10.208-260

"βῆ δ᾽ ἰέναι, ἅμα τῷ γε δύω καὶ εἴκοσ᾽ ἑταῖροι

κλαίοντες: κατὰ δ᾽ ἄμμε λίπον γοόωντας ὄπισθεν.

εὗρον δ᾽ ἐν βήσσῃσι τετυγμένα δώματα Κίρκης210

ξεστοῖσιν λάεσσι, περισκέπτῳ ἐνὶ χώρῳ·

ἀμφὶ δέ μιν λύκοι ἦσαν ὀρέστεροι ἠδὲ λέοντες,

τοὺς αὐτὴ κατέθελξεν, ἐπεὶ κακὰ φάρμακ᾽ ἔδωκεν.

οὐδ᾽ οἵ γ᾽ ὡρμήθησαν ἐπ᾽ ἀνδράσιν, ἀλλ᾽ ἄρα τοί γε

οὐρῇσιν μακρῇσι περισσαίνοντες ἀνέσταν.215

ὡς δ᾽ ὅτ᾽ ἂν ἀμφὶ ἄνακτα κύνες δαίτηθεν ἰόντα

σαίνωσ᾽, αἰεὶ γάρ τε φέρει μειλίγματα θυμοῦ,

ὣς τοὺς ἀμφὶ λύκοι κρατερώνυχες ἠδὲ λέοντες

σαῖνον· τοὶ δ᾽ ἔδεισαν, ἐπεὶ ἴδον αἰνὰ πέλωρα.

ἔσταν δ᾽ ἐν προθύροισι θεᾶς καλλιπλοκάμοιο,220

Κίρκης δ᾽ ἔνδον ἄκουον ἀειδούσης ὀπὶ καλῇ,

ἱστὸν ἐποιχομένης μέγαν ἄμβροτον, οἷα θεάων

λεπτά τε καὶ χαρίεντα καὶ ἀγλαὰ ἔργα πέλονται.

τοῖσι δὲ μύθων ἦρχε Πολίτης ὄρχαμος ἀνδρῶν,

ὅς μοι κήδιστος ἑτάρων ἦν κεδνότατός τε·225

‘ὦ φίλοι, ἔνδον γάρ τις ἐποιχομένη μέγαν ἱστὸν

καλὸν ἀοιδιάει, δάπεδον δ᾽ ἅπαν ἀμφιμέμυκεν,

ἢ θεὸς ἠὲ γυνή· ἀλλὰ φθεγγώμεθα θᾶσσον.’

ὣς ἄρ᾽ ἐφώνησεν, τοὶ δὲ φθέγγοντο καλεῦντες.

ἡ δ᾽ αἶψ᾽ ἐξελθοῦσα θύρας ὤιξε φαεινὰς230

καὶ κάλει: οἱ δ᾽ ἅμα πάντες ἀιδρείῃσιν ἕποντο·

Εὐρύλοχος δ᾽ ὑπέμεινεν, ὀισάμενος δόλον εἶναι.

εἷσεν δ᾽ εἰσαγαγοῦσα κατὰ κλισμούς τε θρόνους τε,

ἐν δέ σφιν τυρόν τε καὶ ἄλφιτα καὶ μέλι χλωρὸν

οἴνῳ Πραμνείῳ ἐκύκα· ἀνέμισγε δὲ σίτῳ235

φάρμακα λύγρ᾽, ἵνα πάγχυ λαθοίατο πατρίδος αἴης.

αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δῶκέν τε καὶ ἔκπιον, αὐτίκ᾽ ἔπειτα

ῥάβδῳ πεπληγυῖα κατὰ συφεοῖσιν ἐέργνυ.

οἱ δὲ συῶν μὲν ἔχον κεφαλὰς φωνήν τε τρίχας τε

καὶ δέμας, αὐτὰρ νοῦς ἦν ἔμπεδος, ὡς τὸ πάρος περ.240

ὣς οἱ μὲν κλαίοντες ἐέρχατο, τοῖσι δὲ Κίρκη

πάρ ῥ᾽ ἄκυλον βάλανόν τε βάλεν καρπόν τε κρανείης

ἔδμεναι, οἷα σύες χαμαιευνάδες αἰὲν ἔδουσιν.

Εὐρύλοχος δ᾽ αἶψ᾽ ἦλθε θοὴν ἐπὶ νῆα μέλαιναν

ἀγγελίην ἑτάρων ἐρέων καὶ ἀδευκέα πότμον.245

οὐδέ τι ἐκφάσθαι δύνατο ἔπος ἱέμενός περ,

κῆρ ἄχεϊ μεγάλῳ βεβολημένος· ἐν δέ οἱ ὄσσε

δακρυόφιν πίμπλαντο, γόον δ᾽ ὠίετο θυμός.

ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δή μιν πάντες ἀγασσάμεθ᾽ ἐξερέοντες,

καὶ τότε τῶν ἄλλων ἑτάρων κατέλεξεν ὄλεθρον·250

‘ἤιομεν, ὡς ἐκέλευες, ἀνὰ δρυμά, φαίδιμ᾽ Ὀδυσσεῦ·

εὕρομεν ἐν βήσσῃσι τετυγμένα δώματα καλὰ

ξεστοῖσιν λάεσσι, περισκέπτῳ ἐνὶ χώρῳ.

ἔνθα δέ τις μέγαν ἱστὸν ἐποιχομένη λίγ᾽ ἄειδεν,

ἢ θεὸς ἠὲ γυνή· τοὶ δὲ φθέγγοντο καλεῦντες.255

ἡ δ᾽ αἶψ᾽ ἐξελθοῦσα θύρας ὤιξε φαεινὰς

καὶ κάλει· οἱ δ᾽ ἅμα πάντες ἀιδρείῃσιν ἕποντο·

αὐτὰρ ἐγὼν ὑπέμεινα, ὀισάμενος δόλον εἶναι.

οἱ δ᾽ ἅμ᾽ ἀιστώθησαν ἀολλέες, οὐδέ τις αὐτῶν

ἐξεφάνη· δηρὸν δὲ καθήμενος ἐσκοπίαζον.’260

    Eurylochus and the other men reach the palace of Circe. Circe turns all of the men, except Eurylochus, into swine. Escaping, hereturns to Odysseus and explains what had happened.

    Though Circe comes first in the chronology of the story (as opposed to the order of the poem), we inevitably see her through Calypso, whom we first glimpse as Hermes approaches her cave in Book 5:

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    ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δὴ τὴν νῆσον ἀφίκετο τηλόθ᾽ ἐοῦσαν,
    ἔνθ᾽ ἐκ πόντου βὰς ἰοειδέος ἤπειρόνδε
    ἤιεν, ὄφρα μέγα σπέος ἵκετο, τῷ ἔνι νύμφη
    ναῖεν ἐυπλόκαμος: τὴν δ᾽ ἔνδοθι τέτμεν ἐοῦσαν.
    πῦρ μὲν ἐπ᾽ ἐσχαρόφιν μέγα καίετο, τηλόσε δ᾽ ὀδμὴ
    κέδρου τ᾽ εὐκεάτοιο θύου τ᾽ ἀνὰ νῆσον ὀδώδει
    δαιομένων: ἡ δ᾽ ἔνδον ἀοιδιάουσ᾽ ὀπὶ καλῇ
    ἱστὸν ἐποιχομένη χρυσείῃ κερκίδ᾽ ὕφαινεν.
    ὕλη δὲ σπέος ἀμφὶ πεφύκει τηλεθόωσα,
    κλήθρη τ᾽ αἴγειρός τε καὶ εὐώδης κυπάρισσος.
    ἔνθα δέ τ᾽ ὄρνιθες τανυσίπτεροι εὐνάζοντο,
    σκῶπές τ᾽ ἴρηκές τε τανύγλωσσοί τε κορῶναι
    εἰνάλιαι, τῇσίν τε θαλάσσια ἔργα μέμηλεν.
    ἡ δ᾽ αὐτοῦ τετάνυστο περὶ σπείους γλαφυροῖο
    ἡμερὶς ἡβώωσα, τεθήλει δὲ σταφυλῇσι.
    κρῆναι δ᾽ ἑξείης πίσυρες ῥέον ὕδατι λευκῷ,
    πλησίαι ἀλλήλων τετραμμέναι ἄλλυδις ἄλλη.
    ἀμφὶ δὲ λειμῶνες μαλακοὶ ἴου ἠδὲ σελίνου
    θήλεον.

    But when he finally came near to her faraway island,
    stepping out of the dark blue sea he walked on land
    until he could find the great cave where lived
    the nymph with lovely hair. He found her within.
    A fire burned in the great hearth, and the fragrance
    of well-cut cedar and sweetwood burning spread
    across the island. And the nymph was singing in clear voice,
    weaving and working the loom with a golden shuttle.
    The woods around the cave were bursting with blooms,
    alder and black poplar and sweet-smelling cypress.
    Long-winged birds made their nests there,
    horned owls and hawks and chattering ravens,
    sea birds, whose work is near the water.
    A luxuriant vine spread around the opening
    of the hollow cave, heavy with grapes.
    And four fountains, all in a row, ran with clear water,
    running side-by-side, turning one way and another.
    And all around soft meadows bloomed with parsley
    and violets.

    Odyssey 5.55–73

    A delightful scene, fragrant and bursting with natural vitality. If we are familiar with the style of Homeric poetry, we sense some latent danger in the nymph’s singing and weaving, often the instruments of feminine seductiveness in the poem. But the threat is softened by the soothing flow of nature, birds swooping, water burbling, the hard edge of the cave’s opening wreathed in clustering grapes. There is, we feel, an order here, somehow driven by the nymph’s magical singing, but not a human order. Calypso welcomes Hermes with all the appropriate gestures of hospitality, food and drink before questions. The eerie mix of benign nature and vaguely threatening sexuality reflects the dynamic of the relationship—a mix of affection and compulsion—that we find between the nymph and her lover. Odysseus is under her control and must stay with her, even though he longs for home, but when Zeus commands the release of her captive, she does so under protest, in part at least because she has come to love him.

    Our first encounter with Circe is equally revealing. The scouting party arrives at her house, sited in a clearing, built with polished stones. Wolves and lions—the two wild animals most often associated through similes in Homeric epic with the raw masculine force of human warriors—surround the crew, tamed by Circe’s drugs. Fawning like dogs, they wag their tails. Whereas Calypso seems to preside over a relatively benign realm, Circe’s environs reflect her control of darker forces, able to control the potency of the masculine warrior though the debilitating power of sexuality. When the hapless explorers call out to her, Circe “opens the shining doors” of her house (θύρας ὤιξε φαεινὰς, 230). The phrase—which is repeated at 256 and 312—elsewhere carries a strong flavor of sexual invitation (cf. Od. 6.18–19, 21.45–46, 22.201; Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite 60, 236). And finally, of course, the subsequent porcine existence of the crew is a transparently allegorical reference to what sex can bring out in a man.

    This aspect of Circe’s portrait aligns with a rich tradition of folktales that tell of a wicked witch who lives in the woods and turns humans into animals or birds. Homer tends to reduce the magical elements of folktales in his stories in favor of the more naturalistic tone of Greek epic. Thus, we hear no details about how the magic drug moly is supposed to protect Odysseus, only that it does so. A more apposite source for the poet would be the story in The Epic of Gilgamesh of Gilgamesh and the goddess of sexuality, Ishtar. The hero and his friend Enkidu have returned to Uruk from the Cedar Forest, flushed with triumph over the monster that lived there. Ishtar, perhaps attracted by all the testosterone in the air, invites Gilgamesh to be her consort and lover:

    Come along, Gilgamesh, be my husband,
    to me grant your lusciousness.
    Be you my husband, and I will be your wife.
    I have harnessed for you a chariot of lapis lazuli and gold
    with wheels of gold and ‘horns’ of electrum (?).
    It will be harnessed with great storming mountain mules!
    Come into our house, with the fragrance of cedar.

    Epic of Gilgamesh vi.1.1–7
    (trans. Kovacs)

    Gilgamesh’s answer is rather blunt, and in the event, unfortunately so. He declines the goddess’s offer, citing the bad end to which all of her lovers have come, the shepherd she turned into a wolf that his dogs tore to pieces, the gardener who ended up as a frog. In response, Ishtar convinces the god Anu to create the Bull of Heaven, who wreaks havoc on the citizens until Gilgamesh and Enkidu conquer the beast. Enkidu, flushed with triumph, tears off a leg from the bull and throws it in Ishtar’s face. She retaliates by having Enkidu grow sick and die.

    Ishtar, like Circe, can apparently turn humans into animals, but perhaps more importantly, that power seems to be associated with her sexuality. In this, both figures make concrete a crucial link in the portrait of heroic masculinity that we find in early Greek poetry. Odysseus’s need for control mirrors Athena’s, a parallel articulated precisely in the Aeolus episode, as we have seen: the agent of the gods insists on keeping the winds in a bag, while Odysseus’s failure to control his men weakens the channeling of natural forces that lies at the heart of the Greeks’ model for human civilization. And since mortal women were thought by the Greeks to be closer to the forces of nature than men, their impulses, if left unchecked, could undermine human order. In this paradigm, divine female figures represent a particularly dangerous threat, susceptible to tides of emotion but existing beyond the control of mortals. Calypso’s very name, καλύψω, “I will cover up, smother,” marks the erasure of Odysseus’s mortal life that staying with her represents; Circe’s magic makes it more explicit: the loss of control that men can experience during sexual intercourse with women represents an existential threat to their very being, and by extension threatens the foundations of human civilization. As Odysseus prepares to make his own journey through the dark woods to Circe’s house, the path ahead looks dangerous.

     

    Further Reading

    Austin, N. 1975. Archery at the Dark of the Moon, 152–153. Berkeley: University of California Press. 

    Scully, S. 1987. “Doubling in the Tale of Odysseus.” Classical World 80, 401–417. 

    Thalman, W. 1992. The Odyssey: an Epic of Return, 75–78. New York: Twayne Publishers. 

    Tracy, S. 1990. The Story of the Odyssey, 64–67. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

    Van Nortwick, T. 1992. Somewhere I Have Never Travelled: The Second Self and the Hero’s Journey in Ancient Epic, 8–38. New York: Oxford University Press. 

    ———2008. The Unknown Odysseus: Alternate Worlds in Homer’s Odyssey, 53–55. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

     

    208  βῆ δ᾽ ἰέναι: “he started out to go,” infinitive of purpose.

    208  ἅμα τῷ: “along with him.”

    209  κατὰ … λίπον: “left … behind,” tmesis (separation of the preposition and verb in a compound verb), unaugmented 3rd pl. aor. > καταλείπω.

    209  ἄμμε: = ἡμᾶς.

    209  ὄπισθεν: “behind,” pleonastic.

    210  τετυγμένα: “built.”

    211  ξεστοῖσιν λάεσσι: dative of material (Smyth 1508c) with τετυγμένα.

    212  μιν: “it” (the house). δώματα is a poetic plural treated as a singular (Monro 171; Smyth 1000a).

    213  αὐτὴ: “she herself” (Circe).

    214  ὁρμήθησαν ἐπ(ί): "rush at," "attack," 3rd pl. aor. pass. > ὁρμάω. For the voice, see LSJ ὁρμάω B.3.

    214  τοί: “they” (the animals).

    215  ἀνέσταν: “stood on their hind legs.”

    216  ὡς δ᾽ ὅτε ἂν: “just as whenever …," introducing a simile in the form of a general temporal clause (ἄν + subj.) (Monro 238a).

    217  φέρει: the master (ἄναξ) is the subject of the verb.

    217  μειλίγματα θυμοῦ: “treats” (lit., “soothers of the spirit”).

    218  ὣς: “in this way,” closing off the simile.

    218  τοὺς ἀμφὶ: “around them” (Odysseus’s men).

    218  κρατερώνυχες: “sharp-clawed.”

    219  τοὶ: “they” (the men).

    220  ἐν προθύροισι: “at the front door” (Monro 171).

    221  Κίρκης … ἀειδούσης: genitive object (genitive of source) with ἄκουον. 

    221  ἀειδούσης: fem. pres. ptc. > ἀείδω, “to sing.”

    221  ἄκουον: unaugmented 3rd pl. impf.

    222  ἱστὸν: “loom,” or more specifically, the web or weft woven onto the loom.

    222  ἐποιχομένης: "plying," "working at," fem. pres. ptc., modifying Κίρκης.

    222  οἷα … ἔργα πέλονται: “such are the … works.”

    222  θεάων: fem. gen. pl. > θέα, qualifying ἔργα.

    223  ἔργα πέλονται: here the neuter plural subject takes a plural verb (Smyth 959).

    224 μύθων: genitive object of ἦρχε.

    227  καλὸν: adverbial accusative with ἀοιδιάει.

    227  ἀμφιμέμυκεν: “is echoing all around,” 3rd sing. pf.

    228  φθεγγώμεθα: hortatory subjunctive

    229  τοὶ: “they”

    231  κάλει: unaugmented impf.

    231  ἀϊδρείῃσιν: “in their ignorance,” dative of cause (Smyth 1517)

    232  ὀϊσάμενος: aor. ptc. > οἴομαι, introducing indirect discourse with infinitive.

    233  εἷσεν: “she made them sit,” causal, aor. > ἵζω.

    234  ἐν δέ: either “inside, “in the house” (Steadman); or “mixed (acc. dry ingredients) in (dat. wet ingredient),” tmesis with ἐκύκα(ε), impf. > ἐγκυκἀω. In the latter case, the ἐν would appear to govern οἴνῳ Πραμνείῳ. A mixture of cheese, barley, honey, and wine was known as κυκεών. 

    234  σφιν: "for them," dative of interest.

    236  ἵνα … λαθοίατο: purpose clause with optative in secondary sequence. 

    236  λαθοίατο: 3rd pl. aor. mid./pass. opt. > λανθάνω, with genitive object (Smyth 1356).

    238  πεπληγυῖα: fem. nom. sing. pf. act. ptc. > πλήσσω / πλήττω.

    238  κατὰ … ἐέργνυ: “she shut (them) in,” tmesis, 3rd sing. impf. > κατείργω. Understand Odysseus's men as the object.

    240  ἔμπεδος: "unchanged."

    240  ὡς … περ: “just as …”

    241  ἐέρχατο: 3rd pl. plupf. pass. > ἔργνυμι/εἴργω.

    241  τοῖσι: dat. with πάρ … ἔβαλεν.

    242  πάρ … ἔβαλεν: “threw to,” tmesis > παραβάλλω.

    242  ἀκυλον βάλανόν τε: both words mean “acorn,” either from different species of oak (Quercus ilex and Q. robur respectively) or merely a Homeric pleonasm.

    243  ἔδμεναι: infinitive of purpose (Smyth 2008, 2009).

    243  οἷα: “the sort of things…”

    245  ἐρέων: fut. ptc. > λέγω, expressing purpose.

    246  τι … ἔπος: “any word.”

    246  δύνατο: unaugmented impf.

    246  ἱεμένος περ: “though eager,”  pres. mid. ptc. > ἵημι. For the middle meaning “to be eager,” see LSJ ἵημι II.2.

    247  κῆρ: accusative of respect.

    247  ἐν … πίμπλαντο: “were filled,” tmesis, impf. pass. > ἐμπίμπλημι.

    247  οἱ: 3rd person pron. sing., dative of possession.

    247  ὄσσε: nom. dual.

    248  δακρυόφιν: dat. pl., dative of means (Smyth 1508b). For the ending -φιν used for instrumental datives, see Monro 93.

    248  ὠΐετο: “thought about” > οἴομαι.

    249  μιν ... ἐξερέοντες: "questioning him."

    249  ἀγασσάμεθ(α): unaugmented impf.

    251  ἤιομεν: 1st pl. impf. act. indic. > εἶμι

    251  ἀνὰ: “through.”

    252–58  summarizes lines 210–32.

    252  see line 210.

    253  see line 211.

    254  see lines 226–27.

    254  λίγ(α): “in a clear voice.”

    255  see lines 228–29.

    256–57  see lines 230–31

    258  see line 232.

    259   ἀϊστώθησαν: “disappeared,” 3rd pl. aor. pass. > ἀϊστόω.

    260: ἐξεφάνη: “appeared,” 3rd sing. aor. pass. > ἐκφαίνω

    ἑταῖρος –ου ὁ: comrade, companion

    κλαίω/κλάω κλαύσομαι/κλαήσω ἔκλαυσα ––– κέκλαυμαι/κέκλαυσμαι ἐκλαύσθην: weep, cry

    γοάω γοήσω ἐγόησα/γόον ––– ––– ἐγοήθην: to wail, groan, weep

    ὄπι(σ)θε(ν): from behind, behind, afterward, hereafter; adv. or prep. +gen.

    βῆσσα –ης ἡ: deep valley, mountain gorge 210

    τεύχω τεύξω ἔτευξα τέτευχα τέτυγμαι ἐτύχθην: to make, build, prepare, fasten; to bring about

    δῶμα –ατος τό: house (often in plural)

    Κίρκη –ης ἡ: Circe, the enchantress, daughter of Helius, sister of Aeētes, dwelling in the isle of Aeaea

    ξεστός –ή –όν: smoothed, polished, wrought

    λᾶας –ου ὁ: stone

    περίσκεπτος –ον: to be seen on all sides, far-seen, conspicuous

    χῶρος –ου ὁ: place, a piece of ground

    μιν: (accusative singular third person pronoun) him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    λύκος ὁ: wolf

    ὀρέστερος –α –ον: of the mountains (poet. for ὀρεινός)

    ἠδέ: and

    λέων λέοντος ὁ: lion

    καταθέλγω καταθέλξω κατέθελξα: to captivate, charm, bewitch

    φάρμακον –ου τό: drug

    ἄρα: now, then, next, thus

    οὐρά –ᾶς ἡ: the tail 215

    περισαίνω περισανῶ περιέσηνα: to wag the tail round, fawn upon

    ἀνίστημι ἀνστήσω ἀνέστησα (or ἀνέστην) ἀνέστηκα ἀνέσταμαι ἀνεστάθην: make stand, set up; stand up

    ἄναξ –ακτος ὁ: ruler, lord

    κύων κυνός ὁ/ἡ: dog

    δαίτηθεν: from a feast

    σαίνω ––– ἔσανα/ἔσηνα ––– ––– –––: to wag the tail, fawn

    μείλιγμα –ατος τό: anything that serves to soothe, a treat

    λύκος ὁ: wolf

    κρατερῶνυξ –υχος: strong-hoofed, solid-hoofed, with strong claws

    ἠδέ: and

    λέων λέοντος ὁ: lion

    σαίνω ––– ἔσανα/ἔσηνα ––– ––– –––: to wag the tail, fawn

    δείδω δείσομαι ἔδεισα δέδοικα (or δίδια) ––– –––: to fear

    αἰνός –ή –όν: dread, grim

    πέλωρον –ου τό: a monster, prodigy

    πρόθυρον –ου τό: the front-door, the door leading from the αὐλή 220

    θεά –ᾶς ἡ: goddess

    καλλιπλόκαμος –ον: with beautiful locks

    Κίρκη –ης ἡ: Circe, the enchantress, daughter of Helius, sister of Aeētes, dwelling in the isle of Aeaea

    ἔνδον: within, inside, at home

    ᾄσομαι ᾖσα ᾖσμαι ᾔσθην: sing

    ὄψ ὀπός ἡ: a voice

    ἱστός –οῦ ὁ: mast, beam; loom

    ἐποίχομαι ἐποιχήσομαι ἐπῴχημαι: to go towards, approach; to ply (the loom)

    ἄμβροτος –ον: immortal, divine

    θεά –ᾶς ἡ: goddess

    λεπτός –ή –όν: (husked, threshed) fine, thin, delicate, subtle

    χαρίεις –ίεσσα –ίεν: graceful, charming, beautiful

    ἀγλαός –ή –όν: splendid, shining, bright

    πέλω ––– ἔπλον ––– ––– –––: to be (the aor. has pres. signif.)

    μῦθος –ου ὁ: spoken thing, speech, plan, story

    ἄρχω ἅρξω ἦρξα ἦρχα ἦργμαι ἦρχθην: begin, rule (+gen.)

    Πολίτης –ου ὁ: Polites, a son of Priam, or, a companion of Odysseus

    ὄρχαμος –ου ὁ: leader, commander, warlord

    κήδιστος –η –ον: very close to one's heart, dearest, most worthy of affection 225

    ἑταῖρος –ου ὁ: comrade, companion

    κεδνός –ή –όν: careful, diligent, sage, trusty

    ἔνδον: within, inside, at home

    ἐποίχομαι ἐποιχήσομαι ἐπῴχημαι: to go towards, approach; to ply (the loom)

    ἱστός –οῦ ὁ: mast, beam; loom

    ἀοιδιάω – – – – –: to sing

    δάπεδον –ου τό: surface, pavement, floor

    ἀμφιμυκάομαι ἀμφιμυκήσομαι ἀμφεμυκησάμην: to echo, resound

    φθέγγομαι φθέγξομαι ἐφθεγξάμην ἔφθεγμαι ––– ἐφθεγξάσθην: to make a sound, speak, scream

    ἄρα: now, then, next, thus

    φωνέω φωνήσω ἐφώνησα πεφώνηκα πεφώνημαι ἐφωνήθην: to make a sound, speak

    φθέγγομαι φθέγξομαι ἐφθεγξάμην ἔφθεγμαι ––– ἐφθεγξάσθην: to make a sound, speak, scream

    αἶψα: rapidly, speedily, suddenly 230

    ἐξέρχομαι ἐξελεύσομαι ἐξῆλθον ἐξελήλυθα ––– –––: to go/come out, go forth

    θύρα –ας ἡ: door

    οἴγω οἴξω ᾦξα ᾦχα ᾦγμαι ᾤχθην: to open

    φαεινός –ή –όν : bright, brilliant, radiant

    ἀϊδρείη –ης ἡ: want of knowledge, ignorance

    Εὐρύλοχος –ου ὁ: Eurylochus, a cousin and companion of Odysseus

    ὑπομένω ὑπομενῶ ὑπέμεινα ὑπομεμένηκα ––– –––: to stay behind, survive, abide

    δόλος –ου ὁ: scheme, plot, deception, trickery

    ἵζω εἵσομαι εἷσα/ἵζησα ἵζηκα: to take a seat, sit down; cause to take a seat

    εἰσάγω εἰσάξω εἰσήγαγον εἰσαγήοχα εἰσῆγμαι εἰσήχθην: to lead in, bring before

    κλισμός –οῦ ὁ: a couch

    θρόνος –ου ὁ: arm-chair

    σφεῖς: they

    τυρός –οῦ ὁ: cheese

    ἄλφιτον –ου τό: barley flower (usually plur.)

    μέλι –ιτος τό: honey

    χλωρός –ά –όν: greenish-yellow; pale

    οἶνος –ου ὁ: wine 235

    Πράμνειος –α –ον: Pramnian

    κυκάω κυκήσω ἐκυκησα ––– ––– ἐκυκήθην: to stir up

    ἀναμίγνυμι ἀναμίξω ἀνέμμιξα: to mix up, mix together

    σῖτος –ου ὁ: grain; bread

    φάρμακον –ου τό: drug

    λυγρός –ά –όν: sad, mournful, miserable

    πάγχυ: quite, wholly, entirely, altogether

    αἶα –ας ἡ: land

    ἀτάρ (or αὐτάρ): but, yet

    ἐκπίνω ἐκπίομαι ἐκέπιον ἐκπέπωκα ἐκπέπομαι ἐκεπόθην: to drink

    ῥάβδος –ου ὁ: a rod, wand, stick, switch

    πλήττω πλήξω ἔπληξα πέπληγα πέπληγμαι ἐπλήγην (–επλάγην): strike, smite

    συφεός –οῦ ὁ: a hog-sty

    ἔργνυμι/εἴργω εἴρξω/εἵρξω εἶρξα/εἷρξα ––– εἶργμαι/εἷργμαι εἴρχθην/εἵρχθην: to confine

    ὗς (or σῦς) ὑός (or συός) ὁ/ἡ: swine, hog; (f.) sow

    θρίξ τριχός ἡ: hair, bristle

    δέμας –ατος τό: the (physical frame, form of the) body 240

    ἀτάρ (or αὐτάρ): but, yet

    ἔμπεδος –ον: firm-set, steadfast, constant, unchanged; (in neuter as adverb) firmly, steadily

    πάρος: before, formerly

    κλαίω/κλάω κλαύσομαι/κλαήσω ἔκλαυσα ––– κέκλαυμαι/κέκλαυσμαι ἐκλαύσθην: weep, cry

    ἔργνυμι/εἴργω εἴρξω/εἵρξω εἶρξα/εἷρξα ––– εἶργμαι/εἷργμαι εἴρχθην/εἵρχθην: to confine

    Κίρκη –ης ἡ: Circe, the enchantress, daughter of Helius, sister of Aeētes, dwelling in the isle of Aeaea

    ἄρα: now, then, next, thus

    ἄκυλος –ου ὁ: an acorn

    βάλανος –ου ἡ: an acorn

    καρπός –οῦ ὁ: fruit (of the earth), produce

    κράνεια –ας ἡ: the cornel-tree, dog-wood

    ἔδω ἔδομαι ἤδα ἔδηδα ἐδήδοται ἠδέσθην: to eat

    ὗς (or σῦς) ὑός (or συός) ὁ/ἡ: swine, hog; (f.) sow

    χαμαιεύνης –ου: sleeping on the ground

    ἔδω ἔδομαι ἤδα ἔδηδα ἐδήδοται ἠδέσθην: to eat

    Εὐρύλοχος –ου ὁ: Eurylochus, a cousin and companion of Odysseus

    αἶψα: rapidly, speedily, suddenly

    θοός –ή –όν: swift

    μέλας μέλαινα μέλαν: black, dark, obscure

    ἀγγελία –ας ἡ: a message, tidings, news 245

    ἑταῖρος –ου ὁ: comrade, companion

    ἐρῶ εἴρηκα ἐρρήθην: to say, tell, speak

    ἀδευκής –ές: not sweet, bitter, cruel

    πότμος –ου ὁ: that which befalls one, one's lot, destiny; death

    ἔκφημι ἐκφήσω ἐξέφησα: to speak out

    κῆρ κῆρος τό: heart, mind

    ἄχος –ους τό: anguish, distress

    βεβόλημαι (perf. with no pres. in use): to be stricken

    ἕ: him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    ὄσσε, τώ: eyes

    δάκρυον –ου τό: a tear

    πίμπλημι πλήσω ἔπλησα πέπληκα πέπλησμαι ἐπλήσθην: to fill

    γόος –ου ὁ: wailing, lamentation

    μιν: (accusative singular third person pronoun) him, her, it; himself, herself, itself

    ἄγαμαι ἀγασθήσομαι ἠγασάμην ἠγάσθην: to wonder, be astonished

    ἐξερέω ἐξερήσω ἐξέρασα: to inquire, ask

    ἑταῖρος –ου ὁ: comrade, companion 250

    καταλέγω καταλέξω κατέλεξα κατείλοχα κατείλεγμαι κατελέχθην: to recount, tell at length and in order; (mid.) καταλέχομαι to lie down

    ὄλεθρος –ου ὁ: ruin, destruction, death

    δρυμός –οῦ ὁ: wood, thicket, forest (neuter pl. δρυμά)

    φαίδιμος –ον: shining

    Ὀδυσσεύς –έως ὁ: Odysseus, king of Ithaca, hero of the Odyssey

    βῆσσα –ης ἡ: deep valley, mountain gorge

    τεύχω τεύξω ἔτευξα τέτευχα τέτυγμαι ἐτύχθην: to make, build, prepare, fasten; to bring about

    δῶμα –ατος τό: house (often in plural)

    ξεστός –ή –όν: smoothed, polished, wrought

    λᾶας –ου ὁ: stone

    περίσκεπτος –ον: to be seen on all sides, far-seen, conspicuous

    χῶρος –ου ὁ: place, a piece of ground

    ἱστός –οῦ ὁ: mast, beam; loom

    ἐποίχομαι ἐποιχήσομαι ἐπῴχημαι: to go towards, approach; to ply (the loom)

    λίγα: in loud clear tone

    ᾄσομαι ᾖσα ᾖσμαι ᾔσθην: sing

    φθέγγομαι φθέγξομαι ἐφθεγξάμην ἔφθεγμαι ––– ἐφθεγξάσθην: to make a sound, speak, scream 255

    αἶψα: rapidly, speedily, suddenly

    ἐξέρχομαι ἐξελεύσομαι ἐξῆλθον ἐξελήλυθα ––– –––: to go/come out, go forth

    θύρα –ας ἡ: door

    οἴγω οἴξω ᾦξα ᾦχα ᾦγμαι ᾤχθην: to open

    φαεινός –ή –όν : bright, brilliant, radiant

    ἀϊδρείη –ης ἡ: want of knowledge, ignorance

    ἀτάρ (or αὐτάρ): but, yet

    ὑπομένω ὑπομενῶ ὑπέμεινα ὑπομεμένηκα ––– –––: to stay behind, survive, abide

    δόλος –ου ὁ: scheme, plot, deception, trickery

    ἀϊστόω ἀϊστώσω ἠΐστωσα/ᾔστωσα ––– ––– ἠϊστώθην: to render invisible, wipe out; (pass.) to vanish

    ἀολλής –ές: all together, in throngs or crowds

    ἐκφαίνω ἐκφανῶ ἐξέφηνα ἐκπέφηνα ἐκπέφασμαι ἐξεφάν(θ)ην: to shew forth, bring to light, disclose, reveal, make manifest 260

    δηρός –ά –όν: long, too long

    κάθημαι καθήσομαι ––– ––– ––– ––– imp: ἐκαθήμην: be seated, sit; reside

    σκοπιάζω – – – – –: to look about one, spy from a high place

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    Suggested Citation

    Thomas Van Nortwick and Rob Hardy, Homer: Odyssey 5–12. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2024. ISBN: 978-1-947822-17-7 https://dcc.dickinson.edu/homer-odyssey/x-208-260