximate amount earned per day by an unskilled laborer); 100 drachmas = 1 mna; 60 mnae = 1 talent.

τιμώσειεν < ἀτιμόω. The penalty for conviction in a γραφὴ παρανόμων was generally a fine, but if one was unable to pay the fine, one could potentially be rendered ἄτιμος (disenfranchised), at least until the fine was paid off. If one died before paying off the debt, both the debt and the ἀτιμία were inherited by one’s heirs.

ατόν: Apollodoros

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οδεπάνυ: “not quite”

τριν ταλάντων: genitive of value

δυνηθναι < δύναμαι

κτεσαι < ἐκτίνω

μὴ κτεισθέντοςτοῦ φλήατος: μή + the circumstantial participle has conditional force.

πὶ τς νάτης πρυτανείας: “by the ninth prytany”; each tribe of Athens was in charge of the Boule for 1/10 of the year; this period of presidency was called a prytany.

γγραφήσεσθαι < ἐγγράφω, “to inscribe [on the list of state debtors]”

πογραφήσεσθαι < ἀπογράφω, “register, enter into a list,” here with its technical sense of giving a list of property belonging to the state but held by a private individual. Anyone who wished could denounce a state debtor, providing an inventory (ἀπογραφή) of the latter’s property. The state could then confiscate the property and sell it off at auction; the denouncer received part of the sale price, the state the rest, which went toward paying off the debt.

ἡ πάρχουσα οσία πολλοδώρ: “the property belonging to Apollodoros,” i.e., everything he had. See LSJ υπάρχω B.III.

δημοσία: note the predicate position.

πραθείσης < πιπράσκω

καὶ αὐτός...ἅπαντες: subjects of an understood ἔμελλον

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στρατεύω στρατεύσω ἐστράτευσα ἐστράτευκα ἐστράτευμαι ἐστρατεύθην: serve in war, march

πανδημεί: in full force

Εὔβοια –ας ἡ: Euboia

Ὄλυνθος: Olynthos

ψήφισμα –ατος τό: decree, motion

Ἀπολλόδωρος: Apollodoros

ἐκφέρω ἐκοίσω ἐκήνεγκα ἐκενήνοχα ἐκενήνεγμαι ἐκηνέχθην: carry out, carry off; to refer (a matter for consideration to the Assembly)

προβούλευμα: a preliminary motion framed by the Athenian Boule (Senate, Council), to be referred for consideration by the full Ekklesia (Assembly)

διαχειροτονέω: to vote

περίειμι περίεσομαι: to be left over, to be surplus

διοίκησις: financial management, administration

στρατιωτικός: of or for soldiers

θεωρικός: festive

ὄμνυμι (or ὀμνύω) ὀμοῦμαι ὤμοσα ὀμώμοκα ὀμώμο(σ)μαι ὠμόθην: to swear

βέλτιστος –η –ον: best

Ἀθηναῖος –α –ον: Athenian

μαρτυρέω μαρτυρήσω ἐμαρτύρησα μεμαρτύρηκα μεμαρτύρημαι ἐμαρτυρήθην: witness to

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διαχειροτονία: voting

ἀντιχειροτονέω: to vote against

ἐξαπατάω ἐξαπατήσω ἠξαπάτησα ἠξαπάτηκα ἠξαπάτημαι ἠξαπατήθην: deceive

δικαστής –οῦ ὁ: judge, juror

ὀργίζω ὀργιῶ ὤργισα ––– ὤργισμαι ὠργίσθην: to make angry, provoke to anger, irritate

παράνομος: acting contrary to law, lawless

Στέφανος: Stephanos

εἰσέρχομαι εἰσελεύσομαι εἰσῆλθον εἰσελήλυθα ––– –––: to come to court

δικαστήριον –ου τό: a court of justice

διαβολή: false accusation, slander, calumny

ψευδής –ές: false, lying, untrue

ὀφλισκάνω ὀφλήσω ὦφλον ὤφληκα ––– –––: to owe, to be liable to pay

δημόσιος –α –ον: belonging to the people

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διαπράσσω διαπράξω διέπραξα διαπέπραχα (or διαπέπραγα) διαπέπραγμαι διεπράχθην: accomplish, carry out

τίμημα –ατος τό: penalty, fine

ψῆφος –ου ἡ: vote; judgment

δέομαι δεήσομαι ἐδεησάμην ––– δεδέημαι ἐδεήθην: beg, ask

συγχωρέω συγχωρήσω συγεχώρησα συγκεχώρηκα συγκεχώρημαι συγεχώρηθην: to make a compromise, concede, yield

πεντεκαίδεκα: fifteen

τάλαντον –ου τό: talent (large sum of silver=6000 drachmas)

ἀτιμόω: to disenfranchise

ἀδελφή –ῆς ἡ: sister

ἔσχατος –η –ον: furthest, uttermost, last

ἀπορία –ας ἡ: difficulty, perplexity

ἔνδεια: want, need, lack, poverty

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ὄφλημα: a fine assessed in a lawsuit

πρυτάνειος: of/belonging to the prytanies

διπλοος –η –ον: twofold, double

ἐγγράφω ἐγγράψω –έγραψα: inscribe; enter in a list of state debtors

ὀφείλω ὀφειλήσω ὤφελον ὠφείληκα ––– ὠφειλήθην: to owe, be obliged

ἀπογράφω: to enter in a list

πιπράσκω πωλήσω/ἀποδώσομαι ἀπεδόμην πέπρακα πέπραμαι ἐπράθην: to sell

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Suggested Citation

Deborah Kamen, Pseudo-Demosthenes: Against Neaira. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/against-neaira/4-7