Chapter 2.20

<Vt occīsō Eduīne Paulīnus Cantiam rediēns Hrofēnsis ecclēsiae praesulātum suscēperit>

[1] At vērō Eduīnī cum X et VII annīs gentī Anglōrum simul et Brettōnum glōriōsissimē praeesset, ē quibus sex etiam ipse, ut dīximus, Chrīstī rēgnō mīlitāvit, rebellāvit adversus eum Caedvalla rēx Brettōnum, auxilium praebente illī Pendā virō strēnuissimō dē rēgiō genere Merciōrum, quī et ipse ex eō tempore gentis eiusdem rēgnō annīs XX et duōbus variā sorte praefuit; et cōnsertō gravī proeliō in campō, quī vocātur Haethfelth, occīsus est Eduīnī diē quartō īduum Octobrium, annō dominicae incarnātiōnis DCXXXIII, cum esset annōrum XL et VIII; eiusque tōtus vel interemtus vel dispersus est exercitus. [2] In quō etiam bellō ante illum ūnus fīlius eius Osfrid iuvenis bellicōsus cecidit, alter Eadfrid necessitāte cōgente ad Pendam rēgem trānsfūgit, et ab eō postmodum, rēgnante Osvaldō, contrā fidem iūris iūrandī peremtus est.

[3] Quō tempore maxima est facta strāges in ecclēsiā vel gente Nordanhymbrōrum, maximē quod ūnus ex ducibus, ā quibus ācta est, pāgānus, alter, quia barbarus erat pāgānō saevior. [4] Sīquidem Penda cum omnī Merciōrum gente īdōlīs dēditus, et Chrīstiānī erat nōminis ignārus; at vērō Caedvalla, quamvīs nōmen et professiōnem habēret Chrīstiānī, adeō tamen erat animō ac mōribus barbarus, ut nē sexuī quidem muliebrī vel innocuae parvulorum parceret aetātī, quīn ūniversōs atrōcitāte ferīnā mortī per tormenta contrāderet, multō tempore tōtās eōrum prōvinciās dēbacchandō pervagātus, ac tōtum genus Anglōrum Brittāniae fīnibus ērāsūrum sē esse dēlīberāns. [5] Sed nec religiōnī Chrīstiānae, quae apud eōs exorta erat, aliquid impendēbat honōris. [6] Quippe cum usque hodiē mōris sit Brettōnum, fidem religiōnemque Anglōrum prō nihil habēre, neque in aliquō eīs magis commūnicāre quam pāgānīs. [7] Allātum est autem caput Eduīnī rēgis Eburācum, et illātum posteā in ecclēsiam beātī apostolī Petrī, quam ipse coepit, sed successor eius Osvald perfēcit, ut suprā docuimus, positum est in porticū sānctī pāpae Gregoriī, ā cuius ipse discipulīs verbum vītae suscēperat.

[8] Turbātis itaque rēbus Nordanhymbrōrum huius articulō clādis, cum nīl alicubi praesidiī nisi in fugā esse vidērētur, Paulīnus assūmtā sēcum rēgīnā Aedilbergē, quam prīdem addūxerat, rediit Cantiam nāvigiō, atque ab Honōriō archiepiscopō et rēge Eadbaldō multum honōrificē susceptus est. [9] Vēnit autem illūc duce Bassō mīlite rēgis Eduīnī fortissimō, habēns sēcum Eanfledam fīliam et Vuscfreān fīlium Eduīnī, nec nōn et Yffī fīlium Osfridī fīliī eius, quōs posteā māter metū Eadbaldī et Osualdī rēgum mīsit in Galliam nūtriendōs rēgī Daegberēctō, quī erat amīcus illīus, ibique ambō in īnfantiā dēfūnctī, et iuxtā honōrem vel rēgiīs puerīs vel innocentibus Chrīstī congruum in ecclēsiā sepultī sunt. [10] Attulit quoque sēcum vāsa pretiōsa Eduīnī rēgis perplura, in quibus et crucem magnam auream, et calicem aureum cōnsecrātum ad ministerium altāris, quae hāctenus in ecclēsiā Cantiae cōnservāta mōnstrantur.

[11] Quō in tempore Hrofēnsis ecclēsia pāstōrem minimē habēbat, eō quod Rōmānus praesul illīus ad Honōrium pāpam ā Iūstō archiepiscopō lēgātārius missus absortus fuerat flūctibus Ītalicī maris; ac per hoc cūram illīus praefātus Paulīnus invītātiōne Honōriī antistitis et Eadbaldī rēgis suscēpit ac tenuit, usque dum et ipse suō tempore ad caelestia rēgna cum glōriōsī frūctū labōris ascendit. [12] In quā ecclēsiā moriēns pallium quoque, quod ā Rōmānō pāpā accēperat, relīquit.

[13] Relīquerat autem in ecclēsiā suā Eburācī Iācōbum diāconum, virum utique ecclesiasticum et sānctum, quī multō exhinc tempore in ecclēsiā manēns magnās antīquō hostī praedās docendō et baptīzandō ēripuit; cuius nōmine vīcus, in quō maximē solēbat habitāre, iuxtā Cataractam, usque hodiē cognōminātur. [14] Quī, quoniam cantandī in ecclēsiā erat perītissimus, recuperātā postmodum pace in prōvinciā et crēscente numerō fidēlium, etiam magister ecclēsiasticae cantiōnis iuxtā mōrem Rōmānōrum sīve Cantuāriōrum multīs coepit existere; et ipse senex ac plēnus diērum, iuxtā scrīptūrās, patrum viam secūtus est.

THE DEATH OF EDWIN

King Edwin died on October 12, 633, in the Battle of Hatfield Chase, where he faced an army led by Cadwallon of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia. His son Osfrith was killed in the battle; another son, Eadfrith, was taken prisoner and later killed by Penda. In the aftermath of the battle, the surviving members of Edwin's family fled to Kent with Bishop Paulinus.

(1) Chrīstī rēgnō militāvit: “he was a soldier for the kingdom of Christ”

Cædwalla: Cadwallon ap Cadfan, king of the British kingdom of Gwynedd (northern Wales) from ca. 625 to 634.

Penda: king of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia from ca. 626 to 655.

annīs XX et IIbus: “for 22 years”: ablative used to express extent of time

variā sorte: “with varied fortunes”

Haethfelth: Hatfield Chase, in South Yorkshire. See Atlas.

diē IIII Īduum Octobrium: October 12

(2) ante illum: “before him” (illum refers to Edwin): either temporal (“earlier than him”), or spatial (“in front of his very eyes”)

contrā fidem iūris iūrandī: “against his oath.” Iūs iurandum, “oath,” is sometimes treated as a single neuter noun (LS, iusiurandum; AG 13), genitive iurisiurandī.

VIOLENCE AND INSTABILITY AFTER EDWIN'S DEATH

(3) vel: “and”

(4) Sīquidem: “Inasmuch as …”

ut nē … quidem: “so that not even …” (AG 322.f)

parceret: parcere takes a dative object

quīn: “but”

multō tempore: ablative expressing extent of time: “for a long time”

dēbacchandō pervagātus: “be wandered in a rage”

tōtum genus … dēlīberāns: dēlīberāns (“resolving”) introduces the accuastive-infinitive construction of indirect statement; rearrange as: dēlīberāns sē ērāsūrum esse tōtum genus …

(5) Sed nec: “nor”

(6) Quippe cum: quippe emphasizes the causal cum: “since (of course).” AG 549.

mōris sit Brettōnum: mōris is a special case of the possessive genitive; see AG 343.c: “it is (of) the custom of the Britons to …”

prō nihil habēre: “to consider worthless” (LS, nihil II)

neque in aliquō … pāgānīs: rearrange as: neque in aliquō commūnicāre eīs magis quam pāgānīs. The verb commūnicāre, “to associate, have social intercourse or dealings with,” takes a dative.

(7) Eburācum: “to York

in porticū: a porticus, here, is a side chapel in a church.

ā cuius ipse discipulīs ... suscēperat: = ā cuius discipulīs ipse ... suscēperat; ipse refers to Edwin. The word order emphasizes discipulīs.

PAULINUS FLEES NORTHUMBRIA

(8) huius articulō clādis: articulus (“a joint”), here means “a turning point” or “crisis.” The ablative is an ablative of time when.

quam prīdem addūxerat: Paulinus had accompanied Æthelburh from Kent to Northumbria when she came to marry Edwin; see 2.9.

Cantiam: ad Cantiam; the preposition is regularly omitted with names of kingdoms.

Honōriō archiepiscopō: Honorius was Archbishop of Canterbury from 627 to 653. He had been consecrated by Paulinus at Lincoln.

rēge Eadbaldō: Eadbald, king of Kent, was the son of Æthelberht and Bertha, and reigned from 616 to 640.

multum honoroficē: “very honorably” ( DMLBS, multus 7.b).

(9) duce Bassō: abl. abs.: “with Bass as the leader,” “in the charge of Bass.”

Eanfledam: Eanflæd (626–685) survived to become the second wife of King Oswiu of Northumbria. After Oswiu’s death, she entered Streanæshalc (Whitby) abbey, and succeeded her mother Æthelburh as abbess in about 680. Little is known about Edwin’s other children mentioned here; Wuscfrea and Yffi are mentioned in 2.14.

nūtriendōs: gerundive indicating purpose

rēgī Daegberēctō: Dagobert I ruled as king of the Franks from 629 to 634. He was Æthelburh’s second cousin (the grand-nephew of Charibert, Æthelburh’s maternal grandfather).

PAULINUS CONSECRATED BISHOP OF ROCHESTER

(11) Hrofēnsis: of Rochester

eō quod: “because”

Rōmānus: second Bishop of Rochester (ca. 624–ca. 627). Nothing else is known about Romanus or his mission to Rome.

Iūstō archiepiscopō: Justus, the fourth Archbishop of Canterbury (624–ca. 631) and first Bishop of Rochester (604–624).

absortus fuerat: “had been drowned,” shifted pluperfect of absorbeō, -ēre, = absorptus erat.

Ītalicī maris: the Mediterranean

et ipse: et = etiam

(12) pallium: the pallium is a garment presented to an archbishop as a symbol of his office. Pope Honorius sent the pallium to Paulinus in June 634 to recognize him as Archbishop of York, but the pallium did not arrive until Paulinus was forced to flee Northumbria. Paulinus, therefore, never actually served as Archbishop of York.

Rōmānō pāpā: Pope Honorius (reigned 625–38).

JAMES THE DEACON

Mayr-Harting writes eloquently: “The ending of the second book is more than apt; it is profoundly dramatic. After the clashes between Augustine and the British bishops, the conversions and relapses of the southern kingdoms, the laborious efforts to convert King Edwin, and the final disaster of Edwin’s defeat and death and Paulinus’s flight from Northumbria, a great calm comes over the last lines” (42).

(13) Iācōbum diāconum: James the Deacon; he is also mentioned briefly in 2.16, 3.25, and 4.2.

vīcus: village; nothing more is known about this village, except what Bede tells us.

maximē: for the most part, usually

cuius nōmine ... cognōminātur: cuius refers to James (“by whose name it is known ...”).

Cataractam: Catterick, North Yorkshire (also mentioned in 2.14 as a place where Paulinus evangelized).

(14) cantandī: genitive after perītissimus: “most skillful at singing”

magister … multīs coepit existere: “he began to be a teacher for many,” i.e., “he began to instruct many people in” + gen. (see DMLBS, exsistere 5).

ecclēsiasticae cantiōnis iuxtā mōrem Rōmānōrum sīve Cantuāriōrum: Gregorian chant

NOTE: Lemmatization of Anglo-Saxon Names
—: declined forms unattested
[ ]: nominative forms unattested (back-formed for purposes of lemmatization)
*: form unattested but hypothesized based on existing patterns


Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

glōriōsus –a –um: full of glory

praesum praeesse praefuī praefutūrus: to be before; be present

sex; sextus –a –um: 6; 6th

Christus –ī m.: Christ

mīlitō mīlitāre mīlitāvī mīlitātus: to serve as a soldier

rebellō –āre: revolt, rebel

Caedualla –an m.: Cadwallon, King of Gwynedd, d.634

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

Penda — m. (accusative: Pendan): Penda, King of the Mercians, 626/632-655

vīrus –ī n.: bodily fluid, secretion

strēnuus –a –um: brisk, prompt, vigorous

Merciī –ōrum m.: the Mercians, the people of the march, or midlands

praesum praeesse praefuī praefutūrus: to be before; be present

cōnserō –ere –seruī –sertus: to tie together; join

Haethfelth: Hatfield Chase near Doncaster

occidō occidere occidī occāsus: to go down; set; fall

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

īdūs īduum (pl. f.): the Ides

Octōber –bris –bre: of or pertaining to October

dominicus –ī m.: Sunday

incarnātiō –ōnis f.: incarnation

interimō interimere interēmī interēmptus: to destroy

dispergō –ere –spersī –spersus: to sprinkle

Osfrid –ī m.: Osfrith, Son of Edwin 2 of Northumbria, d.633

bellicōsus –a –um: warlike

Eadfrid –ī* m.: Eadfrith, Son of Edwin 2 of Northumbria, killed 634x642

trānsfugiō –fugere –fūgī: to take flight, flee; to defect, desert, go over (to)

postmodum: afterwards

rēgnō rēgnāre rēgnāvī rēgnātus: to rule

Osuald –ī m.: Oswald, King of the Northumbrians, 634-642

iūs iūrandum iūris iūrandī n.: oath

iūs iūrandum iūris iūrandī n.: oath

perimō –ere –ēmī –ēmptus: to take away completely; annihilate

māximus –a –um: greatest; maxime: most, especially, very much

strāgēs –is f.: prostrating; slaughter

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

Nordanhymbri –ōrum m.: the Northumbrians, people living north of the Humber estuary

maximē: most greatly

quod: the fact that

pāgānus –a –um: pagan

pāgānus –a –um: pagan

siquidem: if only, if indeed

Penda — m. (accusative: Pendan): Penda, King of the Mercians, 626/632-655

Merciī –ōrum m.: the Mercians, the people of the march, or midlands

īdōlum or īdōlon –ī n.: an idol; ghost

dēdō dēdere dēdidī dēditus: to give up, surrender

Chrīstiānus –a –um: Christian

īgnārus –a –um: ignorant

Caedualla –an m.: Cadwallon, King of Gwynedd, d.634

professiō –iōnis f.: confession of faith

Chrīstiānus –a –um: Christian

sexus –ūs m.: a sex (male or female)

muliebris muliebris muliebre: feminine

innocuus –a –um: harmless

parvulus –a –um: very small

ūniversus –a –um: entire

atrōcitās atrōcitātis n.: fierceness

ferīnus –a –um: of wild beasts

tormentum tormentī n.: torture

contrādō –dere –didi –ditum: to deliver together or wholly

multō: by much, greatly

dēbacchor –bacchārī: to rage, vent fury (on)

per–vagor –vagārī: to wander over, overrun

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

ērādō ērādere ērāsī ērāsum: strip off, scrape away; erase, delete; wipe out, destroy

dēlīberō dēlīberāre dēlīberāvī dēlīberātus: to consider, deliberate

religiō religiōnis f.: religion

Chrīstiānus –a –um: Christian

exorior exorīrī exortus sum: to rise up, proceed

impendo –ere –di –pensus: to devote

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

religiō religiōnis f.: religion

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

commūnicō commūnicāre commūnicāvī commūnicātus: to communicate

pāgānus –a –um: pagan

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

Eburācum or Eborācum –ī n.: York

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

apostolus –ī m.: apostle

Petrus –ī m.: St Peter, the Apostle

successor –oris m.: a follower, successor

Osuald –ī m.: Oswald, King of the Northumbrians, 634-642

perficiō perficere perfēcī perfectus: to complete, accomplish

positus –a –um: located

porticus porticus f.: gate

pāpa –ae or –ātis m.: a father, pope

Grēgorius –ī m.: Gregory, the Great, pope, 590-604

discipulus discipulī m.: male student

Nordanhymbri –ōrum m.: the Northumbrians, people living north of the Humber estuary

articulus articulī m.: joint, knuckle; finger

clādēs clādis f.: destruction

alicubī: somewhere, anywhere

Paulīnus –ī m.: Paulinus, Bishop of York, 625-633; bishop of Rochester, 633-644

assūmō (or adsūmō) –sūmere –sūmpsī –sūmptum: to take in addition

rēgīna rēgīnae f.: queen

Aedilberga –ae f.: Æthelburg, Daughter of Æthelberht 3 I of Kent; queen of the Northumbrians

prīdem: long ago

Cantia –ae f.: a promontory of southeast England, now Kent

nāvigium –iī n.: boat

Honōrius –ī m.: Honorius, Archbishop of Canterbury, 627x631-653

archiepiscopus –ī m.: archbishop

Eadbald –ī m.: Eadbald, King of Kent, 616-640

multum: much, a lot

honōri–ficus –a –um: honorable

[Bass –ī] m. (ablative: Bassō): Bass, Dux who escorted Æthelburg 1 back to Kent

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

Eanfled –ae f.: Eanflæd, Queen of Oswiu 1; daughter of Edwin 2, 626-post685

Uuscfrea — m. (accusative: Uuscfrean): Uscfrea, Son of King Edwin 2 of Northumbria

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

Yffi — m.: Yffi, Grandson of Edwin 2, d. c.633

Osfrid –ī m.: Osfrith, Son of Edwin 2 of Northumbria, d.633

Eadbald –ī m.: Eadbald, King of Kent, 616-640

Osuald –ī m.: Oswald, King of the Northumbrians, 634-642

Gallia Galliae f.: Gaul

nūtriō –īre –īvī or iī –ītus: to nourish

Daegberect –ī* m.: Dagobert, I, king of Austrasia, 623-33; and Neustria, 629-38

amīcus amīcī m.: male friend

ambō ambae ambō: both

īnfantia –ae f.: infancy; early childhood

dēfungor dēfungī dēfūnctus sum: to depart, die

iūxtā: according to

innocēns: innocent, harmless

Christus –ī m.: Christ

congruus –a –um: agreeing, fit, suitable; harmonious, concordant

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

sepeliō sepelīre sepeliī/sepelīvī sepultum: to bury

vās –is or vāsum –ī n.: vase

pretiōsus –a –um : expensive, costly, precious

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

perplūs perplūris: very many more, much more numerous

crux crucis f.: cross

calix –icis m.: dish; drinking cup

cōnsecrātus –a –um: holy, sacred

ministerium –ī n.: service, ministry

altāria –ium n.: the upper part of an altar; a high altar

hāctenus: thus far, so far, of space and time

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

Cantia –ae f.: a promontory of southeast England, now Kent

cōnservō cōnservāre cōnservāvī cōnservātus: to keep, preserve

mōnstrō mōnstrāre mōnstrāvī mōnstrātus: to show, point out

Hrofēnsis –is: of or pertaining to Rochester

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

pāstor pāstōris m.: shepherd

minimē: not

quod: the fact that

Rōmānus –a –um: Roman

praesul –ulis m.: bishop

Honōrius –ī m.: Honorius, Archbishop of Canterbury, 627x631-653

pāpa –ae or –ātis m.: a father, pope

Jūstus –ī m.: Justus, Bishop of Rochester; Archbishop of Canterbury, 624-627x631

archiepiscopus –ī m.: archbishop

lēgātārius –a –um: like an envoy or legate, legatine

absorbeō –bēre –buī –ptum: to devour, engulf

Ītalicus –a –um: Italian

praefatus –a –um: previously mentioned

Paulīnus –ī m.: Paulinus, Bishop of York, 625-633; bishop of Rochester, 633-644

invītātiō –ōnis f.: an invitation, challenge

Honōrius –ī m.: Honorius, Archbishop of Canterbury, 627x631-653

antistēs –itis m.: bishop

Eadbald –ī m.: Eadbald, King of Kent, 616-640

glōriōsus –a –um: full of glory

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

pallium palli(ī) n.: coverlet

Rōmānus –a –um: Roman

pāpa –ae or –ātis m.: a father, pope

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

Eburācum or Eborācum –ī n.: York

Iācōbus –ī m.: James, the Deacon

diāconus –ī m.: deacon

utīque: certainly

ecclēsiasticus –a –um: of or belonging to the Church

exhinc: after this, hereafter, then

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

baptīzo –āre –āvī –ātum: to baptize

vīcus vīcī m.: village

maximē: most greatly

habitō habitāre habitāvī habitātus: to inhabit

iūxtā: according to

Cataracta –ae f.: Catterick (North Yorkshire)

cognōminō –āre –āvī –ātus: to name, to call

cantō cantāre cantāvī cantātus: to sing, play

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

perītus –a –um: skilled

reciperō –āre: to regain

postmodum: afterwards

ecclēsiasticus –a –um: of or belonging to the Church

cantiō –iōnis f.: chanting, singing

iūxtā: according to

Rōmānus –a –um: Roman

Cantuarī –ōrum m. : the people of Kent

exsistō –sistere –stitī: to exist, be; emerge

senex senis: old, aged

iūxtā: according to

scrīptūra –ae f.: Scripture

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