Chapter 2.12

<Vt Eduīnī per vīsiōnem quondam sibi exulī ostēnsum sit ad crēdendum prōvocātus>

[1] Haec quidem memorātus pāpa Bonifatius dē salūte rēgis Eduīnī ac gentis ipsīus litterīs agēbat. [2] Sed et ōrāculum caeleste, quod illī quondam exulantī apud Redvaldum rēgem Orientālium Anglōrum pietās dīvīna revēlāre dignāta est, nōn minimum ad suscipienda vel intellegenda doctrīnae monita salūtāris sēnsum iūvit illīus. [3] Cum ergō vidēret Paulīnus difficulter posse sublīmitātem animī rēgālis ad humilitātem viae salūtāris et suscipiendum mystērium vīvificae crucis inclīnārī, ac prō salūte illīus simul et gentis cui praeerat et verbō exhortātiōnis apud hominēs, et apud dīvīnam pietātem verbō dēprecātiōnis ageret, tandem, ut vērisimile vidētur, didicit in spīritū, quod vel quāle esset ōrāculum rēgī quondam caelitus ostēnsum. [4] Nec exinde distulit, quīn continuō rēgem ammonēret explēre vōtum, quod in ōrāculō sibi exhibitō sē factūrum prōmīserat, sī temporis illīus erumnīs exemtus ad rēgnī fastīgia pervenīret.

[5] Erat autem ōrāculum huiusmodī. Cum persequente illum Aedilfridō, quī ante eum rēgnāvit, per dīversa occultus loca vel rēgna multō annōrum tempore profugus vagārētur, tandem vēnit ad Redvaldum, obsecrāns ut vītam suam ā tantī persecūtōris īnsidiīs tūtandō servāret; quī libenter eum excipiēns prōmīsit sē quae petēbātur esse factūrum. [6] At postquam Aedilfrid in hāc eum prōvinciā appāruisse et apud rēgem illīus familiāriter cum sociīs habitāre cognōvit, mīsit nūntiōs quī Redvaldō pecūniam multam prō nece eius offerrent; neque aliquid prōfēcit. [7] Mīsit secundō, mīsit tertiō, et cōpiōsiōra argentī dōna offerēns et bellum īnsuper illī, sī contemnerētur, indīcēns. [8] Quī vel minīs frāctus, vel corruptus mūneribus, cessit dēprecantī, et sīve occīdēre sē Eduīnum seu lēgātāriīs trādere prōmīsit. [9] Quod ubi fīdissimus quīdam amīcus illīus animadvertit, intrāvit cubiculum quō dormīre dispōnēbat (erat enim prīma hōra noctis), et ēvocātum forās, quid ergā eum agere rēx prōmīsisset, ēdocuit, et īnsuper adiēcit: ‘Sī ergō vīs, hāc ipsā hōrā ēdūcam tē dē hāc prōvinciā, et ea in loca intrōdūcam, ubi numquam tē vel Redvald vel Aedilfrid invenīre valeant.’ [10] Quī ait: ‘Grātiās quidem agō benevolentiae tuae; nōn tamen hoc facere possum quod suggeris, ut pactum quod cum tantō rēge iniī ipse prīmus irritum faciam, cum ille mihi nīl malī fēcerit, nīl adhūc inimīcitiārum intulerit. [11] Quīn potius, sī moritūrus sum, ille mē magis quam ignōbilior quisque mortī trādat. [12] Quō enim nunc fugiam, quī per omnēs Brittaniae prōvinciās tot annōrum temporumque curriculīs vagābundus hostium vītābam īnsidiās?’ [13] Abeunte igitur amīcō, remānsit Eduīnī sōlus foris residēnsque maestus ante palātium, multīs coepit cōgitātiōnum aestibus afficī, quid ageret quōve pedem verteret nescius.

[14] Cumque diū tacitīs mentis angōribus et caecō carperētur ignī, vīdit subitō intempestā nocte silentiō appropinquantem sibi hominem vultūs habitūsque incognitī; quem vidēns, ut ignōtum et inopīnātum nōn parum expāvit. [15] At ille accēdēns salūtāvit eum, et interrogāvit quārē illā hōrā, cēterīs quiēscentibus et altō sopōre pressīs, sōlus ipse mestus in lapide pervigil sedēret. [16] At ille vicissim sciscitābātur, quid ad eum pertinēret, utrum ipse intus an foris noctem trānsigeret. [17] Quī respondēns ait: ‘Nē mē aestimēs tuae maestitiae et īnsomniōrum et forinsēcae et sōlitāriae sessiōnis causam nescīre; sciō enim certissimē quī es, et quārē maerēs et quae ventūra tibi in proximō mala formīdās. [18] Sed dīcitō mihi quid mercēdis dare velīs eī, sīquī sit, quī hīs tē mērōribus absolvat, et Redvaldō suādeat ut nec ipse tibi aliquid malī faciat, nec tuīs tē hostibus perimendum trādat.’ [19] Quī cum sē omnia quae posset huic tālī prō mercēde beneficiī datūrum esse respondēret, adiēcit ille: ‘Quod sī etiam rēgem tē futūrum exstīnctīs hostibus in vēritāte prōmittat, ita ut nōn sōlum omnēs tuōs prōgenitōrēs sed et omnēs, quī ante tē rēgēs in gente Anglōrum fuerant, potestāte trānscendās?’ [20] At Eduīnī cōnstantior interrogandō factus nōn dubitāvit prōmittere, quīn eī, quī tanta sibi beneficia dōnāret, dignīs ipse grātiārum āctiōnibus respondēret. [21] Tum ille tertiō: ‘Sī autem,’ inquit, ‘is quī tibi tanta tāliaque dōna vērāciter adventūra praedīxerit, etiam cōnsilium tibi tuae salūtis ac vītae melius atque ūtilius quam aliquis dē tuīs parentibus aut cognātīs umquam audīvit, ostendere potuerit, num eī obtemperāre et monita eius salūtāria suscipere cōnsentīs?’ [22] Nec distulit Eduīnī, quīn continuō pollicērētur in omnibus sē secūtūrum doctrīnam illīus, quī sē tot ac tantīs calamitātibus ēreptum ad rēgnī apicem prōveheret. [23] Quō acceptō respōnsō, cōnfestim is quī loquēbātur cum eō imposuit dexteram suam capitī eius dīcēns: ‘Cum hoc ergō tibi signum advēnerit, mementō huius temporis ac loquellae nostrae, et ea quae nunc prōmittis, adimplēre nē differās.’ [24] Et hīs dictīs, ut ferunt, repente dispāruit, ut intellegeret nōn hominem esse quī sibi appāruisset, sed spīritum.

[25] Et cum rēgius iuvenis sōlus adhūc ibīdem sedēret, gāvīsus quidem dē conlātā sibi cōnsōlātiōne, sed multum sollicitus ac mente sēdulā cōgitāns, quis esset ille vel unde venīret, quī haec sibi loquerētur, vēnit ad eum praefātus amīcus illīus, laetōque vultū salūtāns eum: ‘Surge,’ inquit, ‘intrā, et sōpītīs ac relictīs cūrārum ānxietātibus, quiētī membra simul et animum compōne, quia mūtātum est cor rēgis, nec tibi aliquid malī facere, sed fidem potius pollicitam servāre dispōnit; postquam enim cōgitātiōnem suam, dē quā tibi ante dīxī, rēgīnae in sēcrētō revēlāvit, revocāvit eum illā ab intentiōne, ammōnēns quia nūllā ratiōne conveniat tantō rēgī amīcum suum optimum in necessitāte positum aurō vēndere, immō fidem suam, quae omnibus ōrnāmentīs pretiōsior est, amōre pecūniae perdere.’ [26] Quid plūra? [27] Fēcit rēx ut dictum est; nec sōlum exulem nūntiīs hostīlibus nōn trādidit, sed etiam eum ut in rēgnum pervenīret adiūvit. [28] Nam mox redeuntibus domum nūntiīs, exercitum ad dēbellandum Aedilfridum colligit cōpiōsum, eumque sibi occurrentem cum exercitū multum imparī (nōn enim dederat illī spatium, quō tōtum suum congregāret atque adūnāret exercitum), occīdit in fīnibus gentis Merciōrum ad orientālem plāgam amnis, quī vocātur Idlæ; in quō certāmine et fīlius Redvaldī, vocābulō Raegnherī, occīsus est. [29] Ac sīc Eduīnī iuxtā ōrāculum, quod accēperat nōn tantum rēgis sibi īnfēstī īnsidiās vītāvit, vērum etiam eīdem peremtō in rēgnī glōriam successit.

[30] Cum ergō praedicante verbum Deī Paulīnō rēx crēdere differret, et per aliquod tempus, ut dīximus, hōrīs competentibus sōlitārius sedēret, quid agendum sibi esset, quae religiō sequenda, sēdulus sēcum ipse scrūtārī cōnsuēsset, ingrediēns ad eum quādam diē vir Deī imposuit dexteram capītī eius et, an hoc signum agnōsceret, requīsīvit. [31] Quī cum tremēns ad pedēs eius prōcidere vellet, levāvit eum et quasi familiārī vōce affātus: ‘Ecce,’ inquit, ‘hostium manūs, quōs timuistī, Dominō dōnante ēvāsistī; ecce rēgnum quod dēsīderāstī ipsō largiente percēpistī. [32] Mementō ut tertium, quod prōmīsistī, facere nē differās, suscipiendō fidem eius et praecepta servandō, quī tē et ā temporālibus adversīs ēripiēns temporālis rēgnī honōre sublīmāvit et, sī deinceps voluntātī eius, quam per mē tibi praedicat, obsecundāre volueris, etiam ā perpetuīs malōrum tormentīs tē līberāns aeternī sēcum rēgnī in caelīs faciet esse participem.’

PAULINUS ATTEMPTS TO CONVERT EDWIN

(1) haec ... litterīs agēbat: in chapters 10 and 11, Bede reproduces letters from Pope Boniface V (in office 619–625) to Edwin, encouraging him to convert to Christianity (2.10) and to Æthelburh, exhorting her to support her husband’s conversion (2.11).

(2) Bede introduces a story about an omen from Edwin’s youth that had an impact on his later conversion. The structure is: ōrāculum caelestenōn minimum (“to no small extent”) … sēnsum iūvit illīus.

illī quondam exulantī: “… to him once while he was in exile….” For the first thirty years or so of his life, during the reign of King Æthelfrith of Northumbria, Edwin lived in exile.

Redvaldum rēgem Anglōrum: Rædwald, King of East Anglia, ruled from ca. 599 to ca. 624. Edwin lived in exile at Rædwald’s court, and it was Rædwald’s victory over Æthelfrith of Northumbria in 616 that established Edwin as king of Northumbria.

divīna pietās: the personification of "Divine Goodness," or God.

ad suscipienda vel intellegenda ... monita: ad + gerundive to express purpose (AG 506)

doctrīnae ... salūtāris: “of the doctrine of salvation”

monita: “precepts” > monita -ōrum, n. pl.

sēnsum: “disposition, frame of mind,” LS sēnsus II.

illīus: Edwin

(3) The leadup to the decisive conversation between Paulinus and Edwin about the omen, from Paulinus’ point of view. The structure is: cum vidēret Paulīnus … ac … ageret, tandem … didicit. See articulated text. The structure places emphasis on the difficulty of Paulinus’ task (difficulter … tandem) and the divine nature of the omen (caelitus ostēnsum).

Cum ergō vidēret ... ac ... ageret: cum is temporal, best translated “while.”

vidēret ... posse sublīmitātem ... inclīnārī: vidēret introduces the accusative-infinitive construction of indirect discourse; inclīnārī is the complementary infinitive with posse (“… Paulinus saw that the elevation of the king’s mind was able to be bent with difficulty …,” i.e., that it was difficult to bend the king's proud mind); rearrange as: cum Paulinus vidēret sublīmitātem animī rēgālis difficulter posse inclīnārī ad humilitātem viae salūtāris et ad suscipiendum mystērium vīvificae crucis.... Note the contrast of sublīmitātem and humilitātem.

suscipiendum mystērium: gerundive expressing purpose (AG 500.4); understand ad (carried over from ad humilitātem).

divīnam pietātem: see note above.

ageret: intransitive, “acted”

in spīritū: with reference to this passage, DMLBS understands in spīritū to indicate a “trance, vision, or state of ecstacy, especially associated with prophecy, or to perception of purely intellectual nature” (spīritus 3b).

quod vel qualē esset ōrāculum: indirect question, introduced by didicit (“he learned ... what or of what sort the oracle was …”).

(4) Paulinus seizes on the old omen, urging the king to fulfil a promise made many years before.

distulit, quīn ... ammonēret: “hold off from admonishing,” subjunctive with quīn after verbs of hindering, resisting, delaying, and the like (AG 558).

in ōrāculō sibi exhibitō: in + ablative can mean “at (a given time)”: “at the time the oracle was shown to him.”

sē factūrum prōmīserat: indirect discourse; understand factūrum esse.

temporis illīus: the time of Edwin’s exile

erumīs exemtus: = aerumnīs exemptus; eximere, “to free from” takes a dative or ablative: “freed from the distress.”

pervenīret: subjunctive in a future conditional in indirect discourse, AG 589.

FLASHBACK: ÆTHELFRITH'S PLOT AGAINST EDWIN

(5) Bede finally describes the omen itself. Cum ... vagārētur: the subject is Edwin.

persequente illum Ædilfrīdō: ablative absolute. Æthelfrith was the king of Bernicia (the northern half of Northumbria) and later also of Deira (the southern half). Edwin was the son of the former king of Deira, Ælla, and was driven into exile after Æthelfrith came to power in Deira.

ā tantī persecūtōris īnsidiīs: Bede frequently nests a defining genitive (tantī persecūtōris) between a preposition (ā) and its ablative (īnsidiīs).

tūtandō: gerund, ablative of means

servāret: indirect command, AG 563.

quī: Rædwald

(6) postquam Ædilfrid ... eum ... appāruisse ... cognōvit: indirect discourse; eum refers to Edwin.

quī ... offerrent: relative clause of purpose (AG 531.2): “he sent messengers to offer….”

prō nece eius: eius refers to Edwin.

neque aliquid prōfēcit: “but it had no effect” (Colgrave and Mynors)

(7) secundō ... tertiō: understand tempore (“for a second and a third time”).

et … indīcēns: “and then declaring,” (LS, et II.C)

(8) Quī: refers to Rædwald

cessit dēprecantī: cedere (“to yield to”) takes a dative.

occīdere … trādere: prōmittō, “promise to,” normally takes a future infinitive, as in section 5 above, but the present infinitive is also classical (LS, promitto II.B).

(9) ubi: “when”

dispōnēbat: the subject is Edwin

et ēvocātum forās: understand eum (i.e., Edwin); perhaps easiest to translate with a finite verb (“… and called him outside, and explained to him….”).

valeant: “can,” relative clause of characteristic (AG 534) with ubi

(10) ut pactum ... irritum faciam: ut ... faciam is best taken as a substantive clause of result (AG 568) introduced by facere: “I am not able to do this thing which you suggest, [namely], that I ....” Irritum is a predicate accusative with facere (“I make the agreement void”).

cum ille mihi nīl malī fēcerit, nil ... intulerit: causal (“since he has done nothing”). malī and inimīcitiārum are partitive genitives with nil (AG 346). This is an example of asyndeton (AG 601.c.).

nīl adhūc inimīcitiārum intulerit: “has not shown any enmity towards me so far” (Colgrave-Mynors).

(11) ille mē ... tradat: the subjunctive, tradat, is jussive; the subject of tradat is ille magis quam ignōbilior quisquam (“let him, rather than someone less noble…”). ille is emphatic.

(12) Quō ... fugiam: deliberative subjunctive (AG 443–4). quō = “to what place? where?”

quī: “I who”

tot annōrum temporumque curriculīs: the ablative is used for extent of time: “for the course of so many years and seasons”

(13) Eduīnī: nominative

mestus: = maestus

aestibus: “doubts, uncertainties, anxieties,” LS, aestus II.B; ablative of means after afficī.

quid ageret … verteret: indirect questions, introduced by nescius (“not knowing what…”).

EDWIN'S VISION

(14) caecō carperētur ignī: an echo of Vergil, Aeneid 4.2, caecō carpitur ignī.

vultūs habitūsque incognitī: genitive of specification (AG 349.d): “of unfamiliar face and dress”

ut: “since he was…”

nōn parum: “to no small extent,” “not a little”

(15) ille: the mysterious man

eum: Edwin

quiēscentibus ... pressīs: ablative absolute with cēterīs.

(16) ille: Edwin

eum: the unknown man

ipse: Edwin

utrum ... noctem trānsigeret: “whether he passed the night.” Indirect question introduced by sciscitābātur (which is deponent).

(17) Quī: the mysterious man

Nē mē aestimēs: a negative command constructed with + present subjunctive (AG 450 note 3). Order: nē aestimēs mē nescīre causam.

sciō ... quī es: indirect question with the dependent verb in the indicative, rather than the usual subjunctive (AG 575.c). The use of the indicative might emphasize the certainty (sciō enim certissimē) of the speaker’s knowledge.

mērēs: maerēs, “you grieve”

in proximō: “close at hand”

(18) mercēdis: partitive genitive with quid (AG 346); translate “what payment?”

sīquī sit: “if there should be anyone”

quī ... absolvat, et ... suadeat: relative clauses of characteristic, with a potential force (AG 534-5): “who would….”

Redvaldō suādeat, ut nec ... faciat: suādēre takes a dative object (AG 367); ut introduces an indirect command (AG 563): “who would persuade Rædwald not to do….”

malī: partitive genitive with aliquid (AG 346): “something bad”

perimendum trādat: the gerundive, after the verb trādere, expresses purpose (AG 500.4): “hand over to be killed”

(19) Quī: Edwin

sē ... respondēret: indirect statement. Rearrange as: cum [Edwin] respondēret sē datūrum esse omnia, quae posset, huic tālī (“to such a person) prō mercēde beneficiī (“in payment for [such a] service”).

adiēcit ille: ille is the stranger.

Quod sī: “what if…”

etiam: “even”

rēgem ... prōmittat: indirect statement. Rearrange as: prōmittat tē futūrum [esse] rēgem in veritāte (“in actuality”), exstīnctīs hostibus…. Exstīnctīs hostibus: ablative absolute.

ita ut: introducting a result clause

omnēs tuōs prōgenitōrēs: object of trānscendās

potestāte: ablative of specification (AG 418)

(20) nōn dubitāvit prōmittere, quīn: “he did not hesitate to promise that ….”

eī ... respondēret: the subject of respondēret is Edwin, and is the indirect object: “he would respond to him.” repondēre implies appropriate recompense.

dignīs ... grātiārum āctiōnibus: “with actions worthy of the kindnesses”: i.e., Edwin will repay his benefactor appropriately.

(21) tertiō: “a third time”

Sī ... potuerit, ... cōnsentīs?: a mixed condition, with the future perfect in the protasis and present in the apodosis: “If he is able [literally, will have been able], do you consent?”

cōnsilium tibi: the direct and indirect objects of ostendere potuerit.

num: here, num indicates that an affirmative answer is expected; i.e., = nonne (DMLBS, num 2, citing this passage).

eī obtemperāre: obtemperāre takes a dative object.

(22) sē ... ēreptum: , here, is an indirect relative, referring to the subject of the main clause, Edwin (AG 300.2).

(23) advēnerit: “comes” (fut. pf)

mementō: takes a genitve object (“be mindful of,” “remember”).

loquellae nostrae: “our little chat”

nē differās: prohibition with present subjunctive, AG 450 note 3. This phrase is echoed a little later by mementō … nē differās (section 32).

(24) ut intellegeret: ut introduces a substantive clause of result (AG 568); the subject of dispāruit is the stranger, the subject of intellegeret is Edwin.

THE BATTLE OF THE RIVER IDLE (616 CE)

(25) intrā: “enter” (imperative)

sōpitīs ... ānxietātibus: ablative absolute

quiētī ... compōne: “calm” (literally, “compose for quiet”: quiētī is dative of quiēs).

potius: rather, instead

cōgitātiōnem suam ... rēgīnae: cōgitātiōnem is the the direct objectof revēlāvit, and rēgīnae is the indirect object; the subject of revēlāvit is Rædwald.

ammōnēns quia: “warning that…”

conveniat tantō rēgī: convenit (impersonal) + dative: “it is fitting for…”

immō: “much less”

fidem: “trustworthiness”

(27) eum ... adiūvit: rearrange as adviūvit eum ut in rēgnum pervenīret. The ut clause is a substantative clause of purpose (AG 563): “he helped him to …”

(28) mox redeuntibus domum nūntiīs: ablative absolute; translate: “as soon as the messengers had returned home.”

sibi occurrentem: occurrere takes a dative object: “coming to attack him.” eum refers to Æthelfrith, sibi refers to Rædwald.

multum: adverbial: “very”

spatium, quō ... adūnāret: relative clause of purpose (AG 531.2): “room to assemble ... ”

ad orientālem plāgam amnis, quī vocātur Idlae: on the east bank of the River Idle.

(29) nōn tantum ... vērum etiam: not only… but also…

rēgis sibi īnfēstī īnsidiās: sibi refers to Edwin, rēgis īnfēstī refers to Æthelfrith: “the plots of a king hostile to him.”

eīdem peremtō ... successit: succedere (“become successor to”) takes a dative: “he succeeded that same man [Æthelfrith] when he was dead….”

PAULINUS FULFILS EDWIN'S VISION

(30) cum ... credere differet, et ... sedēret, ... scrūtārī cōnsuēsset: this long, compound cum-clause is most easily translated by adding an extra “and”: “while he put off believing, and while he sat and was in the habit of examining….”

hōrīs conpetentibus: either “for hours at a time” (Colgrave-Mynors) or “at such times as he was able” (Garforth). See DMLBS, competere 2.b.

consuēsset: = consuēvisset, “was accustomed”: syncopated third singular pluperfect subjunctive from consuēscō.

vir Deī: Paulinus

dexteram: right hand

an: = utrum, “whether” (introducing an indirect question).

(31) Quī: Edwin (“and when, trembling, he…”)

levāvit eum: the subject of levāvit is Paulinus; eum is Edwin.

familiārī vōce: familiāris can mean “belonging to a family member, or a member of a household,” or simply “friendly, intimate.”

Dominō dōnante: “with God’s help”

ipsō largiente: “by His [God’s] gift”

(32) In a long, carefully balanced period Paulinus makes the argument that, just as the God of the Christians saved Edwin from his worldy troubles and made him king, so he will save him from damnation and make him part of an eternal kingdom after death. See articulated text.

tertium: “the third thing”: first, Edwin escaped death at the hands of Æthelfrith; second, he received his kingdom; thirdly, he must remember his promise to convert if the first two conditions were met.

Mementō … sublīmāvit: re-order: Mementō ut nē differās facere tertium quod prōmīsistī, suscipiendō fidem et servandō praecepta eius quī, ēripiēns tē et ā temporālibus adversīs, sublīmāvit (tē) honōre temporālis rēgnī. The word order as written emphasizes the need for Edwin to act (facere), and the responsibility of the Christian God for Edwin’s unexpected elevation to the kingship (sublimāvit). mementō acts a verb of caution with ut nē (AG 563.e note 2), rather than the expected infinitive (LS, memini I.7). Edwin is repeating the words of the mysterious stranger (section 23, above), mementō … nē differās.

et … sublīmāvit, et … faciet: “both … and on top of that” (LS, et II.A). See articulated text.

temporālibus ... temporālis: “earthly”

deinceps: “from now on”

voluntātī eius, quam per mē tibi praedicat: eius refers to God; the antecedent of quam is voluntātī; the subject of praedicat is God: “His will, which He preaches to you through me.”

obsecundāre: “to comply with,” “to follow,” + dative (voluntātī).

aeternī ... participem: rearrange as faciet [tē] esse participem aeternī regnī sēcum in caelīs. Participem, “participant” is a predicate accusative, and takes the genitive to mean “participant in”: “He [God] will make you a participant in….” This word, emphasized by being placed last, and strengthened by sēcum, might be taken by Edwin to imply partnership (DMLBS, particeps 2.a).

sēcum: with him (i.e., with God). Edwin will not only have a temporal kingdom, he will be part of an eternal kingdom with God.

NOTE: Lemmatization of Anglo-Saxon Names
—: declined forms unattested
[ ]: nominative forms unattested (back-formed for purposes of lemmatization)
*: form unattested but hypothesized based on existing patterns


memorō memorāre memorāvī memorātus: to remember

pāpa –ae or –ātis m.: a father, pope

Bonifātius –iī m.: Boniface, Pope Boniface IV, 608-615

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

ōrāculum –ī n.: oracle, prophecy

exsulō exsulāre exsulāvī exsulātus: to be in exile

Reduald –ī m.: Rædwald, King of the East Angles, d.616x627

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

dīvīnus –a –um: divine

re-vēlō –vēlāre: to unveil, uncover

dignō dignāre: to consider worthy

doctrīna –ae f.: teaching, doctrine

salūtāris –e: healthful, wholesome

Paulīnus –ī m.: Paulinus, Bishop of York, 625-633; bishop of Rochester, 633-644

difficulter: with difficulty

sublīmitās –ātis f.: height, loftiness

rēgālis –e: regal, kingly

humilitās –ātis f.: lowness

salūtāris –e: healthful, wholesome

mystērium –ī n.: mystery, religious rite, sacrament

vīvificus –a –um: life-giving

crux crucis f.: cross

inclīnō inclīnāre inclīnāvī inclīnātus: to influence

praesum praeesse praefuī praefutūrus: to be before; be present

exhortātiō –ōnis f.: sermon

dīvīnus –a –um: divine

dēprecātiō –ōnis f.: a plea (by prayer)

vērīsimilis –e: seeming true, probable

ōrāculum –ī n.: oracle, prophecy

caelitus: from heaven

exinde (abbrev. exin): from that place

continuus –a –um: connected

admoneō admonēre admonuī admonitus: to admonish, remind

expleō explēre explēvī explētus: to fill up, fulfil

ōrāculum –ī n.: oracle, prophecy

exhibeō exhibēre exhibuī exhibitum : to produce

aerumna –ae f.: toil, trouble

eximō eximere exēmī exēmptus: to take away, remove

fastīgium fastīgi(ī) n.: summit

ōrāculum –ī n.: oracle, prophecy

hūiusmodī: of this sort

persequor persequī persecūtus sum: to pursue

Aedilfrid –ī m.: Æthelfrith, King of the Northumbrians, 592-616

rēgnō rēgnāre rēgnāvī rēgnātus: to rule

occulō occulere occuluī occultus: to cover

profugus –ī m.: fugitive, exile

vagor –ārī –ātus sum: to wander about

Reduald –ī m.: Rædwald, King of the East Angles, d.616x627

obsecrō obsecrāre obsecrāvī obsecrātus: to beseech

persecutor –ōris m.: persecutor, enemy

īnsidiae īnsidiārum f. pl.: ambush

tūtor tūtāvī tūtātus sum: to protect

libenter: willingly

Aedilfrid –ī m.: Æthelfrith, King of the Northumbrians, 592-616

familiāriter: as a friend, intimately, closely

socius –iī m.: ally, comrade

habitō habitāre habitāvī habitātus: to inhabit

nūntius –a –um: announcing, that which makes known

Reduald –ī m.: Rædwald, King of the East Angles, d.616x627

nex necis f.: killing, murder

prōficiō prōficere prōfēcī prōfectum: to advance

cōpiōsus –a –um: plentiful

īnsuper: above, overhead

minae –ārum f. pl.: threats

dēprecor dēprecārī dēprecātus sum: to ward off (from one's self or others) by earnest prayer

occidō occidere occidī occāsus: to go down; set; fall

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

lēgātārius –a –um: like an envoy or legate, legatine

fīdus –a –um: faithful, trustworthy

amīcus amīcī m.: male friend

animadvertō animadvertere animadvertī animadversus: to turn to, give mind to

cubiculum –ī n.: bedroom

dispōnō dispōnere dispōsuī dispōsitus: to place, arrange, distribute

ēvocō ēvocāre ––– ēvocātus: to call out, summon

forās: out of doors

ergā: towards

ēdoceō –ēre –uī –tus: to teach completely; communicate

īnsuper: above, overhead

adiciō adicere adiēcī adiectus: to throw to

intrōdūcō intrōdūcere intrōdūxī intrōductum: to lead in, introduce

Reduald –ī m.: Rædwald, King of the East Angles, d.616x627

Aedilfrid –ī m.: Æthelfrith, King of the Northumbrians, 592-616

benevolentia benevolentiae f.: goodwill

suggerō –ere –gessī –gestus: to bring or put under or up to; supply

pactum pactī n.: way, manner

tantō: by so much

ineō inīre iniī/inīvī initus: to enter

irritus –a –um: invalid, void

inimīcitia inimīcitiae f.: enmity, hostility

potius: rather, more

ignōbilis –e: unknown

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

curriculum –ī n.: career

vagābundus –a –um: wandering, roaming, roving; as subst., wanderer, vagrant, vagabond

īnsidiae īnsidiārum f. pl.: ambush

amīcus amīcī m.: male friend

remaneō remanēre remānsī remānsus: to stay behind

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

forīs: out of doors outside

resīdō –ere –sīdere –sēdī: to sit down, sink down, shrink

palātium –ī n.: palace, royal residence

cōgitātiō cōgitātiōnis f.: thinking

aestus aestūs m.: heat

nescius –a –um: ignorant

cumque: whenever, always

tacitus –a –um: silent

angor –ōris m.: anguish, torment

carpō carpere carpsī carptum: to pluck, seize

intempestus –a –um: unseasonable; unpleasant; gloomy

silentium silenti(ī) n.: silence

appropinquō appropinquāre appropinquavī: to approach, draw near

habitus habitūs m.: garment, attire; way of life

incognitus –a –um: unknown, unnoticed, unperceived

īgnōtus –a –um: unknown

inopīnātus –a –um: unexpected, unforeseen

ex–pavēscō –pavēscere –pāvī –—: to dread

salūtō salūtāre salūtāvī salūtātus: to greet

sopor –ōris m.: sleep; sound

pervigil –ilis: keeping watch all night, awake

vicissim or vice: in turn

scīscitor –scīscitārī : to examine, interrogate

intus: within, inside

forīs: out of doors outside

trānsigō trānsigere trānsēgī trānsāctum: to stab

aestimō aestimāre aestimāvī aestimātus: to appraise

maestitia –ae f.: grief

īnsomnium –iī n.: that which comes in sleep; a dream

forīnsecus –a –um: outdoor, outside

sōlitārius –a –um : lonely, solitary

sessiō –ōnis f.: a sitting; a sitting idly

proximus proximī m.: neighbor

formīdō formīdinis f.: fear

mercēs mercēdis f.: pay, wages

vēlum vēlī n.: sail

sīquis or sīquī sīqua sīquid: if any (one)

maeror maerōris m.: mourning, grief

absolvō –ere –solvī –solūtum: to absolve (someone of)

Reduald –ī m.: Rædwald, King of the East Angles, d.616x627

suādeō suādēre suāsī suāsus: to recommend

perimō –ere –ēmī –ēmptus: to take away completely; annihilate

mercēs mercēdis f.: pay, wages

adiciō adicere adiēcī adiectus: to throw to

futūrus –a –um: about to be; future

exstinguō exstinguere exstinxī exstinctus: to extinguish

vēritās vēritātis f.: truth

prōgenitor –ōris m.: ancestor

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

trān–scendō –scendere –scendī –scēnsum: to climb over, surmount

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

actiō actiōnis f.: action

vērāx –ācis : speaking truly, true, veracious; adv. vērāciter, truthfully.

praedīcō praedīcere praedīxī praedictus: to say beforehand; foretell

cognātus cognātī m.: relative

obtemperō obtemperāre obtemperāvī obtemperātus: to obey, comply

salūtāris –e: healthful, wholesome

cōnsentiō cōnsentīre cōnsēnsī cōnsēnsus: a

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

continuō: immediately

polliceor pollicērī pollicitus sum: to promise

doctrīna –ae f.: teaching, doctrine

calamitās calamitātis f.: loss, failure

apex –icis m.: the point of anything; peak

prōvehō –ere –vexī –vectus: to carry forward or forth; (pass.)

acceptus –a –um: welcome, acceptable, pleasing

respōnsum respōnsī n.: answer

cōnfestim: immediately

dextera dextera f.: right hand

suum –ī n. or sua –ōrum n.: one's property

loquēla –ae f.: talking; speech; word

adimpleō adimplēre –ēvī –ētum : to fill up with, fulfill

dictum dictī n.: word; saying

repente: suddenly

dispāreō dispārēre dispāruī: to vanish

ibīdem: in the same place

cōnsōlātiō –ōnis f.: a consolation, comfort

sollicitus –a –um: worried

sēdulus –a –um: careful, cautious

praefor –fātus sum: to say beforehand; praefātus: aforementioned

amīcus amīcī m.: male friend

salūtō salūtāre salūtāvī salūtātus: to greet

sōpiō sōpīre sōpīvī sōpītum: to put to sleep, lull to sleep

ānxietās –tātis f.: anxiety, worry, tribulation

potius: rather, more

polliceor pollicērī pollicitus sum: to promise

dispōnō dispōnere dispōsuī dispōsitus: to place, arrange, distribute

cōgitātiō cōgitātiōnis f.: thinking

rēgīna rēgīnae f.: queen

sēcrētum –ī n.: anything apart; a solitary place

re-vēlō –vēlāre: to unveil, uncover

intentiō –ōnis f.: purpose; intension; fervor

admoneō admonēre admonuī admonitus: to admonish, remind

amīcus amīcī m.: male friend

suum –ī n. or sua –ōrum n.: one's property

positus –a –um: located

vendō vendere vendidī venditus: to sell

immō: no indeed

ōrnāmentum –ī n.: equipment

pretiōsus –a –um : expensive, costly, precious

exul/exsul exsulī m.: exile

hostīlis hostīlis hostīle: hostile

adiuvō adiuvāre adiūvī adiūvatus: to help, assist, support

dēbellō dēbellāre dēbellāvī dēbellātus: to war to the end; to put down by war; subdue

Aedilfrid –ī m.: Æthelfrith, King of the Northumbrians, 592-616

cōpiōsus –a –um: plentiful

impār –aris: unequal, in unequal combat

congregō congregāre congregāvī congregātus: to assemble, collect

adūnō –āre: unite, unify, combine

occidō occidere occidī occāsus: to go down; set; fall

Merciī –ōrum m.: the Mercians, the people of the march, or midlands

orientālis –e: of the east, easterly

plāga –ae f.: blow

Idlae: the river Idle, a tributary of the Trent

certāmen certāminis n.: contest, struggle

Reduald –ī m.: Rædwald, King of the East Angles, d.616x627

vocābulum –ī n.: a designation, name

Raegenheri — m.: Regenhere, Son of King Rædwald 1 of the East Angles, d.625

occidō occidere occidī occāsus: to go down; set; fall

Aeduini –ī m.: Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 616-633

iūxtā: according to

ōrāculum –ī n.: oracle, prophecy

īnfestus –a –um: hostile, aggressive

īnsidiae īnsidiārum f. pl.: ambush

perimō –ere –ēmī –ēmptus: to take away completely; annihilate

succēdō succēdere successī successus: to follow

praedicō –āre –āvī –ātum: to preach

Paulīnus –ī m.: Paulinus, Bishop of York, 625-633; bishop of Rochester, 633-644

competo –ere: to fit, be suitable, appropriate, applicable

sōlitārius –a –um : lonely, solitary

religiō religiōnis f.: religion

sēdulus –a –um: careful, cautious

scrūtor scrūtārī scrūtātus sum: examine thoroughly, search

consueō –ēre: to be accustomed

dextera dextera f.: right hand

āgnōscō āgnōscere āgnōvī agnitus: to recognize

requīrō requīrere requīsīvī requīsītus: to seek

tremō tremere tremuī: to tremble

prō–cidō –cidere –cidī –—: to fall down

levō levāre levāvī levātus: to raise; make light

familiāris familiāre: domestic, intimate

adfor –fātus sum: to speak to; address

dominus dominī m.: lord; Lord (of Jesus Christ)

ēvādō ēvādere ēvāsī ēvāsus: to go out, evade

largior –ītus sum –dep.: to give largely; bestow

percipiō percipere percēpī perceptus: to take in

temporālis –e: of or belonging to time, temporal

temporālis –e: of or belonging to time, temporal

sublīmō –āre –āvī –ātus: elevate

deinceps: in order

praedicō praedicāre praedicāvī praedicātus: to proclaim

obsecundō –secundāre: to be compliant

tormentum tormentī n.: torture

līberō līberāre līberāvī līberātus: to free

particeps participis m.: participant

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