Chapter 2.1

<Dē obitū beātī Pāpae Gregōriī.>

[1] Hīs temporibus, id est annō dominicae incarnātiōnis DCV, beātus pāpa Gregōrius, postquam sēdem Rōmānae et apostolicae ecclēsiae XIII annōs mēnsēs sex et diēs decem glōriōsissimē rēxit, dēfūnctus est, atque ad aeternam rēgnī caelestis sēdem trānslātus. [2] Dē quō nōs convenit, quia nostram, id est Anglōrum, gentem dē potestāte Satānae ad fidem Chrīstī suā industriā convertit, lātiōrem in nostrā historiā ecclēsiasticā facere sermōnem. [3] Quem rēctē nostrum appellāre possumus et dēbēmus apostolum,  quia, cum prīmum in tōtō orbe gereret pontificātum, et conversīs iam dūdum ad fidem vēritātis esset praelātus ecclēsiīs, nostram gentem eātenus īdōlīs mancipātam Chrīstī fēcit ecclēsiam, ita ut apostolicum illum dē eō liceat nōbīs prōferre sermōnem quia, etsī aliīs nōn est apostolus, sed tamen nōbīs est; nam signāculum apostolātūs eius nōs sumus in Dominō.

[4] Erat autem nātiōne Rōmānus, ā patre Gordiānō, genus ā proavīs nōn sōlum nōbile sed et religiōsum dūcēns. [5] Dēnique Fēlīx eiusdem apostolicae sēdis quondam episcopus, vir magnae glōriae in Chrīstō et ecclēsiā, eius fuit atavus. [6] Sed ipse nōbilitātem religiōnis nōn minōre quam parentēs et cognātī virtūte dēvōtiōnis exercuit. [7] Nōbilitātem vērō illam, quam ad saeculum vidēbātur habēre, tōtam ad nancīscendam supernae glōriam dignitātis dīvīnā grātiā largiente convertit. [8] Nam mūtātō repente habitū saeculārī monastērium petiit, in quō tantā perfectiōnis grātiā coepit conversārī ut, sīcut ipse posteā flendō solēbat adtestārī, animō illīus lābentia cūncta subteressent, ut rēbus omnibus quae volvuntur ēminēret, ut nūlla nisi caelestia cōgitāre solēret, ut etiam retentus corpore ipsa iam carnis claustra contemplātiōne trānsīret, ut mortem quoque, quae paene cūnctīs poena est, vidēlicet ut ingressum vītae et labōris suī praemium amāret. [9] Haec autem ipse dē sē nōn profectum iactandō virtūtum sed dēflendō potius dēfectum, quem sibi per cūram pāstōrālem incurrisse vidēbātur, referre cōnsuerat. [10] Dēnique tempore quōdam sēcrētō cum diāconō suō Petrō conloquēns, ēnumerātīs animī suī virtūtibus prīscīs mox dolendō subiūnxit: [11] ‘At nunc ex occāsiōne cūrae pāstōrālis saeculārium hominum negōtia patitur, et post tam pulchram quiētis suae speciem terrēnī āctūs pulvere foedātur. [12] Cumque sē prō condēscēnsiōne multōrum ad exteriōra sparserit, etiam cum interiōra appetit, ad haec procul dubiō minor redit. [13] Perpendō itaque quid tolerō, perpendō quid āmīsī dumque intueor illud quod perdidī, fit hoc gravius quod portō.’

 [15] Haec quidem sānctus vir ex magnae humilitātis intentiōne dīcēbat; sed nōs crēdere decet nihil eum monachicae perfectiōnis perdidisse occāsiōne cūrae pāstōrālis, immō potiōrem tunc sūmsisse prōfectum dē labōre conversiōnis multōrum quam dē propriae quondam quiētē conversātiōnis habuerat; maximē quia et pontificālī fūnctus officiō domum suam monastērium facere cūrāvit; et dum prīmō dē monastēriō abstractus ad ministerium altāris ōrdinātus atque Cōnstantīnopolim apocrisiārius ab apostolicā sēde dīrēctus est, nōn tamen in terrēnō conversātus palātiō prōpositum vītae caelestis intermīsit. [16] Nam quōsdam frātrum ex monastēriō suō, quī eum grātiā germānae cāritātis ad rēgiam urbem secūtī sunt, in tūtāmentum coepit observantiae rēgulāris habēre; vidēlicet ut eōrum semper exemplō, sīcut ipse scrībit, ad ōrātiōnis placidum lītus quasi anchorae fūne restringerētur, cum incessābilī causārum saeculārium impulsū fluctuāret, concussamque saeculī āctibus mentem inter eōs cotīdiē per studiōsae lēctiōnis rōborāret alloquium. [17] Hōrum ergō cōnsortiō nōn sōlum ā terrēnīs est mūnītus incursibus, vērum etiam ad caelestis exercitia vītae magis magisque succēnsus.

[18] Nam hortātī sunt eum ut librum beātī Iob magnīs involūtum obscūritātibus mysticā interpretātiōne discuteret; neque negāre potuit opus quod sibi frāternus amor multīs ūtile futūrum impōnēbat. [19] Sed eundem librum, quōmodo iuxtā litteram intellegendus, quāliter ad Chrīstī et ecclēsiae sacrāmenta referendus, quō sēnsū ūnīcuique fidēlium sit aptandus, per XXX et V librōs expositiōnis mīrandā ratiōne perdocuit. [20] Quod vidēlicet opus in rēgiā quidem urbe apocrisiārius inchoāvit, Rōmae autem iam pontifex factus explēvit. [21] Quī cum adhūc esset rēgiā in urbe positus, nāscentem ibi novam hēresim dē statū nostrae resurrēctiōnis cum ipsō, quō exorta est, initiō iuvante sē grātiā catholicae vēritātis attrīvit. [22] Siquidem Eutycius eiusdem urbis episcopus dogmatīzābat corpus nostrum in illā resurrēctiōnis glōriā impalpābile, ventīs āereque subtīlius esse futūrum; quod ille audiēns et ratiōne vēritātis et exemplō dominicae resurrēctiōnis probāvit hoc dogma orthodoxae fideī omnimodīs esse contrārium. [23] Catholica etenim fidēs habet, quod corpus nostrum illā inmortālitātis glōriā sublīmātum subtīle quidem sit per effectum spīritālis potentiae, sed palpābile per vēritātem nātūrae, iuxtā exemplum dominicī corporis, dē quō ā mortuīs suscitātō dīcit ipse discipulīs: [24]  ‘Palpāte et vidēte, quia spīritus carnem et ossa nōn habet, sīcut mē vidētis habēre.’ [25] In cuius assertiōne fideī venerābilis pater Gregōrius in tantum contrā nāscentem hēresim novam labōrāre contendit, tantā hanc īnstantiā, iuvante etiam piissimō imperātōre Tiberiō Cōnstantīnō, conminuit, ut nūllus exinde sit inventus, quī eius resuscitātor existeret.

 [26] Alium quoque librum composuit ēgregium, quī vocātur Pāstōrālis, in quō manifēstā lūce patefēcit, quālēs ad ecclēsiae regimen adsūmī, quāliter ipsī rēctōrēs vīvere, quā discrētiōne singulās quāsque audientium īnstruere persōnās, et quantā cōnsīderātiōne propriam cotīdiē dēbeant fragilitātem pēnsāre. [27] Sed et Omēliās ēvangeliī numerō XL composuit, quās in duōbus cōdicibus aequā sorte distīnxit. [28] Librōs etiam Dialogōrum IIII fēcit, in quibus rogātū Petrī diāconī suī virtūtēs sānctōrum, quōs in Ītaliā clāriōrēs nōsse vel audīre poterat, ad exemplum vīvendī posterīs collēgit, ut, sīcut in librīs expositiōnum suārum, quibus sit virtūtibus īnsūdandum ēdocuit, ita etiam dēscrīptīs sānctōrum mīrāculīs quae virtūtum eārumdem sit clāritās ostenderet. [29] Prīmam quoque et ultimam Ezechiēlis prophētae partem, quae vidēbantur obscūriōrēs, per Omēliās XX et duās, quantum lūcis intus habeant, dēmōnstrāvit. [30] Exceptō libellō Respōnsiōnum, quem ad interrogātiōnēs sānctī Augustīnī prīmī Anglōrum gentis episcopī scrīpsit, ut et suprā docuimus, tōtum ipsum libellum hīs īnserentēs historiīs; libellō quoque Synodicō, quem cum episcopīs Ītaliae dē necessāriīs ecclēsiae causīs utillimum composuit, et familiāribus ad quōsdam litterīs. [31] Quod eō magis mīrum est tot eum ac tanta condere volūmina potuisse, quod omnī paene iuventūtis suae tempore, ut verbīs ipsīus loquar, crēbrīs vīscerum dolōribus cruciābātur, hōrīs mōmentīsque omnibus frāctā stomachī virtūte lassēscēbat, lentīs quidem, sed tamen continuīs febribus anhēlābat. [32] Vērum inter haec, dum sollicitus pēnsāret quia scrīptūrā teste: ‘Omnis fīlius, quī recipitur flagellātur,’ quō malīs praesentibus dūrius dēprimēbātur, eō dē aeternā certius praesumptiōne respīrābat.

 [33] Haec quidem dē inmortālī eius sint dicta ingeniō, quod nec tantō corporis potuit dolōre restinguī. [34] Nam aliī quīdam pontificēs cōnstruendīs ōrnandīsque aurō vel argentō ecclēsiīs operam dabant, hīc autem tōtus ergā animārum lucra vacābat.

 [35] Quicquid pecūniae habuerat, sēdulus hoc dispergere ac dare pauperibus cūrābat, ut iūstitia eius manēret in saeculum saeculī et cornu eius exaltārētur in glōriā; ita ut illud beātī Iob vērāciter dīcere posset: [36] ‘Auris audiēns beātificāvit mē, et oculus vidēns testimōnium reddēbat mihi, quod līberāssem pauperem vōciferantem et pūpillum cui nōn esset adiūtor. [37] Benedictiō peritūrī super mē veniēbat, et cor viduae cōnsōlātus sum. [38] Iūstitiā indūtus sum, et vestīvī mē sīcut vestīmentō et diadēmate iūdiciō meō. [39] Oculus fuī caecō et pēs claudō. [40] Pater eram pauperum, et causam quam nesciēbam dīligentissimē investīgābam. [41] Conterēbam molās inīquī, et dē dentibus illīus auferēbam praedam.’ [42] Et paulō post: ‘Sī negāvī,’ inquit, ‘quod volēbant pauperibus, et oculōs viduae exspectāre fēcī. [43] Sī comēdī bucellam meam sōlus, et nōn comēdit pūpillus ex eā. [44] Quia ab īnfantiā meā crēvit mēcum miserātiō, et dē uterō mātris meae ēgressa est mēcum.’

 [45] Ad cuius pietātis et iūstitiae opus pertinet etiam hoc, quod nostram gentem per praedicātōrēs, quōs hūc dīrēxit, dē dentibus antīquī hostis ēripiēns aeternae lībertātis fēcit esse participem; cuius fideī et salūtī congaudēns, quamque dignā laude commendāns, ipse dīcit in Expositiōne beātī Iob: [46] ‘Ecce lingua Brittāniae, quae nīl aliud nōverat quam barbarum frendere, iam dūdum in dīvīnīs laudibus Hebrēum coepit allēlūia resonāre. [47] Ecce quondam tumidus, iam substrātus sānctōrum pedibus servit ōceanus, eiusque barbarōs mōtūs, quōs terrēnī prīncipēs ēdomāre ferrō nequīverant, hōs prō dīvīnā formīdine sacerdōtum ōra simplicibus verbīs ligant, et quī catervās pugnantium īnfidēlis nēquāquam metueret, iam nunc fidēlis humilium linguās timet. [48] Quia enim perceptīs caelestibus verbīs, clārēscentibus quoque mīrāculīs, virtūs eī dīvīnae cognitiōnis īnfunditur, eiusdem dīvīnitātis terrōre refrēnātur, ut prāvē agere metuat ac tōtīs dēsīderiīs ad aeternitātis grātiam venīre concupīscat.’ [49] Quibus verbīs beātus Gregōrius hoc quoque dēclārat, quia sānctus Augustīnus et sociī eius nōn sōlā praedicātiōne verbōrum sed etiam caelestium ostēnsiōne signōrum, gentem Anglōrum ad agnitiōnem vēritātis perdūcēbant.

 [50] Fēcit inter alia beātus pāpā Gregōrius ut in ecclēsiīs sānctōrum apostolōrum Petrī et Paulī super corpora eōrum missae celebrārentur. [51] Sed et in ipsā missārum celebrātiōne tria verba maximae perfectiōnis plēna superadiēcit: [52] ‘Diēsque nostrōs in tuā pāce dispōnās, atque ab aeternā damnātiōne nōs ēripī et in ēlēctōrum tuōrum iubeās grege numerārī.’

 [53] Rēxit autem ecclēsiam temporibus imperātōrum Mauricīī et Focatis. [54] Secundō autem eiusdem Focatis annō trānsiēns ex hāc vītā migrāvit ad vēram, quae in caelīs est, vītam. [55] Sepultus vērō est corpore in ecclēsiā beātī Petrī apostolī, ante sēcrētārium, diē quārtō Īduum Mārtiārum, quandōque in ipsō cum cēterīs sānctae ecclēsiae pāstōribus resurrēctūrus in glōriā, scrīptumque in tumbā ipsīus epitaphium huiusmodī:

 [56]

Suscipe, terra, tuō corpus dē corpore sūmptum,

Reddere quod valeās vīvificante Deō.

Spīritus astra petit, lētī nīl iūra nocēbunt,

Cui vītae alterius mors magis ipsa via est.

Pontificis summī hoc clauduntur membra sepulchrō,               5

Quī innumerīs semper vīvit ubīque bonīs.

Ēsuriem dapibus superāvit, frīgora veste,

Atque animās monitīs tēxit ab hoste sacrīs.

Implēbatque āctū, quicquid sermōne docēbat,

Esset ut exemplum, mystica verba loquēns. 10

Ad Chrīstum Anglōs convertit pietāte magistrā,

Adquīrēns fideī agmina gente novā.

Hic labor, hoc studium, haec tibi cūra, hoc pāstor agēbās,

Vt Dominō offerrēs plūrima lucra gregis.

Hīsque Deī cōnsul factus laetāre triumphīs,                           15

Nam mercēdem operum iam sine fīne tenēs.

[57] Nec silentiō praetereunda opīnio, quae dē beātō Gregōriō trāditiōne maiōrum ad nōs usque perlāta est quā vidēlicet ex causā admonitus tam sēdulam ergā salūtem nostrae gentis cūram gesserit. [58] Dīcunt quia diē quādam, cum advenientibus nūper mercātōribus multa vēnālia in forum fuissent conlāta, multī ad emendum cōnflūxissent, et ipsum Gregōrium inter aliōs advēnisse, ac vīdisse inter alia puerōs vēnālēs positōs candidī corporis ac venustī vultūs, capillōrum quoque fōrmā ēgregiā. [59] Quōs cum aspiceret, interrogāvit, ut aiunt, dē quā regiōne vel terrā essent adlātī. [60] Dictumque est quia dē Brittāniā īnsulā, cuius incolae tālis essent aspectūs. [61] Rūrsus interrogāvit utrum īdem īnsulānī Chrīstiānī, an pāgānīs adhūc errōribus essent implicātī. [62] Dictum est quod essent pāgānī. [63] At ille, intimō ex corde longa trahēns suspīria, ‘Heu, prō dolor!’ inquit, ‘quod tam lūcidī vultūs hominēs tenebrārum auctor possidet, tantaque grātia frontispīciī mentem ab internā grātiā vacuam gestat!’ [64] Rūrsus ergō interrogāvit, quod esset vocābulum gentis illīus. [65] Respōnsum est quod Anglī vocārentur. [66] At ille: ‘Bene,’ inquit; ‘nam et angelicam habent faciem, et tālēs angelōrum in caelīs decet esse cohērēdēs. [67] Quod habet nōmen ipsa prōvincia, dē quā istī sunt allātī?’ [68] Respōnsum est, quod Dēīrī vocārentur īdem prōvinciālēs. [69] At ille: ‘Bene,’ inquit, ‘Dēīrī; dē īrā ērutī et ad misericordiam Chrīstī vocātī. [70] Rēx prōvinciae illīus quōmodo appellātur?’ [71] Respōnsum est quod Aelli dīcerētur. [72] At ille allūdēns ad nōmen ait: ‘Allēlūia, laudem Deī creātōris illīs in partibus oportet cantārī.’

[73] Accēdēnsque ad pontificem Rōmānae et apostolicae sēdis (nōndum enim erat ipse pontifex factus), rogāvit ut gentī Anglōrum in Brittāniam aliquōs verbī ministrōs, per quōs ad Chrīstum converterētur, mitteret; sē ipsum parātum esse in hoc opus Dominō cooperante perficiendum, sī tamen apostolicō pāpae hoc ut fieret placēret. [74] Quod dum perficere nōn posset quia, etsī pontifex concēdere illī quod petierat voluit, nōn tamen cīvēs Rōmānī, ut tam longē ab urbe sēcēderet, potuēre permittere, mox ut ipse pontificātūs officiō fūnctus est, perfēcit opus diū dēsīderātum, aliōs quidem praedicātōrēs mittēns, sed ipse praedicātiōnem ut fructificāret suīs exhortātiōnibus ac precibus adiuvāns. [75] Haec iuxtā opīniōnem, quam ab antīquīs accēpimus, historiae nostrae ecclēsiasticae īnserere oportūnum dūximus.

THE LIFE OF POPE GREGORY THE GREAT

(1) dominicae incarnātiōnis: “of our lord’s birth,” i.e., A.D.

Gregōrius: Pope Gregory the Great. See PASE, Gregory 1.

DCV: AD 605. “Gregory died on 12 March 604; otherwise Bede is right about the length of his pontificate” (McClure and Collins, p. 374).

translātustranslātus est

(2) nōs convenit: impersonal, “it behooves us,” “it is fitting for us,” with the complementary infinitive facere. See LS, convenio II.B.2.

suā industriā: ablative of means

lātiōrem ... facere sermōnem: “to speak at greater length.”

nostrum ... apostolum: re-order: quem rēctē possumus et dēbēmus appellāre nostrum apostolum. The words nostrum and apostolum are separated in hyperbaton for emphasis.

(3) cum ... gereret ... esset: concessive (“although”)

primum ... pontificātum: “the most important see” (Colgrave-Mynors). Pontificātus (“pontificate”) originally meant simply “the office of a bishop or archbishop.”

conversīs ... ecclēsiīs: datives after praelatus (“was prelate to”)

iam dūdum: “long since” (“churches long since converted”)

nostram gentem ... fēcit ecclēsiam: nostram gentem is the direct object of fēcit and ecclēsiam is the predicate accusative (AG 393)

eātenus īdōlīs mancipātam: in apposition to nostram gentem (“our people, up to this point enslaved by idols”)

apostolicum illum ... sermōnum: “the well-known words of the apostle” (AG 297.b).

prōferre: “bring forward, quote, cite, mention” (LS, proferō II.D) ”

quia ... Dominō: Bede paraphrases 1 Corinthians 9.2: Et sī aliīs nōn sum Apostolus, sed tamen vobīs sum: nam signāculum apostolātūs meī vōs estis in Dominō (Vulgate).

signāculum apostolātūs eius: “the seal of his apostleship.” A signāculum is a mark or sign on a charter or other document that certifies its authenticity (DMLBS, signāculum 1.b)

nōbīs … nōs: the British church.

(4) genus ā proavīs ... ducēns: “tracing from his ancestors a lineage” genus ducere a(b) = “be descended from.”

(5) Fēlīx: Felix III, Pope AD 483–492 (sometimes counted as Felix IV, if Antipope Felix II is to be considered Pope).

eiusdem apostōlicae sēdis: “of the same apostolic see”

(6) nōbilitātem religiōnis … exercuit: “followed that ancestral tradition of religion.”

nōn minōre: with virtūte devotiōnis

ad saeculum: “in the eyes of the world” (i.e., his worldly nobility)

(7) totam: agrees with nobilitātem

ad nancīscendam supernae glōriam dignitātis: “toward the securing of the glory of heavenly honor,” or, more elegantly, “to winning honor and glory of a higher kind” (Colgrave-Mynors). : The gerundive expresses purpose (AG 506). The interlocking word order and genitive of the abstract noun add impressiveness to the style.

dīvīnā grātiā largiente: translate “by God’s grace” (Colgrave-Mynors); literally, “with divine grace bestowing” (ablative absolute).

(8) mūtātō … habitū saecūlārī: ablative absolute; habitus saecūlāris means “secular attire,” as opposed to the “habit” of a monk.

tantā perfectiōnis grātiā ... ut: “with such perfect grace” (see Reading Bede §A.1.2). Tantā introduces a series of five result clauses: (a) ut ... subteressent, (b) ut ... eminēret, (c) ut ... solēret, (d) ut ... transīret, (e) ut ... amāret.

sīcut ... adtestārī: parenthetical

flendō: “in tears”

animō illīus lābentia cūncta subteressent: subteresse = “to be below” + dat. Literally, “all transitory things were under his soul,” or, as we would say it, “his soul was above all transitory things.”

volvuntur: “change” (literally, “are turned”)

ēminēret: “transcended” + dat. (DMLBS, ēminēre 2).

retentus corpore: corpore is ablative of means with retentus (“confined by the body”)

ipsa ... trānsīret: claustra is the direct object of transīret, and contemplātiōne is an ablative of means. Carnis claustra: “the prison of the flesh.” Notice the alliteration.

pēne: paene; with cunctīs (dative, “to almost everyone”)

vidēlicet: “clearly”

ut ingressum: this ut means “as.”

(9) Haec: neuter plural substantive, direct object of referre cōnsuerat (> cōnsuēscere, “to accustom oneself”; cōnsuerat is plupf.) “was accustomed to say these things” referring to the statements in the previous paragraph.

profectum ... dēfectum: both fourth declension nouns, both modified by virtūtum (“of his virtues”), each one the object of the nearest gerund.

iactandō ... dēflendō: gerunds expressing purpose (AG 506), best translated “to boast of ... to bemoan”)

quem: the antecedent is dēfectum (“loss”) and the relative clause explains how Gregory this incurred (incurrisse) this loss.

per: “as a result of” (DMLBS, per 10).

cūram pāstōrālem: cūra pāstōrālis refers to the responsibilites of a clergyman (translate cūra as “responsibilities”).

(10) sēcrētō: “private” (DMLBS, sēcrētus 2)

ēnumerātīs ... prīscīs: ablative absolute; prīscīs = “former, previous” (LS, prīscus II.A).

subiūnxit: “he added” (> subiungere)

dolendō: “grieving” (DMLBS, doleo 2). This ablative of the gerund is, in later writers nearly, and in medieval writers entirely, equivalent to a present participle (AG 507 note 5).

(11) ex occāsiōne: “on account of”

saeculārium hominum: “of men of the world,” with negōtia

patitur ... foedātur: although Bede introduces this as direct discourse, it is presented in the third person as if it were indirect discourse. foedātur, “is soiled.”

terrēnī āctūs: “earthly activity.” Pope Gregory is credited with developing the important medieval distinction between the contemplative life and the active life.

(12) cumque ... sparserit, etiam cum ... appetit: sparserit is future perfect indicative showing future time in a temporal cum-clause (AG 547); appetit is present indicative in a temporal cum-clause (ibid.):“when he dissipates …, even when he reaches for ….” Normally Bede prefers the subjunctive in such clauses (Druhan, p. 175).

sē ... sparserit: “dissipates himself”

prō condēscēnsiōne multōrum: “in order to reply to the requests of many men” (DMLBS, condēscēnsiō, “compliance to a request”).

ad haec: i.e., interiōra

procul dubiō: “without a doubt”

minor: “diminished”

(13) Perpendō: Now Bede switches to direct discourse.

quid tolerō … quid āmīsī: the indicative mood in indirect questions is colloquial, and generally avoided by Bede except in the recital of dialogue (Druhan, p. 184).

(15) ex ... intentiōne: “from the intensity” (DMLBS, intentio 2.e).

nōs crēdere decet nihil eum ... perdidisse: the order is: decet nōs credere eum perdidisse nihil. eum … perdidisse is the accusative-infinitive construction of indirect discourse after credere; nihil is the direct object of perdidisse, and is modified by the partitive genitives monachicae perfectiōnis.

occasiōne: “by reason of, on account of” (DMLBS, occasio 3.d)

immō: “on the contrary”

sūmsisse: sumpsisse; another infinitive in indirect discourse after crēdere, with eum again as the accusative subject and potiōrem prōfectum (“greater profit”) as the direct object.

dē propriae quondam quiētē conversātiōnis: “the the quiet of his former private life.”

conversiōnis … conversātiōnis: note the word-play, accentuated with hyperbaton.

maximē: “especially”

domum suam monastērium facere cūrāvit:  cūrāvit = “he took care,” followed by facere with double accusative (AG 393); Ca. A.D. 574 Gregory established the monastery of St. Andrew in the house he inherited from his father on the Caelian Hill in Rome. The site is now occupied by the church of San Gregorio Magno al Celio. Gregory was abbot of St. Andrew’s from about 586 until he was elected Pope at the death of Pope Pelagius II in February 590.

dum: “as long as,” + indic., denoting an action that is completely coextensive with the action of the main verb (Druhan, p. 160).

abstractus ... ōrdinātus ... dīērectus est: est goes with all of these (“he was taken ... he was ordained ... he was directed …”).

ad ministerium ordinātus: can be translated simply as “ordained.” Ca. 578, Pope Pelagius II ordained Gregory as one of the seven deacons, or regionariī, of Rome. This forced Gregory to leave the contemplative life of his monastery.

Constantinopolim: accusative of motion toward, after directus est (AG 427.2)

apocrisiārius: a permanent Papal ambassador. Gregory was appointed to this post by Pope Pelagius ca. 579 and held it until 585 or 586.

in terrēnō conversātus palātiō: translate as concessive, “though he passed his time in an earthly palace….”

(16) quōsdam: direct object of coepit ... habēre.

gratiā germanae caritātis: “on account of their brotherly love”

ad rēgiam urbem: “to the royal city,” i.e., Constantinople.

in tūtāmentum observāntiae rēgulāris: in + accusative expressing purpose: “to protect his observance of the monastic rule.”

ut … restringerētur: a simile; the order is: ut restringerētur quasi fūne anchōris ad litus placidae orātiōnis. Gregory is the subject. fūne anchōris (“by the rope of an anchor”) is an ablative of means. The subjunctive indicates a purpose clause. Bede paraphrases heavily here from the introductory epistle to Gregory’s Moralia in Job.

cum ... fluctāret: temporal, “while he was tossed”

concussamque … mentem … rōborāret: = et ut mentem concussam rōborāret, continuing the purpose clause. rōborāret is parallel to restringerētur. See articulated text.

concussam ... mentem: direct object of rōborāret.

inter eōs: referring to the monks.

per stūdiōsae lectiōnis ... allōquium: “through conversation about studious reading,” perhaps referring to the Benedictine practice of lectiō divīna, which involves regular reading and meditation upon Scripture. The key word alloquium is postponed and emphasized in hyperbaton.

(17) Hōrum ergō cōnsortiō: “by the companionship of whom,” i.e., of the monks.

munītus ... succēnsus: understand est with both.

POPE GREGORY'S WRITINGS

(18) hortātī sunt: the subject is Gregory’s fellow monks.

librum beātī Iob: The Biblical Book of Job. Iob is to be read as genitive, with beātī. Gregory wrote his Commentary on Job, or Moralia, between 578 and 595. It was his major work, filling some 35 books or 6 volumes, begun when Gregory was at the court of Tiberius II at Constantinople, but finished only after he had already been in Rome for several years.

mysticā interpretātiōne: ablative of means; “mystical interpretation” reads the text as allegory, revealing the spiritual meanings beneath the literal narrative.

sibi: i.e., Gregory, with inpōnēbat.

multīs: with the adjective ūtile (AG 384), “useful to many.”

ūtile futurum: agreeing with quod (the antecedent of which is opus).

(19)  Bede lays out the three modes of interpretion that, following Gregory, he employed in his own Biblical exegesis: the literal, mystical (allegorical), and moral. The main verb is perdocuit (“he thoroughly explained”), which takes an indirect object (librum), and introduces three interrogatives, quōmodo … qualiter … quō sēnsū …. iuxtā litteram: “according to the letter,” i.e., literally.

ūnīcuique: dative, with aptandus. 

(20) rēgiā ... urbe: i.e., Constantinople

apocrisiārius: “as apocrisiarius,” or “while he was apocrisiarius.”

Rōmae: locative

(21) hēresim: = haeresim, heresy.

cum ... initiō: cum can be used in expressions of attendant circumstances to mean “in” or “at”: “at the very beginning at which it [i.e., the heresy] arose” (Colgrave-Mynors translate the whole phrase as “at its birth”).

(22) Eutychius: Eutychius of Constantinople (ca. 512–582).

dogmatīzābat: “propunded the doctrine that,” introducing indirect discourse, with the accusative-infinitive construction.

ventīs āereque: ablatives of comparison with subtīlius.

et ... et: “both...and” The ablatives ratiōne and exemplō are ablatives of means.

probāvit: introducing indirect discourse, with the accusative-infinitive construction.

hoc dogma: dogma is a Greek neuter accusative.

(23) habet: “holds” (i.e., “maintains,” “believes”).

quidem: concessive, looking forward to sed. “While it is indeed exalted [and made] subtle … it is (still) palpable.”

dominicī corporis: “of the Lord’s body.”

dē quō: “concerning which”: the antecedent of quō is corporis.

ā mortuīs suscitātō: “when he had been raised from the dead.”

(24) Palpāte ... habēre: Luke 24:39.

(25) venerābilis: nominative, with pater.

in tantum: “to such a degree,” signalling subjunctive in a result clause (īnventus sit).

hanc: i.e., hanc hēresim.

nullus … qui: “no one who,” followed by subjunctive in a relative clause of characteristic (AG 534).

existeret: = esset

(26) Pāstōrālis: Pastoral Care

quālēs ... quāliter ... quā ... quantā: indirect questions, introduced by patefēcit; the infinitives are dependent on the subjunctive verb dēbeant.

quālēs ad ecclēsiae regimen adsūmī: “what sort of men should be chosen for the governance of the church” (DMLBS, assumere 2.b, “to admit to an order or office”). adsūmī is the present passive infinitive.

singulās quāsque … persōnās: “each individual (type of) person.” Persōna refers to the part played by person in life, his or her position or role, rather than to an individual person as such—the meaning is preserved in the English word persona.

(27) Omēliās ēvangliī numerō XL: 40 Homilies on the Gospel, delivered during 591 and 592.

aequā sorte: “evenly” (i.e., each of the two books contains 20 homilies).

(28) sānctōrum quōs ... poterat: “of the saints, the most famous ones in Italy whom ...”; in English, it is more natural to rearrange as “the most famous saints in Italy whom ...”

posterīs: “to posterity” (literally, “to those who come after”).

ut, sicut … ita etiam: signals subjunctive in a result clause (ostenderet), “with the result that, just as … so also.” Within this structure are two balanced indirect questions triggered by ēdocuit and ostenderet, with the interrogatives quibus and quae, respectively (see articulated text).

sit ... īnsudāndum: impersonal (“for what virtues one must sweat”)

(29) Prīmam ... dēmōnstrāvit: an example of the “accusative of anticipation” (AG 576), sometimes called the “proleptic accusative.” Here prīmam ... et ... ultimam ... partem and the indirect question quantum lūcis intus habeant act as objects of the main verb dēmōnstrāvit: “he pointed out the first and last part ..., how much light they have in them” (i.e., “he pointed out how much light the first and last part ... have in them”).

lūcis: “spiritual enlightenment (of the soul), goodness, righteousness” (DMLBS, lux 8.b).

(30) Bede lists, in an extended ablative absolute, three other works of Gregory, which he declines to describe in detail: the “Responses” which he wrote to Augustinus, bishop of the English, and which are key source material for HE; a book about the acts of the Roman synod of bishops in 595, co-written with those bishops; and a collection of letters.

Exceptō: “leaving aside,” “not to mention.” Properly, exceptō libellō is an ablative absolute: “with the booklet excepted.”

suprā: Augustine’s questions and Gregory’s responses are given in HE I.27.

īnserentēs: plural to agree with docuimus (the “royal we”); Bede, like other LL and Christian writers, admits the present active participle with a perfect sense: “having included the whole book...” (see Druhan, p. 140).

libellō ... Synodicō: “Synodal booklet” about the acts of the Roman synod of 595.

familiāribus ... litterīs: understand exceptīs with these ablatives

(31) Quod eō magis mīrum est … quod: “This is all the more amazing . . . because.” eō quod (“for that reason ... because”) expresses causation emphatically (see Druhan, p. 177). The initial quod is connective (AG 308.f).

mīrum est: introduces indirect discourse, in which potuisse is the infinitive verb and eum the subject accusative; tot ac tanta ...volūmina is the object of condere, which supplements potuisse.

omnī ... tempore: ablative for extent of time (“for the entire time”)

ut verbīs ipsīus loquar: “to use his own words”: the rest of the sentence quotes Gregory, putting his words in the third person. Gregory’s words were: vīscerum dolōribus crucior, hōrīs momentīsque omnibus fracta stomachī virtūte lassēscō, lentīs quidem, sed tamen continuīs febribus anhēlō. (Moralia in Job, chapter 5; Patrologia Latina 75.515).

hōrīs mōmentīsque omnibus: “every minute of the day”

(32) dum ... teste: ‘Omnis...’: “while he was anxiously pondering the words of Scripture that ‘every man ...’”; scrīptūrā teste is an ablative absolute (“as Scripture is a witness”). The quotation is from Hebrews 12.6.

quō ... dūrius ... eō ... certius: “the harder ... the more certainly....” For the construction eō ... quō, see AG 414.a.

POPE GREGORY'S CHARACTER AND ACHIEVEMENTS

(33) Haec … sint dicta: jussive: “let (only) these things be said,” i.e., “enough said.”

ingeniō: “literary talent”

quidem: “at any rate,” transitioning from Gregory’s literary output to his acts of charity.

(34) aliī quīdam pontificēs: Bede scrupulously declines to name these other, more wordly, popes.

tōtus ergā animārum lucra vacābat: tōtus is best translated adverbially with vacābat: “he used to devote his time (vacābat) entirely ....” ergā + accusative usually means “in relation to,” “towards”: here, translate “with a view to spiritual (not financial) profit (lucra).”

(35) iūstitia eius ... in gloriā: quoting Psalm 111(112):3, 9.

cornu:  “horn,” as an emblem of power or self-assertion (DMLBS, cornu 12).

illud: “that famous (remark),” i.e., “the words” (AG 297.b)

(36) Auris ...: the quotation, comprising sentences 36–41, is from Job 29:11–17.

cui nōn esset: “who did not have” (AG 373)

(37): cor viduae cōnsōlātus sum: “I cheered the heart of the widow.”

(39) caecō … claudō: dative, “for the blind (person) ... for the lame (person).”

(41) molās: jawbones

(42) Et paulō post: the quotation (42–44) is from Job 31:16–18.

(45) ēripiēns: another present participle with a perfect sense: “having snatched [them]”

fēcit: the object is nostram gentem, with participem as the predicate accusative after esse (“made our people to be a sharer ...”).

participem: with the objective genitives aeternae lībertātis: “a sharer of ...” (or, “participant in ...”)

quamque: = et quam, with nostram gentem as the antecedent of quam.

in Expositiōne beāti Iob: Iob is genitive; the quotation is from Moralia in Job chapter 11 (Patrologia Latina 76.411).

(46) barbarum frendere: “to gnash its barbarous teeth” (Colgrave-Mynors); barbarum can be taken as a poetic cognate accusative (AG 390.b).

Hebrēum: = Hebraeum, “Hebrew”

coepit allēlūia resonāre: allēlūia is another poetic cognate accusative, with resonāre: “begins to resound: ‘alleluia.’”

(47) quondam tumidus, iam substrātus: both adjectives modify ōceanus.

motūs: implies both political turmoil (sedition, rebellion) and mental confusion (passion, agitation, impulse). See LS, motus II.

prō dīvīnā formīdine: prō, “on account of”: dīvīna formīdō is “fear of God.”

ligant: “tie up, hold fast (to restrict movement),” used allegorically of the whole of Britain (DMLBS, ligare 4.c). The language is hyperbolic in the extreme. The subject is ōra, “mouths.”

īnfidēlis ... fidēlis: appositive and substantive (“as an unbeliever ... as a believer”)

(48) eī: referring to the fidēlis, “believer” in the previous sentence; dative with īnfunditur.

(49) dēclārat, quia … perdūcēbant: indirect statement with quia + indicative, normal in Bede, though the subjuctive is frequent as well (see Druhan, p. 181).

(52) ēripī: passive infinitive with iubeās.

in ... numerārī: rearrange as: iubeās [nōs] numerārī in grege ēlēctōrum tuōrum.

(53) imperātōrum Mauriciī et Focatis: Byzantine Emperors Maurice (reigned 582–602) and Phocas (reigned 602–610); Gregory was Pope from 590 to 602.

(55) diē ... Mārtiārum: March 12.

in ipsō: in ipsō corpore.

POPE GREGORY’S EPITAPH

(56) The epitaph is also recorded in the Liber Pontificālis, a book of biographies of the early Popes. The meter is elegaic couplets.

(56.3) lētī nīl iūra nocēbunt: “the laws of death will harm nothing”; i.e., death will have no power over his soul.

(56.4) vītae ... via est: rearrange as: mors ipsa est magis via alterīus vītae.

(56.6) bonīs: “good deeds”

(56.8) monitīs … sacrīs: a reference to Gregory’s writings, discussed above.

hoste: Satan (DMLBS, hostis 1.c)

(56.10) esset ... loquēns: rearrange as: ut, loquēns mystica verba, esset exemplum.

mystica verba: a reference to Gregory’s allegorical interpretations of Old Testament scripture (see DMLBS, mysticus 3).

(56.15) Hīsque ... triumphīs: rearrange as: et laetāre, factus consul Deī hīs triumphīs.

cōnsul: cōnsul Chrīstī or cōnsul Deī  = Pope (DMLBS, cōnsul 6), but there is a play on the old Roman office of consul, whose holders celebrated triumphs of a different kind.

laetāre: imperative 2 sing. > laetor, “rejoice in” + abl.

OF ANGELS AND ANGLES

(57) quā ... gesserit: rearrange as: admonitus ex quā causā vidēlicet gesserit tam sēdulam cūram ergā salūtem nostrae gentis. The verb gesserit is subjunctive in the indirect question introduced by perlāta est, quā ...; ergā = “on behalf of,” “for the sake of.” The emphasis on sēdulam … cūram is marked by hyperbaton.

(58) vēnālia: “merchandise”

vēnālēs positōs: young slaves put up for sale (LS, vēnālis II.B)

corporis … vultūs: genitives of quality (AG 345)

formā: ablative of quality (AG 415)

(60) talis aspectūs: genitive of quality

(61) īnsulānī Chrīstiānī: understand essent.

(63) lūcidī vultūs: genitive of quality

tenebrārum auctor: i.e., Satan

(64) vocābulum: “name”

(66) Bene: “(they are) well (named)”

tālēs ... decet ... esse: the impersonal decet takes an accusative-infinitive (AG 388.c).

(67) prōvincia: “kingdom,” see Special Usages, prōvincia.

(68) Dēirī: i.e., from Deira, the southern Northumbrian kingdom.

(71) Aelli: Ælle of Deira, whose reign is dated to the end of the sixth century.

(72) allūdēns ad nōmen: allūdēns can appropriately be translated as “punning.”

(73) enim: “however” (DMLBS, enim 3.b)

rogāvit ut … mitteret: “asked (the pope) to send,” substantive clause of purpose (AG 563)

pontificem: probably Pope Pelagius II (reigned 579–590), Gregory’s immediate predecessor.

gentī Anglōrum: “for the Angles”

sē ipsum parātum esse: indirect discourse, with an introductory verb of saying implied: “[he said that] he was prepared....”

in hoc opus perficiendum: “to accomplish this task,” gerundive expressing purpose after parārī. In classical Latin the preposition would be ad rather than in.

sī tamen: if only

(74) Quod: “this” (connecting relative AG 308.f)

dum perficere nōn posset … perfēcit: “while he was unable to accomplish ... he did accomplish.” dum adversative with the subjunctive (see Druhan, p. 162).

mox ut: as soon as

sed ipse ... adiuvāns: rearrange as: sed ipse adiuvāns praedicātiōnemut fructificāret; another instance of prolepsis (= adiuvāns ut praedicātiō fructificāret).

sēcēderet: Gregory is the subject.

(75) iuxtā opīniōnem: Bede marks what he has just given as the traditional account, not however verified by reliable documents, such Gregory’s own writings.

ab antīquīs: “from our ancestors”

oportūnum dūximus: “I have thought it proper” > dūcō = “consider.”

NOTE: Lemmatization of Anglo-Saxon Names
—: declined forms unattested
[ ]: nominative forms unattested (back-formed for purposes of lemmatization)
*: form unattested but hypothesized based on existing patterns


dominicus, -a, um: of the Lord

incarnātiō –ōnis f.: incarnation

sescentī –ae –a; sescentēsimus –a –um: 600; 600th

quīnque; quīntus –a –um: 5; 5th

pāpa –ae or –ātis m.: a father, pope

Grēgorius –ī m.: Gregory, the Great, pope, 590-604

Rōmānus –a –um: Roman

apostolicus –a –um: apostolic, of an apostle or the apostles

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

trēdecim; tertius –a –um decimus –a –um: 13, 13th

mēnsis mēnsis m.: month

sex; sextus –a –um: 6; 6th

glōriōsus –a –um: full of glory

dēfungor dēfungī dēfūnctus sum: to depart, die

trānsferō trānsferre trānstulī trānslātus: to bring across

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

Satanas –ae m.: Satan, the Devil

Christus –ī m.: Christ

industria industriae f.: diligence

historia –ae f.: a narrative of past events, history

ecclēsiasticus –a –um: of or belonging to the Church

rectē: rightly

apostolus –ī m.: apostle

pontificātus –ūs, m.: office of bishop; papacy

dūdum: not long ago

vēritās vēritātis f.: truth

praeferō praeferre praetulī praelātus: to prefer

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

eātenus: so far

īdōlum or īdōlon –ī n.: an idol; ghost

mancipō –āre –āvi –ātum: deliver up to; give up to

Christus –ī m.: Christ

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

apostolicus –a –um: apostolic, of an apostle or the apostles

prōferō prōferre prōtulī prōlātus: to bring forth

etsī: although

apostolus –ī m.: apostle

signāculum –ī n.: seal, mark, sign

apolstolātus –ūs m.: apostleship, papacy

dominus dominī m.: lord; Lord (of Jesus Christ)

nātiō nātiōnis f.: race

Rōmānus –a –um: Roman

Gordiānus –ī m.: Gordianus, Father of Gregory 1

proavus –ī m.: great–grandfather; ancestor

religiōsus –a –um: religious, reverent

Fēlīx –īci m.: Felix, a IV

apostolicus –a –um: apostolic, of an apostle or the apostles

episcopus –ī m.: guardian, (eccl.) bishop

Christus –ī m.: Christ

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

atavus –ī m: grandfather

nōbilitās nōbilitātis f.: fame

religiō religiōnis f.: religion

cognātus cognātī m.: relative

dēvōtio –ōnis f.: piety, devotion, worship.

nōbilitās nōbilitātis f.: fame

nancīscor nancīscī nanctus or nactus sum: to obtain; meet

supernus –a –um: that is above, celestial supernal

dīvīnus –a –um: divine

largior –ītus sum –dep.: to give largely; bestow

repente: suddenly

habitus habitūs m.: garment, attire; way of life

saeculāris –e: secular, worldly

monastērium –ī n.: a monastery

perfectiō –ōnis f.: perfection

conversor –ārī –ātus sum: to live with or among, associate with; live in a (monastic) community

attestor –āre –āvī –ātus: to attest, bear witness; to corroborate, prove, affirm

lābor labī lapsus sum: to slip away; labens: transitory

subsum subesse —: to be under, be behind

volvō volvere voluī volūtum: to turn; volvor (passive): to change

ēmineō –ēre –uī: to stand out

carō carnis f.: meat, flesh

claustrum –ī n.: bolt, bar

contemplātiō –ōnis f.: a viewing, contemplation

vidēlicet: clearly

ingressus –ūs m.: gait, an entering

prōficiō prōficere prōfēcī prōfectum: to advance

iactō iactāre iactāvī iactātus: to throw

dēfleō –ēre –flēvī –flētus: to weep much; weep over

potius: rather, more

dēfectus –ūs m.: revolt, desertion

pāstōrālis –e: of a pastor, pastoral

incurrō –ere –currī or cucurrī –cursus: to run into or against; rush upon

cōnsuō –ere –suī –sūtum: to sew, stitch or join together

quōdammodo: in a certain way

sēcrētō: separately, apart

diāconus –ī m.: deacon

Petrus –ī m.: Peter, Deacon known to Gregory 1

colloquor colloquī collocūtus sum: to converse, hold a discussion

ēnumerō ēnumerāre ēnumerāvī ēnumerātus: to count out or completely; enumerate

prīscus –a –um: ancient

subiungō –ere –iūnxī –iūnctus: to join under or to; fasten

occāsiō occāsiōnis f.: opportunity

pāstōrālis –e: of a pastor, pastoral

saeculāris –e: secular, worldly

quiēs quiētis f.: rest

terrēnus –a –um: earthen

āctus –ūs m.: driving or impelling

pulvis pulveris m.: dust

foedō foedāre foedāvī foedātus: to defile

cumque: whenever, always

condēscensiō –ōnis f.: condescension, compliance (to request)

exter extera exterum: outward, foreign

interior interiōris: inner

appetō appetere appetīvī appetītus: to make for, grasp

per-pendō –pendere –pendī –pēnsum: to weigh carefully, examine

tolerō tolerāre tolerāvī tolerātus: to endure

per-pendō –pendere –pendī –pēnsum: to weigh carefully, examine

intueor intuērī intuitus sum: to look at

humilitās –ātis f.: lowness

intentiō –ōnis f.: purpose; intension; fervor

monachicus –a –um: of a monk, monkish, monastic

perfectiō –ōnis f.: perfection

occāsiō occāsiōnis f.: opportunity

pāstōrālis –e: of a pastor, pastoral

immō: no indeed

prōfectus –ūs m.: success

conversiō –ōnis f.: conversion

quiēs quiētis f.: rest

conversātiō –ōnis f: way of life (specifically, in a religious community)

maximē: most greatly

pontificālis –e: of or pertaining to a bishop, archbisop, or pope; pontifical

fungor fungī fūnctus sum: to perform

monastērium –ī n.: a monastery

prīmō: at first

monastērium –ī n.: a monastery

abstrahō –trahere –trāxī –tractum: to drag away

ministerium –ī n.: service, ministry

altāria –ium n.: the upper part of an altar; a high altar

ōrdinō –ōrdināre: to set in order, regulate

Constantīnopolis –is f.: Constantinople

apocrisiārius –ī m.: a (papal) delegate, nuncio

apostolicus –a –um: apostolic, of an apostle or the apostles

dērigō –ere –rēxī –rēctus: to lay straight

terrēnus –a –um: earthen

conversor –ārī –ātus sum: to live with or among, associate with; live in a (monastic) community

palātium –ī n.: palace, royal residence

intermittō intermittere intermīsī intermīssuss: to leave off, neglect

monastērium –ī n.: a monastery

germānus –a –um: brotherly

cāritās cāritātis f.: affection, love

tūtāmentum –ī n.: (means of) protection, safety

observantia –ae f.: observance

rēgulāris –e: pertaining to the observance of a monastic rule; regular

vidēlicet: clearly

placidus –a –um: pleasant

ancora –ae f.: an anchor

fūnis fūnis m.: rope, line

rēstringō –ingere –inxi –ictum: to tie back, restrain with bonds

incessābilis –e: ceaseless, without pause; endless, perpetual

saeculāris –e: secular, worldly

impulsus –ūs m.: prompting, attack

fluctuō fluctuāre fluctuāvī fluctuātus: to wave

concutiō –cutere –cussī –cussus: shake, beat, strike; terrify; disturb, distract

āctus –ūs m.: driving or impelling

cotīdiē/cottīdiē: daily

studiōsus –a –um: eager

lēctiō –ōnis f. : a selection, text

rōborō –āre –āvī –ātum: to make strong, strengthen, invigorate, confirm

alloquium –ī n.: discourse, conversation

cōnsortium –ī n.: fellowship, association

terrēnus –a –um: earthen

mūniō mūnīre mūnīvī mūnītus: to build, fortify

incursus –ūs m.: assault, attack

exercitium –ī n.: training, exercise, practice

succendō –ere –cendī –cēnsus: to set on fire from beneath; (fig.)

Jōb m. (indecl.): Job

involvō –ere –volvī –volūtus: to roll on or in; cast upon

obscūritās –ātis f.: darkness, obscurity

mysticus –a –um: hidden, secret; mystical, non-literal, allegorical or symbolical (reading)

interpretātiō –ōnis f.: interpretation

discutiō –ere –cussī –cussus: to shake off

frāternus –a –um: fraternal

futūrus –a –um: about to be; future

iūxtā: according to

quāliter: just as

Christus –ī m.: Christ

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

sacrāmentum –ī n.: sacrament

ūnusquisque: each one

aptō aptāre aptāvī aptātus: to adapt to, prepare

trīgintā; trīcēsimus –a –um: 30; 30th

quīnque; quīntus –a –um: 5; 5th

expositiō –ōnis f.: a setting forth, explanation

perdoceō –docēre –docuī –doctum: to instruct thoroughly, inform

vidēlicet: clearly

apocrisiārius –ī m.: a (papal) delegate, nuncio

incohō –āre –āvī –ātum: to start work on, begin

Rōma Rōmae f.: Rome

pontifex pontificis m.: priest

expleō explēre explēvī explētus: to fill up, fulfil

positus, –a, –um: located

haeresis –is f.: heresy

status statūs m.: position

resurrectio –ōnis f.: resurrection

exorior exorīrī exortus sum: to rise up, proceed

catholicus –a –um: catholic, universal

vēritās vēritātis f.: truth

atterō atterere atterīvī atterītus: to rub againt

siquidem: if only, if indeed

Eutychius –ī m.: Eutychius, Patriarch of Constantinople, 552-565 & 577-582

episcopus –ī m.: guardian, (eccl.) bishop

dogmatīzo –āre –āvī –ātum: to propound a dogma

resurrectio –ōnis f.: resurrection

inpalpābilis –e (impalpābilis): intangible

subtīlis –e: fine–textured, delicate; subtle

futūrus –a –um: about to be; future

vēritās vēritātis f.: truth

dominicus, –ī m.: Sunday

resurrectio –ōnis f.: resurrection

dogma dogmatis n.: dogma, (religious) doctrine, tenet, teaching

orthodoxus –a –um: orthodox

omnimodīs: in every way or manner, wholly, fully

contrārius –a –um: opposite

catholicus –a –um: catholic, universal

etenim: and indeed

immortālitās –ātis f.: immortality, endless life

sublīmō –āre –āvī –ātus: elevate

subtīlis –e: fine–textured, delicate; subtle

effectus –ūs m.: action; effect

spīritālis –e: spiritual, sacred, religious

potentia potentiae f.: power

palpābilis –e: tangible

vēritās vēritātis f.: truth

iūxtā: according to

dominicus, –ī m.: Sunday

mortuus –a –um: dead

suscitō suscitāre suscitāvī suscitātus: to stir up

discipulus discipulī m.: male student

palpō –āre –āvī –ātus: touch, feel, handle; grope for; treat gently, soothe

carō carnis f.: meat, flesh

assertiō assertiōnis f.: assertion, affirmation

venerābilis –e: venerable, deserving of respect

Grēgorius –ī m.: Gregory, the Great, pope, 590-604

haeresis –is f.: heresy

contendō contendere contendī contentus: to strain, exert

īnstantia –ae f.: steadiness, constancy, perseverance, insistence

Tiberius –iī m.: Tiberius

Constantīnus –ī m.: Constantine

com-minuō –minuere –minuī –minūtum: to crush

exinde (abbrev. exin): from that place

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resuscitātor –ōris m. : one who restores to life, resuscitator; one who renews a practice

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exsistō –sistere –stitī: to exist, be; emerge

pāstōrālis –e: of a pastor, pastoral

manifēstus –a –um: clear, manifest

patefaciō patefacere patefēcī patefactum: to reveal

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

regimen –inis n.: a means of guidance, rudder

assūmō (or adsūmō) –sūmere –sūmpsī –sūmptum: to take in addition

quāliter: just as

rēctor –ōris m.: director

discrētiō –ōnis f.: difference, distinction

īnstruō īnstruere īnstrūxī īnstrūctus: to build upon; furnish; arrange

persōna persōnae f.: role

cōnsīderātiō –ōnis f.: consideration

cotīdiē/cottīdiē: daily

fragilitās –ātis f.: fragility, weakness, frailty; moral weakness, esp. sexual sin

pēnsō pēnsāre : to weigh

homīlia –ae f. (omēlia): homily, sermon on Scriptural text

ēvangelium –ī n.: the Gospel

quādrāginta; quādrāgesimus –a –um: 40; 40th

cōdex –icis m.: book, account book

distinguō distinguere distīnxī distīnctum: to separate, divide

dialogus –ī m.: dialogue; treatise in conversational form

Petrus –ī m.: Peter, Deacon known to Gregory 1

diāconus –ī m.: deacon

Italia Italiae f.: Italy

expositiō –ōnis f.: a setting forth, explanation

īn-sūdō –āre –āvi –ātum : to sweat over or on

ēdoceō –ēre –uī –tus: to teach completely; communicate

dēscrībō dēscrībere dēscrīpsī dēscrīptus: to describe

mīrāculum –ī n.: miracle

clāritās –tātis f.: brightness, brilliance, splendor

Ezechiēl –ēlis m.: Ezekiel, Hebrew prophet

prophēta or prophētēs –ae m.: soothsayer, prophet

obscūrus –a –um: covered, dark

homīlia –ae f. (omēlia): homily, sermon on Scriptural text

vīgintī; vīcēsimus –a –um: 20; 20th

intus: within, inside

dēmōnstrō dēmōnstrāre dēmōnstrāvī dēmōnstrātus: to indicate, show clearly

libellus libellī m.: little book

respōnsiō –ōnis f.: an answer, refutation

interrogātiō –ōnis f.: questioning, inquiry

Augustīnus –ī m.: Augustine, Archbishop of Canterbury, 597-604x609; apostle of the English

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

episcopus –ī m.: guardian, (eccl.) bishop

libellus libellī m.: little book

īnserō īnserere īnseruī īnsertus: insert, add

historia –ae f.: a narrative of past events, history

libellus libellī m.: little book

synodicus –a –um: synodical; pertaining to a church council

episcopus –ī m.: guardian, (eccl.) bishop

Italia Italiae f.: Italy

necessārius –a –um: necessary, essential

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

familiāris familiāre: domestic, intimate

mīrus –a –um: wonderful

volūmen volūminis n.: book, roll

iuventūs iuventūtis f.: youth, young man

crebēr crēbra crēbrum: thick, crowded, close

vīscus vīsceris n.: innards

cruciō –cruciāre: to torture

mōmentum –ī n.: weight, importance

stomachus –ī m.: the gullet; chest

lassescō –ere: to become tired; weaken

lentus –a –um: flexible, sticky

continuus –a –um: connected

febris febris f.: fever

anhēlō anhēlāre anhēlāvī anhēlātus: to pant

sollicitus –a –um: worried

pēnsō pēnsāre : to weigh

scrīptūra –ae f.: Scripture

flagellō –flagellāre: to whip, lash

dēprimō –primere –pressī –pressum: to suppress, force down

praesūmptiō –ōnis f.: hope; confidence

respīrō respīrāre respīrāvī respīrātus: to breathe again; to breathe

immortālis immortālis immortāle: immortal

restinguō –ere –stīnxī –stīnctus: to put out

pontifex pontificis m.: priest

cōnstruō –ere –strūxī –strūctus: to pile together

ōrnō ōrnāre ōrnāvī ōrnātus: to equip, decorate

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

ergā: towards

lucrum lucrī n.: gain, profit

sēdulus –a –um: careful, cautious

dispergō –ere –spersī –spersus: to sprinkle

iūstitia –ae f.: righteousness

exaltō –exaltāre : to raise, exalt

Jōb m. (indecl.): Job

vērāx –ācis : speaking truly, true, veracious; adv. vērāciter, truthfully.

beātificō –āre –āvī –ātum: to bless

testimōnium testimōni(ī) n.: testimony

līberō līberāre līberāvī līberātus: to free

vōciferor –ātus sum: to raise the voice; cry out

pūpillus –ī m.: an orphan boy

adiūtor –ōris m.: a helper

benedictiō –ōnis f.: a blessing

viduus –a –um: deprived of a husband or wife, bereft, celibate; (of vines) unsupported by a tree

cōnsōlor cōnsōlārī cōnsōlātus sum: to comfort, console

iūstitia –ae f.: righteousness

induō induere induī indūtus: to put on, clothe

vestiō vestīre vestiī/vestīvī vestītum: to clothe

vestīmentum –ī n.: garment, clothes (pl.)

diadēma –atis n.: a royal headdress, diadem

claudus –a –um: limping, lame

dīligēns: careful

investīgō –vestīgāre: to investigate

conterō –terere –trīvī –trītum: to grind, pound; to bruise, crush, smash; defeat, oppress, wear down

mola –ae f.: mill; (meton.)

inīquus –a –um: uneven

dēns dentis m.: tooth

paulus –a –um: little, small

viduus –a –um: deprived of a husband or wife, bereft, celibate; (of vines) unsupported by a tree

comedō comedere comēdī comēsum: to eat up, consume

bucella –ae f.: small mouthful; morsel

comedō comedere comēdī comēsum: to eat up, consume

pūpillus –ī m.: an orphan boy

īnfantia –ae f.: infancy; early childhood

miserātiō –ōnis f.: compassion

uterus –ī m.: the womb

iūstitia –ae f.: righteousness

praedicātor –ōris m.: preacher

dērigō –ere –rēxī –rēctus: to lay straight

dēns dentis m.: tooth

particeps participis m.: participant

congaudeō –gaudēre: to share in rejoicing, to rejoice (together) in, enjoy

commendō commendāre commendāvī commendātus: to entrust

expositiō -ōnis f.: a setting forth, explanation

Jōb m. (indecl.): Job

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

frendō frendere — frēsum: to gnash the teeth

dūdum: not long ago

dīvīnus –a –um: divine

Hebraeus –a –um: Hebrew

allēlūia: hallelujah, song of praise

resonō resonāre resonāvī resonātus: to resound

tumidus –a –um: swollen

substernō –sternere –strāvī –strātum: to lay or spread beneath; (of a woman) offer oneself sexually to a man

ōceanus –ī m.: the ocean

terrēnus –a –um: earthen

ē-domō –āre –uī –itum: to tame, subdue, conquer

nequeō nequīre nequiī/nequīvī nequitum: to be unable

dīvīnus –a –um: divine

formīdō formīdinis f.: fear

simplex –icis: artless, naïve, lacking guile

ligō ligāre ligāvī ligātus: to tie, bind

caterva –ae f.: crime, sin

īnfidēlis –e: unfaithful

nēquāquam: by no means

humilis humile: humble

percipiō percipere percēpī perceptus: to take in

clārēscō –ere –claruī: to become clear to the ear or eye; grow loud

mīrāculum –ī n.: miracle

dīvīnus –a –um: divine

cognitiō –ōnis f. : notion, idea

īnfundō –ere –fūdī –fūsus: to pour into or upon

dīvīnitās –tātis f.: divinity

terror terrōris m.: fear

refrēnō refrēnāre: to curb

prāvus –a –um: crooked

dēsīderium dēsīderi(ī) n.: desire

aeternitās –tātis f.: eternity, timelessness; eternal life

concupīscō concupiscīre concupīvī concupītus: to desire

Grēgorius –ī m.: Gregory, the Great, pope, 590-604

dēclārō dēclārāre dēclārāvī dēclārātus: to make clear, reveal

Augustīnus –ī m.: Augustine, Archbishop of Canterbury, 597-604x609; apostle of the English

praedicātiō –ōnis f.: teaching; sermon

ostēnsiō –ōnis f.: a showing, exhibiting, manifestation

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

āgnitiō –ōnis f.: recognition

vēritās vēritātis f.: truth

perdūcō perdūcere perdūxī perductum: to bring to/over

pāpa –ae or –ātis m.: a father, pope

Grēgorius –ī m.: Gregory, the Great, pope, 590-604

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

apostolus –ī m.: apostle

Petrus –ī m.: St Peter, the Apostle

Paulus –ī m.: St Paul, the Apostle

missa –ae f.: the mass (religious service)

missa –ae f.: the mass (religious service)

celebrātiō –iōnis f.: the celebration of a festival or religious service

māximus –a –um: greatest; maxime: most, especially, very much

perfectiō –ōnis f.: perfection

superādicio –ere –iēcī: to add over and above

dispōnō dispōnere dispōsuī dispōsitus: to place, arrange, distribute

damnātiō –ōnis f.: condemnation

ēlectus –a um superl. electissimus: select, choice

grex gregis m.: herd, flock

numerō numerāre numerāvī numerātus: to count

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

Mauricius –ī m.: Mauricius Tiberius, Eastern Emperor, 582–602

Phōcas –ae m.: Phocas, Eastern Emperor, 602-610

Phōcas –ae m.: Phocas, Eastern Emperor, 602-610

migrō migrāre migrāvī migrātus: to go, depart

sepeliō sepelīre sepeliī/sepelīvī sepultum: to bury

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

Petrus –ī m.: St Peter, the Apostle

apostolus –ī m.: apostle

sēcrētārium –ī n.: sanctuary

īdūs īduum (pl. f.): the Ides

Māvortius –a –um or Mārtius –a –um: pertaining to Mavors or Mars

quandōque : whenever, at some time

sanciō sancīre sānxī sānctus: to consecrate

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

pāstor pāstōris m.: shepherd

resurgō –surgere –surrēxī –surrēctum: to rise again, reappear

tumba –ae f.: tomb

epitaphium –ī n.: epitaph

hūiusmodī: of this sort

vīvificō –āre –āvī –ātum: to give life

lētum letī n.: death

pontifex pontificis m.: priest

summus –a –um: highest

innumerus –a –um: countless

ubīque: everywhere

ēsuriēs –ēī f.: hunger

daps –dapis f.: feast

frīgus or frigoris n.: cold

āctus –ūs m.: act

mysticus –a –um: hidden, secret; mystical, non-literal, allegorical or symbolical (reading)

Christus –ī m.: Christ

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

magistra –ae f.: mistress

adquīrō –ere –quīsīvī –quīsītus: to seek in addition

pāstor pāstōris m.: shepherd

dominus dominī m.: lord; Lord (of Jesus Christ)

lucrum lucrī n.: gain, profit

grex gregis m.: herd, flock

laetor laetārī laetātus sum: to rejoice, be glad

triumphus triumphī m.: triumph

mercēs mercēdis f.: pay, wages

silentium silenti(ī) n.: silence

praetereō praeterīre praeterīvī/praeteriī praeteritus: to go by

opīniō opīniōnis f.: opinion

Grēgorius –ī m.: Gregory, the Great, pope, 590-604

trāditiō –ōnis f.: tradition

maior māius: bigger

perferō perferre pertulī perlātus: to endure

vidēlicet: clearly

admoneō admonēre admonuī admonitus: to admonish, remind

sēdulus –a –um: careful, cautious

ergā: towards

nūper: not long ago

mercātor –ōris m.: merchant, trader

vēnālis –e: for sale, for hire

emō emere ēmī ēmptus: to buy

cōnfluō –fluere –flūxī –—: to flow together, run together

Grēgorius –ī m.: Gregory, the Great, pope, 590-604

vēnālis –e: for sale, for hire

venustus –a –um: charming

capillus capillī m.: hair

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

incola incolae m. or f.: inhabitant

īnsulānus –a –um: of or belonging to an island, insular; (sbst.) īnsulānī -ōrum, islanders

Chrīstiānus –a –um: Christian

pāgānus –a –um: pagan

implicō implicāre implicāvī or implicuī implicitus: to fold in; involve

pāgānus –a –um: pagan

intimus –a –um: inmost

suspīrium –ī n.: a deep breath, sigh

heu: alas! oh!

lūcidus –a –um: bright, shining

possideō –ēre –sēdī –sessus: to hold, possess

frontispicium –ī n.: outward appearance; countenance

internus –a –um: internal

gestō gestāre gestāvī gestātus: to carry, bear

vocābulum –ī n.: a designation, name

respōnsum respōnsī n.: answer

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

angelicus –a –um: angelic

angelus –ī m. : messenger, angel

cohērēs –hērēdis m./f.: fellow–heir

respōnsum respōnsī n.: answer

Deirī –ōrum: the Deiri

prōvinciālis –is m./f.: an inhabitant of a province

Deirī –ōrum: the Deiri

ēruō –ere –ī –tus: to cast out or up; to overthrow

misericordia misericordiae f.: pity, mercy

Christus –ī m.: Christ

respōnsum respōnsī n.: answer

Ælle –ī m.: Ælle, King of the Deirans, 560–588/590; father of Edwin

adlūdō –ere –lūsī –lūsus: to speak playfully; sport

allēlūia: hallelujah, song of praise

creātor –ōris m.: a creator, founder

cantō cantāre cantāvī cantātus: to sing, play

pontifex pontificis m.: priest

Rōmānus –a –um: Roman

apostolicus –a –um: apostolic, of an apostle or the apostles

pontifex pontificis m.: priest

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

minister ministrī m.: attendant, servant

Christus –ī m.: Christ

dominus dominī m.: lord; Lord (of Jesus Christ)

cooperor –ārī –ātus sum: to work together

perficiō perficere perfēcī perfectus: to complete, accomplish

apostolicus –a –um: apostolic, of an apostle or the apostles

pāpa –ae or –ātis m.: a father, pope

perficiō perficere perfēcī perfectus: to complete, accomplish

etsī: although

pontifex pontificis m.: priest

Rōmānus –a –um: Roman

sēcēdō sēcēdere sēcessī sēcessus: to withdraw

pontificātus –ūs, m.: office of pope

fungor fungī fūnctus sum: to perform

perficiō perficere perfēcī perfectus: to complete, accomplish

praedicātor –ōris m.: preacher

praedicātiō –ōnis f.: teaching; sermon

frūctificō frūctificāre frūctificāvī frūctificātum: be fruitful

exhortātiō –ōnis f.: sermon

adiuvō adiuvāre adiūvī adiūvatus: to help, assist, support

iūxtā: according to

opīniō opīniōnis f.: opinion

historia –ae f.: a narrative of past events, history

ecclēsiasticus –a –um: of or belonging to the Church

īnserō īnserere īnseruī īnsertus: insert, add

opportūnus –a –um: suitable

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