Chapter 2.9

< Dē imperiō rēgis Eduīnī, et ut veniēns ad ēvangelīzandum eī Paulīnus prīmō fīliam eius cum aliīs fideī Chrīstiānae sacrāmentīs imbuerit.>

[1] Quō tempore etiam gēns Nordanhymbrōrum, hoc est ea nātiō Anglōrum quae ad Aquilōnālem Humbrae flūminis plagam habitābat, cum rēge suō Eduīnō verbum fideī praedicante Paulīnō, cuius suprā meminimus, suscēpit. [2] Cui vidēlicet rēgī, in auspicium suscipiendae fideī et rēgnī caelestis, potestās etiam terrēnī crēverat imperiī, ita ut, quod nēmō Anglōrum ante eum, omnēs Brittaniae fīnēs, quā vel ipsōrum vel Brettōnum prōvinciae habitābant, sub diciōne acciperet. [3] Quīn et Mevaniās īnsulās, sīcut et suprā docuimus, imperiō subiugāvit Anglōrum; quārum prior, quae ad austrum est, et sitū amplior et frugum prōventū atque ūbertāte fēlīcior, nōngentārum sexaginta familiārum mēnsūram iuxtā aestimātiōnem Anglōrum, secunda trecentārum et ultrā spatium tenet.

[4] Huic autem gentī occāsiō fuit percipiendae fideī, quod praefātus rēx eius cognātiōne iūnctus est rēgibus Cantuariōrum, acceptā in coniugem Aedilbergā fīliā Aedilberctī rēgis, quae aliō nōmine Tatae vocābātur. [5] Huius cōnsortium cum prīmō ipse missīs procīs ā frātre eius Eadbaldō, quī tunc rēgnō Cantuariōrum praeerat, peteret; respōnsum est nōn esse licitum Chrīstiānam virginem pāgānō in coniugem darī, nē fidēs et sacrāmenta caelestis rēgis cōnsortiō prōfānārentur rēgis quī vērī Deī cultūs esset prōrsus ignārus. [6] Quae cum Eduīnō verba nūntiī referrent, prōmīsit sē nīl omnimodīs contrārium Chrīstiānae fideī, quam virgō colēbat, esse factūrum; quīn potius permissūrum ut fidem cultumque suae religiōnis cum omnibus, quī sēcum vēnissent, virīs sīve fēminīs, sacerdōtibus seu ministrīs, mōre Chrīstiānō servāret. [7] Neque abnegāvit sē etiam eandem subitūrum esse religiōnem, sī tamen exāmināta ā prūdentibus sānctior ac Deō dignior posset invenīrī.

[8] Itaque prōmittitur virgō, atque Eduīnō mittitur, et iuxtā quod dispositum fuerat, ōrdinātur episcopus vir Deō dīlēctus Paulīnus, quī cum illā venīret, eamque et comitēs eius, nē pāgānōrum possent societāte polluī, cotīdiānā et exhortātiōne et sacrāmentōrum caelestium celebrātiōne cōnfirmāret.

[9] Ōrdinātus est autem Paulīnus episcopus ā Iūstō archiepiscopō sub diē XII kalendārum Augustārum annō ab incarnātiōne Dominī DCXXV; et sīc cum praefātā virgine ad rēgem Eduīnum quasi comes cōpulae carnālis advēnit. [10] Sed ipse potius tōtō animō intendēns ut gentem, quam adībat, ad agnitiōnem vēritātis advocāns, iuxtā vōcem apostolī, ūnī vērō spōnsō virginem castam exhibēret Christō. [11] Cumque in prōvinciam vēnisset, labōrāvit multum ut et eōs, quī sēcum vēnerant, nē ā fide dēficerent Dominō adiuvante continēret, et aliquōs, sī forte posset, dē pāgānīs ad fideī grātiam praedicandō converteret. [12] Sed sīcut apostolus ait, quamvīs multō tempore illō labōrante in verbō, ‘Deus saeculī huius excaecāvit mentēs īnfidēlium, nē eīs fulgeret inlūminātiō ēvangeliī glōriae Christī.’

[13] Annō autem sequente vēnit in prōvinciam quīdam sīcārius vocābulō Eumer, missus ā rēge Occidentālium Saxonum nōmine Cuichelmō, spērāns sē rēgem Eduīnum rēgnō simul et vītā prīvātūrum; quī habēbat sīcam bicipitem toxicātam, ut sī ferrī vulnus minus ad mortem rēgis sufficeret, peste iuvārētur venēnī. [14] Pervēnit autem ad rēgem prīmō diē paschae iuxtā amnem Deruventiōnem, ubi tunc erat vīlla rēgālis, intrāvitque quasi nūntium dominī suī referēns; et cum simulātam lēgātiōnem ōre astūtō volveret, exsurrēxit repente et ēvāgīnātā sub veste sīcā impetum fēcit in rēgem. [15] Quod cum vidēret Lilla minister rēgī amīcissimus, nōn habēns scūtum ad manum quō rēgem ā nece dēfenderet, mox interposuit corpus suum ante ictum pungentis; sed tantā vī hostis ferrum īnfīxit, ut per corpus mīlitis occīsī etiam rēgem vulnerāret. [16] Quī cum mox undique gladiīs impeterētur, in ipsō tumultū etiam alium dē mīlitibus, cui nōmen erat Fordherī, sīcā nefandā perēmit.

[17] Eādem autem nocte sacrōsānctā dominicī paschae pepererat rēgīna fīliam rēgī, cui nōmen Eanfled. [18] Cumque īdem rēx praesente Paulīnō episcopō grātiās ageret dīīs suīs prō nātā sibi fīliā, ē contrā episcopus grātiās coepit agere Dominō Christō, rēgīque adstruere, quod ipse precibus suīs apud illum obtinuerit, ut rēgīna sospes et absque dolōre gravī sobolem prōcreāret. [19] Cuius verbīs dēlectātus rēx prōmīsit sē abrenūntiātīs īdōlīs, Christō servītūrum, sī vītam sibi et victōriam dōnāret pugnantī adversus rēgem, ā quō homicīda ille, quī eum vulnerāverat, missus est; et in pignus prōmissiōnis implendae, eandem fīliam suam Christō cōnsecrandam Paulīnō episcopō assignāvit; quae baptīzāta est diē sānctō Pentēcostēs prīma dē gente Nordanhymbrōrum, cum XI aliīs dē familiā eius.

[20] Quō tempore cūrātus ā vulnere sibi prīdem īnflīctō, rēx collēctō exercitū vēnit adversus gentem Occidentālium Saxonum, ac bellō initō ūniversōs, quōs in necem suam cōnspīrāsse didicerat, aut occīdit aut in dēditiōnem recēpit. [21] Sīcque victor in patriam reversus, nōn statim et incōnsultē sacrāmenta fideī Chrīstiānae percipere voluit, quamvīs nec īdōlīs ultrā servīvit, ex quō sē Christō servītūrum esse prōmīserat. [22] Vērum prīmō dīligentius ex tempore et ab ipsō venerābilī virō Paulīnō ratiōnem fideī ēdiscere et cum suīs prīmātibus, quōs sapientiōrēs nōverat, cūrāvit cōnferre, quid dē hīs agendum arbitrārentur. [23] Sed et ipse, cum esset vir nātūrā sagācissimus, saepe diū sōlus residēns ōre quidem tacitō sed in intimīs cordis multa sēcum conloquēns, quid sibi esset faciendum, quae religiō servanda tractābat.

KING EDWIN'S KINGDOM

Edwin was the son of Ælle, the first king of Deira, who ruled from ca. 560 to 589. After uniting Northumbria under his rule in 616, Edwin gradually extended his power in England, eventually becoming a bretwalda, or overlord. He was defeated and killed in a battle with the combined forces of Penda of Mercia and Cadwallon of Gwynedd in 632. With his belated conversion in 628, Edwin became the first Christian king of Northumbria.

(1) Quō tempore: “at this time”

Humbrae: genitive, with flūminis (“of the River Humber”)

cum rēge suō Eduīnō: ablative of accompaniment with cum. Edwin ruled Northumbria from 616 to 633. See PASE Edwin 2.

verbum fideī: object of suscēpit. The main clause is gēns verbum suscēpit. To “receive the word of faith” is to be converted.

praedicante Paulīnō: ablative absolute, can be translated “through the preaching of Paulinus.” Paulinus was bishop of York from 625 to 633. See PASE Paulinus 1.

cuius suprā meminimus: Bede introduces Paulinus in I.29 as one of the missionaries that Pope Gregory sent to Britain. meminī takes a genitive object (here, cuius) when it means “mention”; see AG 350.b, Note 2.

(2) cui vidēlicet regī: dative of reference (AG 376).

in auspicium: “as a portent of” (with genitive).

ita ut: introducing a result clause.

quod nēmō Anglōrum ante eum: “(a thing) which no one of the Angles before him (had done).” Understand fēcerat.

omnēs Brittāniae fīnēs: direct object of acciperet.

quā: “where”

sub diciōne: “under his sway”

(3) Quīn et: “And in addition….”

Mēvāniās īnsulās: Anglesey and the Isle of Man. See Atlas, Mevaniae insulae

sīcut et suprā docuimus: Bede first mentions Edwin’s conquest of Anglesey and Man at 2.5.

imperiō subiugāvit: subiugāre takes an ablative: “subjected to the authority of….”

quārum prior: “the former of which,” i.e., Anglesey.

ad austrum: “to the south”

sitū ... prōventū ... ūbertāte: ablatives of specification (AG 418) with comparative adjectives (“larger in size,” etc.).

nōngentārum LX familiārum mēnsūram: “a measure of 960 hides.” The genitives are genitives of measure (AG 345.b); mēnsūram is the direct object of tenet.

trecentārum et ultrā: “more than 300”

tenet: has both prior and secunda as its subjects: “the first ... has a measure of …, the second has a territory of….”

KING EDWIN'S MARRIAGE

Christianity was introduced to the kingdom of Northumbria through the marriage, ca. 625, of King Edwin to Æthelburh, the daughter of King Æthelberht of Kent, whom Augustine had converted to Christianity ca. 597 (see HE I.25). Edwin's conversion to Christianity was a condition of the marriage.

(4) Huic autem gentī: dative of reference (AG 376)

quod: “that”

eius: refers to huic gentī: “their aforementioned king”

cognātiōne iūnctus est: “was joined by marriage”

Cantuāriōrum: “of Kent”

acceptā ... filiā: ablative absolute.

in coniugem: “in marriage”

Ædilbergā: Æthelburh of Kent (died ca. 647), daughter of Æthelberht of Kent.

Æthelberctī: Æthelberht of Kent (ca. 560–616). For more on Æthelberht, see HE 2.5.

vocābātur: “was called.” Æthelburh’s nickname was Tate.

(5) huius cōnsortium cum ... peteret: temporal/circumstantial clause in the subjunctive. Re-arrange: cum prīmō ipse missīs procīs peteret huius cōnsortium ā frātre eius Aedbaldō…. The postponement of cum emphasizes the first two words.

huius: Æthelburh

primō: “first,” “the first time”

ipse: Edwin

missīs procīs: ablative of means (literally, “by means of sent ambassadors”)

Eadbaldō: Eadbald, son of Æthelberht and Bertha; king of Kent, 616–640.

nōn esse licitum: infinitive in indirect discourse, introduced by respōnsum est (“the response was that it was not permissible…”).

caelestis: the word play on rēgis lends emphasis to this word

prōfānārentur cōnsortiō: “be profaned by the marriage” (ablative of means)

quī: the antecedent is rēgis (“of a king who….”)

esset: subjunctive by attraction (AG 593).

(6) sē ... esse factūrum: accusative-infinitive construction of indirect discourse, introduced by prōmīsit. nīl is the direct object of factūrum esse.

nīl omnimodīs: “not at all” (DMLBS, omnimodus 2.b)

quam: the antecedent is fideī (“the Christian faith, which…”)

quīn potius: “and furthermore”

permissūrum: understand esse (indirect discourse): “he would allow”

servāret: the subject is Æthelburh. The purpose clause can be translated: “he would allow her to keep …” (literally, “he would allow that she keep…”).

(7) sē … subitūrum esse: accusative-infinitive of indirect discourse, introduced by abnegāvit, the subject of which is Edwin. subitūrum esse: “he would submit to,” takes an accusative object (i.e., eandem religiōnem).

eandem ... religiōnem: i.e., Christianity

sī tamen: = “if, that is ...,” tamen providing a clarification and limitation (DMLBS, tamen 3).

exāmināta: take the participle in apposition to religio: “if it [i.e., the Christian religion], having been examined by wise men, could be found....”

PAULINUS ACCOMPANIES ÆTHELBURH TO THE COURT OF KING EDWIN

In 604 Pope Gregory sent Paulinus (d. 644) to England with a second group of missionaries to support Augustine's mission in Kent. Paulinus accompanied Æthelburh to Northumbria when she married Edwin, and turned his attention to converting the king. He finally succeeded in about 627, and was consecrated the first Bishop of York.

(8) prōmittitur: “was promised in marriage,” DMLBS, promittere 2.b.

virgō: Æthelburh

iuxtā: “in accordance with”

dispositum fuerat: shifted pluperfect, for dispositum erat.

ordinātur: “was ordained bishop,” DMLBS, ordināre 13.c.

quī ... venīret ... cōnfirmāret: relative clauses of purpose (AG 531.2): Paulinus is ordained “to come with her….” confirmāre means “to encourage, strengthen, confirm (person or heart, esp. in faith),” DMLBS, confirmāre 2.

eamque et comitēs eius: direct objects of cōnfirmāret.

cōtidiānā et exhortātiōne et: “both by daily exhortation and ….”

(9) Ordinātus: the ordination of Paulinus is here associated with Æthelburh’s marriage to Edwin in 625. On the controversy surrounding the dates in this chapter, see S. Wood, “Bede’s Northumbrian Dates Again,” The English Historical Review 98 (1983): 280–296, and D.P. Kirby, The Earliest English Kings (London: Unwin Hyman, 1991), 37–44.

Iūstō: Justus, first bishop of Rochester (604–624) and fourth archbishop of Canterbury (624 to between 627 and 630).

sub diē XII kalendārum Augustārum: July 21

quasi comes cōpulae carnālis: literally, “as if as a companion of her secular union”; that is, Paulinus accompanied Æthelburh as if he were a retainer in the bride’s household, rather than as a bishop of the church.

(10) Sed ipse potius tōtō animō intendēns ut: understand advēnit as the main verb, carried over from the previous clause, with intendēns as a complementary participle: “but really he came exerting himself wholeheartedly to….”

ut ... Chrīstō: re-order: ut, advocāns gentem, quam adībat, ad agnitōnem vēritātis, exhibēret [gentem] virginem castam ūnī vērō spōnsō Chrīstō, iuxtā vōcem apostolī. Understand gentem as the direct object of both advocāns and exhibēret, and virginem castam as a predicate accusative with gentem (“… to present the people as a pure virgin…”). ūnī vērō spōnsō is the dative indirect object of exhibēret.

iuxtā vōcem apostolī: “according to the word of the apostle”; Bede is paraphrasing 2 Corinthians 11:2: despondī enim vōs ūnī virō virginem castam exhibēre Christō (Vulgate; in the King James Version: “… for I have espoused you to one Husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ”).

(11) dēficerent: “stray, fall short”

Dominō adiuvante: ablative absolute (“with the Lord’s help”)

praedicandō: ablative of means

(12) quamvīs multō tempore illō labōrante: multō tempore is ablative (for accusative) of extent of time; illō labōrante is an ablative absolute: “though he labored for a long time….”

in verbō: “in preaching the word” (Colgrave and Mynors).

“Deus … Chrīstī”: 2 Corinthians 4:4 (Vulgate).

Deus saeculī huius: “the god of this age,” i.e., Satan.

inlūminātiō ēvangeliī glōriae Chrīstī: literally, “the illumination of the Gospel of the glory of Christ.” This appears to be an instance of St. Jerome, in the Vulgate, using the genitive of an abstract noun in place of an adjective (see Bede’s Latin A.1.2); the KJV translates: “the light of the glorious gospel of Christ.”

KING EDWIN SURVIVES AN ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT

(13) vocābulō: “by name”

Occidentālium Saxonum: the West Saxons

Cuichelmō: Cwichelm, king of the West Saxons, was first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 614, and last mentioned in 636.

spērāns sē … prīvātūrum: spērāns introduces the accusative-infinitive of indirect discourse; understand esse with prīvātūrum (“hoping that he would deprive…”).

rēgnō simul et vītā: prīvāre, “to deprive of,” takes the ablative of separation.

sīcam bicipitem: a double-edged dagger. In Hebrews 4:12, the word of God is described as “sharper than any double-edged sword” (penetrabilior omnī gladiō ancipitī, Vulgate).

ferrī vulnus: the wound from the blade

(14) prīmō diē paschae: Easter Day

amnem Derventiōnem: the River Derwent, in Northumbria (a tributary of the Tyne).

villa: “hall” (Colgrave-Mynors), or “royal estate” (DMLBS, villa 1.b)

ēvāgīnātā ... sicā: ablative absolute

peste venēnī: “the sickness caused by the poison.” See DMLBS, pestis 2 and, for the “appositional” genitive, AG 343.g.

(15) quō ... dēfenderet: relative clause of purpose (AG 531.2): “to defend the king”

(16) Quī: i.e., the assassin Eumer

THE BIRTH AND BAPTISM OF KING EDWIN'S DAUGHTER EANFLÆD

(17) Eanfled: Eanfled (626 to ca. 685) became the second wife of King Oswiu of Northumbria (married 642), and abbess of Whitby from ca. 680 until her death.

(18) ē contrā: “on the other hand”

precibus suīs: ablative of means

adstruere, quod ... obtinuerit ... prōcreāret: indirect statement with quod, introduced by adstruere (“to add”: the infinitive follows coepit). The perfect subjunctive obtinuerit is treated as a verb in secondary sequence, hence it is followed by the imperfect subjunctive (prōcreāret) in the subordinate clause.

(19) pugnantī: agrees with sibi (“if he [Christ] would give life and victory to him [Edwin] in his fight…”).

absque: = sine (post-classical)

sobolem: = subolem > suboles -is m., an elevated word for “offspring, child”

in pignus prōmissiōnis inplendae: “as a pledge of the fulfilment of his promise”

Chrīstō … Paulīnō: Chrīstō is the dative indirect object of cōnsecrandum and Paulīnō is the dative indirect object of adsignāvit.

pentēcostēs: genitive of a Greek first declension noun (AG 44)

cum XI aliīs dē familiā eius: that is, with 12 other members of Edwin's household; eius refers to Edwin.

KING EDWIN DEFEATS THE WEST SAXONS AND CONSIDERS THE CHRISTIAN FAITH

(20) bellō initō: ablative absolute: “when the war had started” or “in the course of his campaign” (Colgrave and Mynors).

ūniversōs: “everyone, “all those”

(21) ex quō: understand tempore (“from the time when…”).

(22) Vērum prīmō: “but first of all”

dīligentius: with ēdiscere and cōnferre

ex tempore: “as occasion offered”

et … et: “both … and”

ēdiscere ... cōnferre: both complementary infinitives with curāvit (“he took care to learn ... and to consult …”).

prīmātibus: “earls, barons,” DMLBS, primas 1.

quōs sapientiōrēs nōverat: sapientiōrēs is a predicate adjective: “whom he considered wisest.”

quid ... arbitrārentur: indirect question (AG 574) introduced by cōnferre (“to discuss what …”).

agendum: understand esse (“what they thought ought to be done …”).

(23) nātūrā: ablative of specification (AG 418): “by nature”

quid ... faciendum, quae ... servanda: indirect questions, introduced by tractābat (“he was considering what …”).

NOTE: Lemmatization of Anglo–Saxon Names
—: declined forms unattested
[ ]: nominative forms unattested (back–formed for purposes of lemmatization)
*: form unattested but hypothesized based on existing patterns


Nordanhymbri –ōrum m.: the Northumbrians, people living north of the Humber estuary

nātiō nātiōnis f.: race

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

aquilōnālis –e: northern, northerly

Humbra –ae f.: the Humber

plaga –ae f.: tract

habitō habitāre habitāvī habitātus: to inhabit

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616–633

fidēs –is; mostly in the pl. fidēs –ium f.: lute string

praedicō –āre –āvī –ātum: to preach

Paulīnus –ī m.: Paulinus, Bishop of York, 625–633; bishop of Rochester, 633–644

vidēlicet: clearly

auspicium auspicī(ī) n.: divination

terrēnus –a –um: earthen

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

habitō habitāre habitāvī habitātus: to inhabit

diciō –ōnis f.: dominion

Mēvānia –ae f.: the Mevanian Islands, Anglesey and the Isle of Man

subiugō –iugāre: to subjugate

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

Auster –trī m.: the southerly or south wind

frūx frūgis f.: fruit

prōventus –ūs m.: a produce, yield

ūbertās –ātis f.: richness, abundance

nōngentī –ae –a; nongentēsimus –a –um: 900, 900th

sexāgintā; sexāgēsimus –a –um: 60, 60th

mēnsūra –ae f. : a measuring, measurement

iūxtā: according to

aestimātiō aestimatiōnis f.: value

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

trecentī –ae –a; trecentēsimus –a –um: 300, 300th

occāsiō occāsiōnis f.: opportunity

percipiō percipere percēpī perceptus: to take in

praefor –fātus sum: to say beforehand; praefātus: aforementioned

cognātiō –ōnis f.: blood–relationship

Cantuarī –ōrum m. : the people of Kent

acceptus –a –um: welcome, acceptable, pleasing

coniūnx coniugis f.: spouse

Aedilberga –ae f.: Æthelburg, Daughter of Æthelberht 3 I of Kent; queen of the Northumbrians

Aedilberct –ī m.: Æthelberht, First Christian king of Kent, 560 or c.585–616

[Tata] –ae f.: Tate, a nickname

cōnsortium –ī n.: fellowship, association

prīmō: at first

procus –ī m.: one who asks

Eadbald –ī m.: Eadbald, King of Kent, 616–640

Cantuarī –ōrum m. : the people of Kent

praesum praeesse praefuī praefutūrus: to be before; be present

respōnsum respōnsī n.: answer

licitus –a –um: allowed

Chrīstiānus –a –um: Christian

pāgānus –ī m.: a heathen, a pagan

coniūnx coniugis f.: spouse

sacrāmentum –ī n.: sacrament

cōnsortium –ī n.: fellowship, association

profānō –āre –āvī –ātum : to profane

cultus cultūs m.: religious observance, worship

prōrsus: forwards; straightway

īgnārus –a –um: ignorant

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616–633

omnimodus –a –um: of every sort or type; (abl sg. or pl. as adv.) in every way, respect; (w. nōn or sim.) in no way or respect, not at all.

contrārius –a –um: opposite

Chrīstiānus –a –um: Christian

potius: rather, more

cultus cultūs m.: religious observance, worship

religiō religiōnis f.: religion

ministra –ae f.: servant, attendant

Chrīstiānus –a –um: Christian

abnegō abnegāre abnegāvī abnegātus: to deny

religiō religiōnis f.: religion

exanimō –animāre: to put out of breath; kill

prūdēns: prudent

sanciō sancīre sānxī sānctus: to consecrate

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616–633

iūxtā: according to

dispōnō dispōnere dispōsuī dispōsitus: to place, arrange, distribute

ōrdinō –ōrdināre: to set in order, regulate, appint, consecrate

episcopus –ī m.: bishop

dilēctus –ūs m.: selection

Paulīnus –ī m.: Paulinus, Bishop of York, 625–633; bishop of Rochester, 633–644

pāgānus –ī m.: a heathen, a pagan

societās societātis f.: partnership

polluō –ere –uī –ūtus: to soil

cottīdiānus –a –um: daily

exhortātiō –ōnis f.: sermon

sacrāmentum –ī n.: sacrament

celebrātiō –iōnis f.: the celebration of a festival or religious service

cōnfīrmō cōnfīrmāre cōnfīrmāvī cōnfīrmātus: to confirm, strengthen

ōrdinō –ōrdināre: to set in order, regulate, appint, consecrate

Paulīnus –ī m.: Paulinus, Bishop of York, 625–633; bishop of Rochester, 633–644

episcopus –ī m.: bishop

Jūstus –ī m.: Justus, Bishop of Rochester; Archbishop of Canterbury, 624–627x631

archiepiscopus –ī m.: archbishop

duodecim; duodecimus –a –um: 12; 12th

Kalendae –ārum f.: Kalends

Augustus –ī m.: the month of August

incarnātiō –ōnis f.: incarnation

dominus dominī m.: lord; Lord (of Jesus Christ)

praefor –fātus sum: to say beforehand; praefātus: aforementioned

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616–633

cōpula –ae f: a rope, tie

carnālis –e: fleshly, carnal

potius: rather, more

āgnitiō –ōnis f.: recognition

vēritās vēritātis f.: truth

advocō advocāre advocāvī advocātus: to summon, call

iūxtā: according to

apostolus –ī m.: apostle

spondeō –ēre spopondī sponsum: to make a solemn promise

exhibeō exhibēre exhibuī exhibitum : to produce

Christus –ī m.: Christ

cumque: whenever, always

dominus dominī m.: lord; Lord (of Jesus Christ)

adiuvō adiuvāre adiūvī adiūvatus: to help, assist, support

pāgānus –ī m.: a heathen, a pagan

praedicō –āre –āvī –ātum: to preach

apostolus –ī m.: apostle

ex–caecō –caecāre: to blind, make blind

īnfidēlis –e: unfaithful

fulgeō fulgēre fulsī: to shine

illūminātiō –iōnis f.: illumination; (the granting of) the power of sight

ēvangelium –ī n.: the Gospel

Christus –ī m.: Christ

sīcārius –ī m.: an assassin, murderer

vocābulum –ī n.: a designation, name

Eumer — m.: Eomer, Intended assassin of Edwin 2, fl. 626

occidentālis –e: of the west, westerly

Saxones –um m.: the Saxons, a Germanic tribe

Cuichelmus –ī m.: Cwichelm, King of the West Saxons, d. 636

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616–633

rēgnō rēgnāre rēgnāvī rēgnātus: to rule

prīvō prīvāre prīvāvī prīvātus: to deprive of

sīca sīcae f.: dagger

biceps bicipitis : two–headed

toxicō –āre: to poison

sufficiō sufficere suffēcī suffectum: to suffuse

pestis pestis f.: plague

venēnum venēnī n.: poison

prīmō: at first

pascha –ae f.: Passover

iūxtā: according to

Doruventiō –ōnis f.: the river Derwent

vīlla vīllae f.: estate

rēgālis –e: regal, kingly

dominus dominī m.: lord; Lord (of Jesus Christ)

simulō simulāre simulāvī simulātus: to imitate

lēgātiō lēgātiōnis f.: embassy

astūtus –a –um: crafty, cunning

volvō volvere voluī volūtum: to roll

exsurgō –ere –surrēxī: to rise up; rise

repente: suddenly

ēvāgīnō –āre: to unsheath

sīca sīcae f.: dagger

Lilla — m.: Lilla, Northumbrian minister; friend to King Edwin 2 whose life he saved

minister ministrī m.: attendant, servant

scūtum scūtī n.: shield

nex necis f.: killing, murder

interpōnō interpōnere interposuī interposītus: to place between

pungō pungere pupugī punctum: pierce, prick, puncture; sting

sex; sextus –a –um: 6; 6th

īnfīgō –ere –fīxī –fīxus: to fasten in or upon

vulnerō vulnerāre vulnerāvī vulnerātus: to wound

impetō –petere –petīvī –petītum: to rush upon, assail, attack 

tumultus tumultūs m.: confusion

Fordheri — m.: Forthhere, King Edwin 2's miles; killed c.626

sīca sīcae f.: dagger

nefandus –a –um: not to be spoken, unutterable

perimō –ere –ēmī –ēmptus: to take away completely; annihilate

sacrōsānctus –a –um: inviolable sacrosanct; most holy, most sacred

dominicus –ī m.: Sunday

pascha –ae f.: Passover

rēgīna rēgīnae f.: queen

Eanfled –ae f.: Eanflæd, Queen of Oswiu 1; daughter of Edwin 2, 626–post685

cumque: whenever, always

Paulīnus –ī m.: Paulinus, Bishop of York, 625–633; bishop of Rochester, 633–644

episcopus –ī m.: bishop

dīus –a –um: godlike

nāta –ae f.: daughter

episcopus –ī m.: bishop

dominus dominī m.: lord; Lord (of Jesus Christ)

Christus –ī m.: Christ

a-struō (ad-struō) astruere astrūxī astrūctum: to add

obtineō obtinēre obtinuī obtentus: to possess

rēgīna rēgīnae f.: queen

sōspes –itis: saved

subolēs –is f.: shoot; twig

procreō –āre –āvī –ātum: to procreate, engender, beget

dēlectō dēlectāre dēlectāvī dēlectātus: to divert, attract, delight

abrenūntiō –āre –āvī –ātum: to renounce

īdōlum or īdōlon –ī n.: an idol; ghost

Christus –ī m.: Christ

homicīda –ae m.: murderer; assassin

vulnerō vulnerāre vulnerāvī vulnerātus: to wound

pīgnus –oris n.: pledge

prōmissiō –ōnis f.: a promising, promise

Christus –ī m.: Christ

cōnsecrō cōnsecrāre cōnsecrāvī cōnsecrātus: to consecrate

Paulīnus –ī m.: Paulinus, Bishop of York, 625–633; bishop of Rochester, 633–644

episcopus –ī m.: bishop

as–signō –signāre: to mark out, assign

baptīzo –āre –āvī –ātum: to baptize

pentēcostē –ēs f.: Pentecost

Nordanhymbri –ōrum m.: the Northumbrians, people living north of the Humber estuary

ūndecim; ūndecimus –a –um: 11; 11th

prīdem: long ago

īnflīgō –ere –flīxī –flīctus: to strike

occidentālis –e: of the west, westerly

Saxones –um m.: the Saxons, a Germanic tribe

ineō inīre iniī/inīvī initus: to enter

ūniversus –a –um: entire

nex necis f.: killing, murder

suum –ī n. or sua –ōrum n.: one's property

cōnspīrō cōnspīrāre cōnspīrāvī cōnspīrātus: to blow

occidō occidere occidī occāsus: to go down; set; fall

dēditiō dēditiōnis f.: surrender, capitulation

incōnsultē: without due care and consideration, rashly, ill-advisedly

sacrāmentum –ī n.: sacrament

Chrīstiānus –a –um: Christian

percipiō percipere percēpī perceptus: to take in

īdōlum or īdōlon –ī n.: an idol; ghost

Christus –ī m.: Christ

prīmō: at first

dīligēns: careful

venerābilis –e: venerable, deserving of respect

vīrus –ī n.: bodily fluid, secretion

Paulīnus –ī m.: Paulinus, Bishop of York, 625–633; bishop of Rochester, 633–644

ēdiscō –discere –didicī: to learn thoroughly, study

prīmās –ātis m.: prominent or leading man, magnate, noble, earl, baron

sapiō sapere sapivī: to discern

sagāx –ācis: keen

resideō residēre resēdī ressus: to remain

tacitus –a –um: silent

intimus –a –um: inmost

colloquor colloquī collocūtus sum: to converse, hold a discussion

religiō religiōnis f.: religion

tractō tractāre tractāvī tractātus: to haul

article Nav
Previous