Chapter 3.1

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[1] At interfectō in pugnā Eduīnō, suscēpit prō illō rēgnum Deirōrum, dē quā prōvinciā ille generis prōsāpiam et prīmōrdia rēgnī habuerat, fīlius patruī eius Aelfricī vocābulō Osric, quī ad praedicātiōnem Paulinī fideī erat sacrāmentīs inbūtus. [2] Porrō rēgnum Berniciōrum (nam in hās duās prōvinciās gēns Nordanhymbrōrum antīquitus dīvīsa erat) suscēpit fīlius Aedilfridī, quī dē illā prōvinciā generis et rēgnī orīginem dūxerat, nōmine Eanfrid. [3] Sīquidem tempore tōtō quō rēgnāvit Eduīnī, fīliī praefātī rēgis Aedilfridī, quī ante illum rēgnāverat, cum magnā nōbilium iuventūte apud Scottōs sīve Pictōs exulābant, ibique ad doctrīnam Scottōrum cathecizātī, et baptismatis sunt grātiā recreātī. [4] Quī ut mortuō rēge inimīcō patriam sunt redīre permissī, accēpit prīmus eōrum, quem dīximus, Eanfrid rēgnum Berniciōrum. [5] Quī uterque rēx, ut terrēnī rēgnī īnfulās sortītus est, sacrāmenta rēgnī caelestis, quibus initiātus erat, anathematīzandō prōdidit, ac sē prīscīs idolatriae sordibus polluendum perdendumque restituit.

 [6] Nec mora, utrumque rēx Brettonum Ceadvalla impiā manū sed iūstā ultiōne perēmit. [7] Et prīmō quidem proximā aestāte Osricum, dum sē in oppidō mūnicipiō temerāriē obsēdisset, ērumpēns subitō cum suīs omnibus imparātum cum tōtō exercitū dēlēvit. [8] Dein cum annō integrō prōvinciās Nordanhymbrōrum nōn ut rēx victor possidēret, sed quasi tyrannus saeviēns disperderet ac tragicā caede dīlacerāret, tandem Eanfridum incōnsultē ad sē cum XII lēctīs mīlitibus postulandae pācis grātiā venientem similī sorte damnāvit. [9] Īnfaustus ille annus et omnibus bonīs exōsus usque hodiē permanet, tam propter apostasiam rēgum Anglōrum, quā sē fideī sacrāmentīs exuerant, quam propter vēsānam Brettonicī rēgis tyrannidem. [10] Vnde cūnctīs placuit rēgum tempora computantibus ut, ablātā dē mediō rēgum perfidōrum memoriā, idem annus sequentis rēgis, id est Osvaldī virī Deō dīlēctī, rēgnō assignārētur; quō post occīsiōnem frātris Eanfridī superveniente cum parvō exercitū, sed fide Christī mūnītō, īnfandus Brettonum dux cum inmēnsīs illīs cōpiīs, quibus nihil resistere posse iactābat, interemtus est in locō quī linguā Anglōrum Denisesburna, id est rīvus Denisī, vocātur.

THE APOSTASY OF OSRIC & EANFRITH

After the death of King Edwin, the Kingdom of Northumbria, which had been united under Edwin's rule (616–633), devolved into its two constituent kingdoms, Bernicia in the north and Deira in the south. Bernicia was ruled by Eanfrith (590–634), the son of Æthelfrith (whom Edwin and Rædwald had defeated in 616), and Deira was ruled by Osric, the son of Edwin's uncle Æthelric. Both Eanfrith and Osric had been Christians, butreverted to paganism upon taking the throne. Both were defeated by the invading British king Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd in 634. Cadwallon was in turn defeated by Oswald, son of Æthelfrith (and brother of Eanfrith), in the battle of Heavenfield in 634. Oswald subsequently ruled over a reunited Kingdom of Northumbria.

(1) prō illō: “in his place”

Deirōrum: Deira and Bernicia were the two northern kingdoms which, when united, formed the Kingdom of Northumbria. Deira included most of what is now Yorkshire, from the Humber north to the River Tees; Berncia was to the north of Deira, up to the River Forth. See Map.

Aelfrīcī: Ælfric, paternal uncle (patruus) of Edwin

ad praedicātiōnem: ad = “in obedience to” or “in accordance with”

fideī … imbūtus: the order is imbūtus erat sacrāmentīs fideī; sacrāmentīs is ablative after imbūtus.

(2) Aedilfridī: Æthelfrith was the first known king of Bernicia, who reigned from 593–616; from ca. 604 until his death he ruled over a united Kingdom of Northumbria. He was killed in battle with Rædwald, who placed Edwin on the throne of Northumbria.

(3) Eduīnī: nominative

iuventūte: iuventus = “a youthful group”

ad doctrīnam: ad = “in accordance with”

baptismatis … recreātī: the order is recreātī sunt gratiā baptismatis; gratiā is ablative of means.

(4) Quī: connecting relative (AG 308.f)

patriam: accusative of motion toward, without ad

primus: “oldest”

quem: the antecedent is primus.

(5) Quī uterque rēx: “both of these kings”; literally, “which each king,” making the grammatical subject singular, even though both kings (Osric and Eanfrith) are being discussed. It is easier, in English, to take the subject as plural (“both kings”) and translate the verbs as plural.

ut: “when”

polluendum perdendumque: gerundives (agreeing with ) expressing purpose: “to be polluted and destroyed” (AG 500.4)

634: THE YEAR OF THE BAD KINGS

(6) utrumque: “both” (i.e., Osric and Eanfrith)

Ceadvalla: Cadwallon ap Cadfan, ruler of the British kingdom of Gwynedd, who had defeated Edwin in the Battle of Hatfield Chase (633).

(7) primō proximā aetāte: Bede's ordering of his narrative is somewhat confusing. In the previous sentence, he says that Cadwallon killed both Osric and Eanfrith; he then goes back and relates the separate stories of how each king met his death. Primō introduces the story of Osric's death, "first of all." Proximā aestāte, "in the following summer," has to mean the summer after Edwin died and Osric and Eanfrith took power.

sē … obsēdisset: refers to Cadwallon, the subject of the main clause, although the subject of the verb obsēdisset in the subordinate clause in Osric (a form of “indirect reflexive”; see AG 300.2)

ērumpens … imparātum: ērumpens refers to Cadwallon, imparātum refers to Osric; understand eum [Osricum] inparātum as the object of dēlēvit.

cum … dīlacerāret: temporal cum clause; with the imperfect subjunctive, it is best to translate, “while he was….”

(8) annō integrō: ablative of duration of time (AG 424.b): “for a whole year”

prōvinciās: the object of both possidēret and disperderet; it is easiest in English to make “kingdoms” the object of the first verb, and substitute a pronoun “them” as the object of the second verb.

nōn ut rēx victor … disperderet: victor (i.e., Cadwallon) is the subject of both verbs; ut rēx, “as a king.” Bede is making a distinction between a legitimate king and a tyrant.

ad sē: refers to Cadwallon (the subject of the main verb, damnāvit).

postulandae pācis gratiā: the gerundive expresses purpose: “for the sake of asking for peace.”

similī sorte: literally, “by a similar lot”; has the adverbial meaning “likewise” (making this an ablative of manner).

(9) et: "even"; take with usque hodiē ("even to this day").

exōsus ... permanet: "remains hateful"

omnibus bonīs: dative of reference with exosus (AG 376).

tam … quam: “as much … as”

(10) cunctīs … rēgum tempora computantibus: “No doubt this is evidence for the keeping of early king-lists” (Wallace-Hadrill 84). The passage implies that the brief reigns of Osric and Eanfrith were not recorded on the king-lists for the year 634, and that the year was assigned instead the reign of Oswald.

dē mediō: “from the scene”

rēgum perfidōrum: with memoriā

sequentis rēgis: with rēgnō (as are the genitives in apposition, Osvaldī and virī … dīlēctī)

rēgnō: dative, after adsignārētur: “was assigned to the reign…”)

quō … superveniente ... mūnītō: an ablative absolute: “when he appeared on the scene … fortified....”

quibus: dative object of resistere

iactābat: > iactō = “boast”: “which he boasted that nothing could resist”

Denisesburna: Rowley Burn, near Hexham

NOTE: Lemmatization of Anglo–Saxon Names
—: declined forms unattested
[ ]: nominative forms unattested (back–formed for purposes of lemmatization)
*: form unattested but hypothesized based on existing patterns


Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

Deirī –ōrum: the Deiri

prōsāpia –ae f.: a stock, race, family

prīmōrdium -ī n.: beginning, origin, source

patruus patruī m.: uncle

[Aelfric] –ī m.: Ælfric, Father of King Osric 1 of Deira, paternal uncle of Edwin 2

vocābulum –ī n.: a designation, name

Osric –ī m.: Osric, King of Deira, 633-634

praedicātiō –ōnis f.: teaching; sermon

Paulīnus –ī m.: Paulinus, Bishop of York, 625-633; bishop of Rochester, 633-644

sacrāmentum –ī n.: sacrament

imbuō or inbuō –ere –uī –ūtus: to wet, moisten

porrō: forward, of space, time, or of mental operations, far off

Bernicī –ōrum: the Bernici

Nordanhymbri –ōrum m.: the Northumbrians, people living north of the Humber estuary

antīquitus: in former times

Aedilfrid –ī m.: Æthelfrith, King of the Northumbrians, 592-616

orīgō –inis f.: origin

Eanfridus -i m.: Eanfrith, King of the Bernicians, 633/34-634; son of Æthelfrith 2

siquidem: if only, if indeed

rēgnō rēgnāre rēgnāvī rēgnātus: to rule

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

praefatus, -a, -um: previously mentioned

Aedilfrid –ī m.: Æthelfrith, King of the Northumbrians, 592-616

rēgnō rēgnāre rēgnāvī rēgnātus: to rule

iuventūs iuventūtis f.: youth, young man

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

exsulō exsulāre exsulāvī exsulātus: to be in exile

doctrīna –ae f.: teaching, doctrine

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

catēchizō –āre –āvī –ātum: to catechize

baptisma –atis n.: baptism

recreō recreāre recreāvī recreātum: to restore, revive, refresh, cheer

mortuus –a –um: dead

Eanfridus -i m.: Eanfrith, King of the Bernicians, 633/34-634; son of Æthelfrith 2

Bernicī –ōrum: the Bernici

uter utra utrum: either which (of two)

terrēnus –a –um: earthen

īnfula –ae f.: bandage

sortior –ītus sum: to cast lots; obtain

sacrāmentum –ī n.: sacrament

initiō initiāre initiāvī initiātus: to initiate

anathematizō –āre –āvī –ātus: to anathemize

prīscus –a –um: ancient

īdō(lo)latria –ae f.: idolatry, idol-worship, paganism

sordēs –is f.: filth; greed

polluō –ere –uī –ūtus: to soil

restituō restituere restituī restitūtus: to restore

uter utra utrum: either which (of two)

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

Ceadvalla: Cadwallon, King of Gwynedd, d.634

impius –a –um: disloyal

ultiō –ōnis f.: act of vengeance

perimō –ere –ēmī –ēmptus: to take away completely; annihilate

prīmō: at first

proximus proximī m.: neighbor

aestās aestātis f.: summer

Osric –ī m.: Osric, King of Deira, 633-634

mūnicipium mūnicipi(ī) n.: township

temerārius –a –um: accidental; thoughtless, impetuous

obsideō obsidēre obsēdī obsessus: to blockade

ērumpō ērumpere ērūpī ēruptus: to break out, burst out

imparātus –a –um: unprepared, unfurnished

dēleō dēlēre dēlēvī dēlētus: to destroy

Nordanhymbri –ōrum m.: the Northumbrians, people living north of the Humber estuary

possideō –ēre –sēdī –sessus: to hold, possess

tyrannus tyrannī m.: tyrant

saeviō saevīre saeviī saevitum: to rage

disperdō -perdere -perdidī -perditum: to waste, ruin, destroy

tragicus –a –um: of tragedy, tragic

dīlacerō –āre –āvī –ātum: to tear to pieces

Eanfridus -i m.: Eanfrith, King of the Bernicians, 633/34-634; son of Æthelfrith 2

incōnsultus –a –um: without advice

legō legāre legāvī legātus: to bequeath; choose as a deputy

postulō postulāre postulāvī postulātus: to demand

īnfaustus –a –um: unfortunate

exōsus –a –um: hating much; usually w. an obj. acc.; hostile

permaneō permanēre permānsī permānsum: to remain

apostasia –ae f.: a departure from one's religion

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

sacrāmentum –ī n.: sacrament

exuō exuere exuī exūtus: to take off

vēsānus –a –um: insane

Britannicus –a –um: British

tyrannis –idis f. : tyranny

computō –putāre: to count, compute, reckon

medium medi(ī) n.: middle

perfidus –a –um: faithless, treacherous, false

Osuald –ī m.: Oswald, King of the Northumbrians, 634-642

as–signō –signāre: to mark out, assign

occīsiō –ōnis f. : killing, slaying, murder, slaughter

Eanfridus –i m.: Eanfrith, King of the Bernicians, 633/34-634; son of Æthelfrith 2

superveniō –īre –vēnī –ventu: to come over or upon; come unexpectedly; fall upon

Christus –ī m.: Christ

mūniō mūnīre mūnīvī mūnītus: to build, fortify

īnfandus –a –um: not to be uttered

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

immēnsus –a –um: immense

resistō resistere restitī: to pause

iactō iactāre iactāvī iactātus: to throw

interimō interimere interēmī interēmptus: to destroy

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

Denisesburna: the Devil's Water or Rowley Burn

rīvus –ī m.: brook, stream

[Denisus] –ī m.: Denis/Denise?

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