Frieze Vocabulary List

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Headword Definitions Occurrences in the Aeneid Sort ascending

(conj. enclit.), and, freq.; and indeed, 7.51; as an adversative, 4.96; -que — que, et — que, both — and, freq.; sometimes irregularly placed, 5.47, et al.; -que — et, both — and.

3 212

(conj.), and, freq.; moreover, also, too, freq.; and even, and indeed; and yet; and immediately, 9.22; et — et, both — and, freq.

2 083

(prep. w. acc. or abl.); w. acc., into, unto, to, toward, 1.587, et al.; against, 9.424, et al.; on, upon, 5.426, et al.; in expressions of time, unto, to, for; according to, by; denoting purpose, 12.854, et al.; as, for, 11.771; in adversum, contrary, against, opposite, 8.237; in melius, for the better, 1.281; in numerum, in time or order, 8.453; in ūnum, together; in abruptum, headlong, 3.422; w. abl. of situation, in, on, over, upon, freq.; in the midst of, within, among, 1.109, et al.; for, as, 5.537; on account of, at, 10.446; in respect to, 2.541; after its noun, 6.58.

quī, quae, quod (dat. pl. quīs for quibus, 1.95, et al.)

(interrog. and rel. pron.; interrog.), who, which, what? (rel.), who, which, what, that; ex quō, from which, from what time; after, 2.163, et al.; abl., quī, m., f., and n., sometimes used for the regular abl.; hence, quīcum, with whom, 11.822.

hīc, haec, hōc

(pron., referring to the first person), this; he, she, it; (pl.), these, they; freq., (for meus), 9.205; (for is), 1.742; (repeated), hīc — hīc, one — another, the one — the other, this — that; (pl.), these — those, some — others; hīc — ille, the latter — the former; this — that, the one — the other; freq.

sum, fuī, esse, irreg. n.

to be, as the copula between subject and predicate, freq.; to exist, be, 2.325, et al.; to pertain, belong to; one has or possesses, 3.433, et al.; (impers.), to be possible, one can, one may, 6.596; (imperat.), estō, be it so, grant, 4.35; archaic forms, pres, subj., fuam, ās, at, -ant, from fuō, 10.108; imperf. subj., forem, ēs, et, -ent, inf., fore, 1.235; rēs est alicui cum aliquō, one has a contest with one, 9.155.

tū, pers. pron. pl. vōs

you, freq.; abl. with cum, tēcum, vōbīscum, with you; vōsmet, yourself, yourselves, 1.207.

ego, meī, pers. pron.; pl., nōs, nostrī or nostrum

I, me, etc.; (abl. with cum appended), mēcum, with me, 1.675, et al.; (pl. often for the sing.), I, me, etc.

ille, a, ud, genit. illīus

dem. pron. (archaic, olle, 5.197, et al.), that, 6.760, et al.; that, well known, distinguished, great, 1.617; some formidable, some bold, 10.707; 11.809; as subs., he, she, it, they, freq.; ille — hīc, the one — the other, 5.430; the former — the latter, 6.395; joined to an adj. or partic. for emphasis, 1.3, et al.; ex illō, from that time, 8.268.


(prep. w. acc.), through, (of place, time, agency, instrumentality, medium, and manner), 4.357, et al.; along, 1.576; over, 1.498; on, 5.335; by, at, 4.56; through, throughout, during, 1.31; in, 9.31; in entreaties, adjurations, and oaths, by, 2.141, et al.

quis, quae, quid

(interrog. pron.), who? what? which? 2.42, et al.; quid, elliptical, what then? what is it? 10.77; quid, (adv.), as to what? how? why? 2.101, et al.; with num, whether any, any? nescio quis, — quid, — quod, I know not who, — what; often equivalent to some one, something, denoting doubt, 2.735.

nec or neque

(adv. and conj.), and not; neither, nor, 1.643, et al.; in prohibition, 3.394, et al.; neque (nec) — neque (nec), neither — nor, 5.21, et al.; nec — et, or -que, may be rendered neither — nor, 12.801; 2.534; nec nōn, and also, nor less, 6.183; nec nōn et, and also, 1.707.

omnis, e

(adj.), all, the whole, 6.138; every, 1.160; universal, supreme, 1.236; subst., omnēs, ium, m., all men; omnia, ium, n., all things, 6.33; everything, 1.91.


(prep. followed by acc.) 1. (In relations of place), to, towards, at, by, near, before, freq., present with, among, 6.481; 2. (Of time), at, just at, about, by, 4.513, et al.; 3. (In other relations), in one’s esteem, with, 12.648; ad ūnum, even to a single one, to the last one, to a man, 5.687; ad ūsque, as far as, 11.262, et al.

dō, dedī, datus, dare, a.

to give, freq.; grant, 1.79; bestow, 12.394; offer, 8.106; show, betray, 12.69; present, make, render, effect, 9.323; consign, throw, cast, 2.566; yield, resign, 11.162; supply, 2.391; bring, 4.683; give forth, spread, 12.301; make, 11.385; form, 12.575; direct, 3.337; establish, ordain, 12.192; unfurl, 1.35; often w. infin. as object acc., 5.538; sē dare, to intrust one’s self, venture upon, 9.56; to be given or afforded, 4.627; dare dēfēnsum, to defend completely, 12.437; dare poenās, to suffer punishment. Dare, w. a substantive following, may often be translated by the verb kindred with the latter; as, dare complexūs, to embrace, 1.687; dare partū, to bring forth, bear, 1.274.

atque, or ac

(conj.), and in addition, or and besides; and, as well, and indeed, and, 1.575; freq.; even, 2.626; in comparisons, as, 4.90; than, 3.561; repeated, atque — atque, both — and.

ipse, a, um

(gen. ipsīus, dem. pron.), self, used to emphasize substantives and pronouns expressed or understood; myself, thyself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, etc., freq.; sometimes equivalent to just, precisely, exactly, very, even, 5.767, et al.; denoting distinction or preëminence, 1.575, et al.; of one's self, spontaneously, 7.492, et al.; the whole as contrasted with the parts, 12.303.

suī (gen.), sibi (dat.), sē or, emphasized, sēsē (acc. and abl.)

(reflex. pron., sing. and pl.), of himself, herself, itself, themselves, etc., freq.; (abl. with cum), sēcum, with one's self, 4.29.

māgnus, a, um; compar., māior, ius; superl., māximus, a, um

adj. (rel. to μέγας, great), great, 1.602, and freq.; wide, vast, extended, expansive, 1.300; grand, stately, lofty, towering, 3.703; in number, 1.148; in weight, 5.248; in rank, power, character, 1.241; mighty, 5.414; venerable, 6.544; formidable, direful, 2.190; comp., māior, with or without nātū, the elder; māximus, a, um, with or without nātū, eldest, 1.654, et al.; subst., māgnum, ī, n., a great, noble, difficult, lofty thing, freq.; māgna, ōrum, great things; great rewards, 2.161; (adv.), māgnum, largely, widely, greatly, loudly, 9.705.

arma, ōrum, n.

arms, defensive and offensive, freq.; armor, 10.181; suits of armor, 8.565; (fig.), or warlike exploits, 1.1; conflict, 12.844; implements, equipments, instruments, utensils, 1.183; sails, 5.15; rudder, helm, 6.353; military power, warlike command, 12.192; war, conflict, 12.6; means of injury, weapons, 2.99; arma movēre (of the lion), to prepare for battle, 12.6; arma colligere, shorten sail.

ferō, tulī, lātus, ferre, irreg. a.

to bear, bring, carry, 1.702; bear away, 2.374; bring against, 12.465; carry, drive, 1.536; bear, bring forth, breed; produce, give, 1.605; conduct, lead, 6.295; offer, 3.19; aim, 12.299; cast, throw, 2.570; move, 3.490; induce, cause, attend, 5.356; suffer, allow, 2.94; take away, 2.555; destroy, 2.600; bring, afford, 1.463; grant, put, 3.145; render, make, 3.529; derive, have (others supply sē w. ferēbat), 11.341; bear, suffer, endure, 2.131; carry or lift, in praises, exalt, extol; bring tidings, report, 1.645; bring to light, disclose, 2.158; propose, 10.150; relate, tell, say, 2.230; call, 7.208; impel, prompt, 6.675; direct, 2.34; require, 11.345; mē, tē, sē ferre, to bear, carry, present one’s self; move, stalk, 8.199; return, 7.492; go, 2.456; appear, 1.503; rise, 6.241; rush, 2.672; boast, 5.373; (pass.), ferrī, to be borne, carried, presented; to be rendered, to be, 4.110; rush, hurry, hasten, 2.337; ride, 5.587; march, 11.530; sail, 3.16; p., ferēns, of the wind, blowing; favoring, 4.430; sīgna ferre, to move the standards, move on to war, advance, 8.498; ferre manum, to engage in conflict, 5.403; ferre pedem, to come; return, go, 2.756.


(adv.), not, freq.; sometimes for nē in prohibitions, 12.78.


(adv.), at that time, at this time; even then, even now; already, 1.437, et al.; with tum, even, 1.18; w. imperat., at length, at once, 3.41, et al.; soon, presently, immediately, 4.566; then, at length, 1.272; marking a transition, now, 2.567, et al.; iam iam, emphatic, now indeed, 4.371; now, now, 2.530; iam dūdum, iam prīdem, already for some time, long, 1.580, et al.; iam inde, iam ab illō tempore, even from then or that time, 1.623; iam tum, even then; iam — iam, at one time, at another time, now — now; nōn iam, no longer, 4.431; iamdūdum, at once.


(adv.), then, freq.; then too; at the same time, moreover, 4.250, et al.; referring to a perf. p., 5.719; answering to, cum, cum — tum, while — at the same time; both — and, not only — but; opposed to nunc, 10.14.

Aenēās, ae, m.

1. A Trojan chief, son of Venus and Anchises, and hero of the Aeneid, 1.92. 2. Aenēās Silvius, one of the Alban kings, 6.769.


(conj., indicating an actual and positive alternative, and not, like vel, leaving the choice to the mind), or, 1.70, et al.; but sometimes used indifferently with vel, ve, sive, 1.379; repeated, aut — aut, either — or, 1.396, et al.


(adv.), now, at this time, 4.283; even now; in our times, at the present time, 6.234.

videō, vīdī, vīsus (interrog. viden’ for vidēsne, 6.779), 2, a.

to see or perceive, in all senses of the words, freq.; see to it, look to it; determine, 10.744; (pass.), vidērī, to be seen, 2.461, et al.; to seem, appear, 1.396, et al.; (impers.), vidētur, vīsum est, it seems to one, seems good, proper, is the will of; one thinks, judges, 2.428, et al.

manus, ūs, f.

the hand, 1.487; freq.; (meton.), action, movement of the hand; work, art, handiwork, 3.486; prowess, heroic deed, action, 2.434; force, violence, 2.645; a collection of persons; a band, crew, troop; an army, 2.29; forces, 5.623; multitude, 6.660; pl., manūs, workmen, 11.329; dare manūs, to yield, 11.558; extrēma manus, the finishing hand or touch, 7.572.


(conj.), if, freq.; causal, if, indeed, since, 2.102; equivalent to cum, 5.64, et al.; whether, w. subj., 4.110; w. indic., 1.578; for Ō sī, would that, w. subj., 6.187.

prīmus, a, um

(num. adj., superl. of prior), first in space, time, order, degree, or dignity (usually referring to three or more); first, foremost, 5.151; front, fore-, 5.566; nearest, 2.32; first part of, 1.541; edge, border, outskirt of, 9.244; chief, 9.785; earliest, first, 1.345; for the first time, 11.573; as an adv., 1.442; 6.810, et al.; in the earliest times, 1.1; prīma proelia, the beginning of battle, 12.103; subst., prīmum, ī, n., the chief concern, affair, work, 8.408; prīmī, ōrum, m., foremost, first, 2.494; prīma, ōrum, n., the first place, front, van, 10.157; first prize, 5.194; adv., prīmum, first, 2.375; ut prīmum, as soon as, 1.306; prīmō, at first, in the beginning, 4.176; in prīmīs, or imprīmīs, especially, chiefly, 1.303.

ā, ab, abs

(prep. with abl.), from, in relations of space, time, source, cause, and agency; from, 1.371; following a substantive directly, with ellipsis of participle, 1.160; at, on, to, 7.106; from the direction, on the side of, 5.19; in respect to, 11.174; according to, 9.235; from a period or point of time, 2.87; since, after, 1.730; (of persons), by, 2.429; ā tergō, from the rear, behind, 1.186; ab ūsque, as far as from, even from, 7.289. In composition, ab is unchanged before vowels and before i(= j), h, b, d, l, n, r, s; becomes abs before c, q, t, as before p; ā in āfui from absum; and au is used in auferō, from ab and ferō, and in aufugiō, from ab and fugiō.

urbs, urbis, f.

a city, especially a walled city, 1.12, et al.

deus, ī, m.

a god, deity, 1.9, et al.; in general, god the deity, 6.749; a goddess, 2.632; the god Bacchus; (meton.), wine, 9.337.

bellum, ī, n.

conflict; war, freq.; a battle, 8.629; personified, Bellum, war, the demon of war, 1.294. (duellum, cf. duo)

altus, a, um

raised high; high built, high, lofty, 5.489; on high, aloft, 11.837; high-born, noble, ancient, 4.230; renowned, 10.126; deep, deep or deeply, 12.357; subst., altum, ī, n., the deep; the lofty; the deep sea, the main, the deep, 1.3; the sky, heaven, air, 1.297; from far, far-fetched, remote, 8.395; pl., alta, ōrum, high places, heights of heaven, 6.787; heights, hills, 11.797; battlements, 9.169; alta petere, to aim high, 5.508; comp., altior, ius, higher, taller, 8.162; superl., altissimus, a, um, very high, 8.234. (alō, rear, cause to grow)

pater, tris, m.

a father, 1.60, et al.; sire, ancestor, forefather, 1.641; often for Jupiter, 1.60; applied to many of the gods, 5.241, et al; often to rivers and lakes; pl., parents, 2.579; elders, senators, fathers, chiefs, 4.682; pater Rōmānus, Augustus (or, perhaps, the Roman citizen), 9.449. (πατήρ)

vir, virī, m.

a man as distinguished by sex, 9.479, and freq.; husband, 2.744; hero, 6.415; pl., virī, ōrum, comrades, friends, 2.668; citizens, 1.264; people in general, 1.532.

ingēns, entis

(adj.), great, freq.; huge, enormous, 2.400; monstrous, vast, 3.658; mighty, giant-, 1.99; immense, 5.423; great, massive, 1.640; ponderous, 6.222; vast, spacious, 6.81; lofty, towering, 4.89; stately, 1.446; exalted, great, 2.325; dread, 7.241; fearful, 5.523.

medius, a, um

(adj.), mid, said of an inner point or part of a thing; midway, midst, 3.665, et al.; of one or of several objects, 1.440, et al.; of the location of a person or thing; intervening, between, 6.634; in the midst, 5.76; disturbing, untimely, 1.682; discordant, 1.348; subst., medius, iī, m., a mediator, 7.536.


(adv.), when, freq.; and then, 3.10; vel cum, then again, 11.406; (conj.), whereas, while, when, though, since, because, freq.

terra, ae, f.

the earth; a land, country, 3.13; land as opposed to sea or water, 1.598, et al.; to air, sky, 4.184, et al.; ground, 1.395; an estate, a farm, 6.811; pl., terrae, ārum, lands, for the sing., 6.18; the world, all lands, 4.607; orbis terrārum, the world, the whole earth, 1.233; sub terrās, to the lower world, 4.654; terram petere, to fall upon the ground prostrate in awe and fear, 3.93; in death, 10.489.


(adv.), in this manner; in such a manner; so, thus; explanatory, 2.440, et al.; referring to a preceding participle, 1.225.

animus, ī, m.

the rational spirit or soul of man; freq., the mind, 1.464, et al.; design, intention, purpose, 4.639; mind, memory, 1.26; the heart; feeling, disposition, affection, inclination, 1.304, et al.; pl., animī, ōrum, m., lofty spirit, heroism, 6.782; daring; courage, confidence, 2.617; strength; passion; anger, rage, 1.57; arrogance, pride, 11.366; fury, 10.357; of things, life, velocity, 7.383.

multus, a, um

(adj.), much, freq.; abundant, abounding, great, 3.151; powerful, 3.372; many a, 1.334; dense, thick, 1.412; pl., many, freq.; (compar.) plūs, plūris, n., more, freq.; pl., plūrēs, plūra, more, freq.; several, many; (superl.) plūrimus, a, um, the most; most abundant, greatest, 11.312; very much, abundant, great, 6.299; very large, high, 1.419; very many a, many a, 2.369; countless, 2.364.


(prep. with abl. and acc.); (with abl.), under, (denoting situation); beneath, under, freq.; at the foot of, 3.5; in the lower part of a thing, in, 1.453; down in, deep in, 1.36; by, close, to, 5.837; (of time), in, 4.560; (of rank or order), just behind, next after, 5.323; close to, in subjection to, subordinate to, under, 9.643; by reason of, under, 2.83; (with acc.), denoting tendency, down to, 4.243; down under, into, 4.654; down before, 6.191; near to, 5.327; in the midst of, 12.811; (of approaching the foot of some high object), up to or close to, 2.442; to or towards, 6.541; (of some object situated above or on high), up to, towards, 3.422, et al.; of time, just before or after; following after, in reply to, 5.394; coming under, subject to, under, 4.618; sub noctem, at nightfall, 1.662.

Turnus, ī, m.

the chief of the Rutulians, 7.56, et al.

dīcō, dīxī, dictus, 3, a. and n.

to say, 1.81; speak of, mention, 4.43; celebrate; tell, rehearse, relate, recount, 1.753; sing, recite, 6.644; name, call, 1.277; pronounce, 6.231; declare, 12.112; disclose, portend, foretell, 3.362; bid, 5.551; speak, say, 3.312; announce, 1.137.

tālis, e

(adj.), such, in kind or nature; correlative to quālis, such, 1.503; such, of such sort or kind, 1.74; without quālis, such as has been said, 1.50; such as follows; this, 1.131; so distinguished, so great, 1.335; so critical, 11.303; introducing a comparison, 9.710.

tēlum, ī, n.

a missile weapon, freq.; a bolt, 1.665; shaft, arrow, 1.191; spear, lance, javelin, 1.99; weapon, 2.447; point, 12.387; blow or caestus, 5.438.


(conj.), except that; but, yet, freq.; sed enim, but indeed, however, 1.19, et al.; sed autem, but yet, 2.101.

caelum, ī, n. (pl., caelī, ōrum, m.)

the sky, the firmament, the heavens; heaven, 1.225; region, 1.331; air, weather, 5.18; the upper world or abode of living men, as distinguished from Hades, 6.896; personif., Caelus, ī, m., the god Caelus, father of Saturn, 7.140.

ōs, ōris, n.

the mouth, 1.559; visage, face, countenance, 12.101; language, speech, words, 2.423; an entrance, door, 6.53; opening, 2.482; ōs summum, the lips, 1.737; pl., ōra, features, face, visage, form, countenance, 4.499; images, 4.62; ante ōra, before one's face, 12.82.


(prep. with abl.), with, 1.74, et al. With personal pronouns mē, tē, sē, etc., it is suffixed; as mēcum, tēcum, etc.; and usually with the relative; as quōcum, quibuscum, etc. In composition the archaic form com- is employed instead of cum; remaining unchanged before b, m, p; changed to con- before l, cor- before r, co- generally before vowels, h, and gn; and before all other letters, con-.

eō, īvī or iī, itus, īre, irreg. n.

to go; walk, come, 8.466; go forth, 2.578; depart, 2.111; issue, 4.130; advance, 12.903; move, appear, 4.149; ascend, 5.451; run down, flow, 9.434; hang, 5.558; enter upon, succeed to, inherit, 6.758; (w. cogn. acc.), to pursue, 4.468; (impers.), ītur, we, they, go, 9.641; p., iēns, euntis, going, etc., freq.


(adv.), here, there, 1.247, et al; of time, hereupon, thereupon, 1.728; now, then, here, 5.340; in this work, 10.73. (hīc)

teneō, uī, tentus, 2, a. and n.

to hold, in every sense, freq.; hold fast, grasp, 2.530; 12.754; cling to, 2.490; keep, hold, 1.482; inhabit, 1.12; gain, reach, 1.400; seize upon, 12.673; hold one's course through, traverse, 7.287; hold, direct one's way, 1.370; retain, 6.235; to have, inherit, 5.121; preserve, maintain, observe, 3.408; govern, rule, 1.236; detain, 1.670; withhold, forbid, 12.819; bind, control, 2.159; fill, possess, 1.132; keep in mind or memory; n., have possession, be master, 2.505; prīma tenēre, to take the lead, 10.157; sē tenēre, stand fast, 7.589. (rel. to tendō)

rēx, rēgis, m.

a king, freq.; chief, ruler, sovereign, 1.65; prince, 9.223.

ex or ē

(prep. w. abl.), out of from; of place, 3.554, and freq; down from, 2.410; of source, material, of, 5.266; (partitive), of, 2.659; (of time), after, from, since, 1.623; (of transition from one condition to another), 10.221; (of correspondence), in, 1.456; according to, after, 5.244; with, 8.621; ex eō, illō, quō (tempore), from that, from which, what, time; since, 8.268.

at and ast

(conj., denoting addition either with the notion of difference, or of decided opposition), but, 1.46; yet, still, after conditional propositions; in adding new particulars, and in transitions, but also, but, now, 4.1; denoting indignation, with execration, 2.535.

petō, īvī or iī, ītus, 3, a.

to fall upon, attack, assail, 3.603; seek, 1.181; strike, 11.9; advance towards, 2.213; follow up, pursue, 5.226; make for, 1.158; repair to, 1.519; hasten, approach to, 1.717; greet, 1.611; aim at, 5.508; (fig.), assail, try, 4.675; purpose, intend, 2.151; apply to, solicit, entreat, beg, beseech, crave, ask, seek, 4.433, et al.; w. inf., 7.96; petere terram, fall prostrate upon the ground, 3.93.

equus, ī, m.

a horse, 1.156, et al.

lītus, oris, n.

the seashore, beach, strand; shore, coast, 1.3, et al.; shore, 6.900.

corpus, oris, n.

the body, 1.484; body, form, frame, size, 3.427; mass, corporeal universe, 6.727; strength, 12.920; a ghost, shade, 6.303; summum corpus, the surface of the body, 12.376.

fātum, ī, n.

that which is decreed; fate, lot, destiny, 1.299; a prophecy, an oracle, 1.382; misfortune, destruction, death, 4.20; natural destiny, a natural death, 4.696; the (usual) limits of life, 11.160. (for)

Teucrī, ōrum, m.

the Trojans, descendants of Teucer, 1.38, et al.; adj., Teucrian, Trojan, 9.779, et al. (Teucer)

veniō, vēnī, ventus

to come, freq.; come forth; approach, 6.755; rise, appear, 1.353; dawn, 10.241; to present one's self or itself, 5.344; descend, spring from, 5.373; impers., ventum est, we, they came or have come, 4.151.

sequor, secūtus sum, 3, dep. a.

to follow, 1.185; follow closely, pursue, 5.227; seek after, pursue, 3.327; seek to reach, seek, 4.381; 10.193; pursue a plan or course, 3.368; compass, attain, find, 6.457; follow in narrative, recount, 1.342; follow; of words responding to the will, 12.912; yield to the hand, 6.146; attend, favor, 8.15.

pectus, oris, n.

the breast, 1.44; stomach, 5.182; (fig.), mind, 1.227; thought, 5.7; breast, heart, soul, feeling, freq.; spirit, courage, 6.261, et al.; personif.; person, soul, spirit, 2.349.

ut (utī)

(conj., denoting result), so that, 6.553, et al.; purpose; in order that, that, 1.685, et al.; with subj. for inf. and acc., that, 11.269.

tantus, a, um

(adj.), so great, such, regularly followed by quantus; alone, 1.606, et al.; explanatory, so great, such, 1.33, et al.; followed by quam, so great as, 6.352, et al.; in tantum, to such a degree or height, so high, 6.876; tantum — quantum, so great (such, so much) — as.


(prep. w. acc.), between; among, amid, in the midst of, 3.646, et al.; through, 2.782; in, 4.70; (implying both to and amid), 12.437; w. sē or sēsē, mutually, 4.193; one with another, 2.455; alternately, in turn, 5.433; against each other, 6.828; on or upon each other, 11.121.

tuus, a, um

your, yours. (tū)

vōx, vōcis, f.

a voice, 1.328; note, tone, 6.646; language, 12.825; response, answer, 2.119; sound, 3.556.


(prep. with abl.), from, of place, time, source, material, etc., freq.; out of; away from, 6.85; just from, on, 10.478; of 2.78; sprung from, 10.350; by, of, 4.327; according to, after, 1.318; over, upon, 6.502; concerning, for, about, 12.765.

superus, a, um

adj. (super), above, upper, supreme, 3.20; of the upper world as opposed to Hades, 2.91; 10.40; superae sēdēs, the sky, Olympus, 11.532; supera, the upper world, 7.562; the sky, heaven, 6.787; subst., superī, ōrum, m., those of the upper world, the living as opposed to the dead, 6.481; the gods above, or gods of Olympus as opposed to the infernal gods, 1.4; superl., suprēmus, a, um, the highest; most exalted, 10.350; illustrious, 7.220; extreme, 3.590; last, final, 2.11; subst., suprēmum, ī, n., the end, 12.803; pl., suprēma, ōrum, the last honors, rites, 6.213; (adv.), suprēmum, for the last time, 3.68; superl., summus, a, um, the uppermost, topmost, highest, 2.463; situated on a height; high, 2.166; the highest part of, summit of, top of, 2.302, et al.; surface of, 5.819, et al.; main, chief, 1.342; utmost, greatest, 5.197; supreme, 1.665; most important, 9.227; latest, last, 2.324, et al.; summa rēs, the chief or common interest, common weal, 11.302; the chief conflict, 2.322; subst., summum, ī, n., the top.

dextra (dextera), ae (sc. manus), f.

the right hand, 1.408; valor, 10.610; faith, a pledge, 7.366.

vocō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.

to call, name, 3.133; mention, speak of, 3.185; invoke, implore, 3.264; propitiate, 3.253; invite, 3.70; summon, 2.668; challenge, 6.172; incite, 7.614; assemble, rally, 7.508.

vīs, vīs, pl., vīrēs, vīrium

strength, force; persistence, industry, force, power, 2.452; keenness of scent, 4.132; might, 7.432; violence, fury, 1.69; hurt, injury, 3.242; pl., vīrēs, ium, physical power, strength, 2.639; military strength, power, resources, 2.170; natural power, 7.258; personal power, influence, 8.404.

unda, ae, f.

a wave, billow, 1.161; freq.; the sea, 3.202; water, river, stream, 9.22.

ferrum, ī, n.

iron; an iron implement or weapon; battleax, ax, 2.55; sword, 1.350; arms; dart, arrow, 4.71; spear, javelin, 9.410; war, 10.10; iron point, 1.313; 9.633; curling iron, 12.100.


(interj. expressing joy, grief, astonishment, desire, or indignation), O! oh! ah! w. voc., 2.281, et al.; w. sī and the subj., oh that, 11.415; sometimes placed after the word to which it relates, 2.281.

atque, or ac

(conj.), and in addition, or and besides; and, as well, and indeed, and, 1.575; freq.; even, 2.626; in comparisons, as, 4.90; than, 3.561.

agō, ēgī, āctus, 3, a.

to put in motion; to drive, 1.333; force, impel, 3.5; urge, incite, 7.393; advance, 9.505; move, turn, pursue, 10.540; drive away, dispel, lead, 4.546; send forth, raise, 6.873; rear by growth, 11.136; work, 3.695; work out, cut out, cleave, 10.514; convey, 1.391; bear onward, 3.512; bring, 9.18; do in general, 10.675; do, perform, 5.638; to be busy about, aim at, essay, try to accomplish, effect, gain, 11.227; treat, 1.574; derive, 12.530; consider, discuss, debate, 11.445; pass, spend, 5.51; (without an object), to be at work, to work, perform, 12.429; agere sē, to present one’s self, appear, 6.337; (pass.), agī, to move, hover, 12.336.


(adv.), not at all; not, 1.387, et al.

alius, a, ud (gen. alīus, dat. aliī)

(adj. and subst.), other, another; repeated; alius — alius, one — another; pl., aliī — aliī, some — others, 1.427, 428; used once for aliī— aliī, 4.593; (adv.), aliō (old abl.), elsewhere, to another place; aliās (acc. pl. fem., sc. vicēs), at another time.

āgmen, inis, n.

that which is driven or moved; direction of movement; a train; gathering, winding; herd, flock, drove, 1.186; an army, on the march; battalion, squadron, 5.834; army, 11.60; troop, band, 5.549; company, multitude, throng, 5.378; assemblage, gathering, flood; motion, stroke, of oars, 5.211; stream, current, 2.782; course, 2.212; a leader, 10.561. (agō)

rēs, reī, f.

a thing, in the most general sense; object, 1.450; treasure, store, 12.589; state, situation, condition, 1.563; circumstance; fortune, 1.204; affair, business, interest, 9.227; a side, party, cause, 3.54; 11.400; conflict, 9.154; misfortune, calamity, 1.462; commonwealth, state, empire, dominion, power, 1.268; action, deed, exploit, achievement, 1.641; adventure, fortune, 4.290; pl., the universe, 10.40; the world, 1.282; nature, creation, 9.131; rēs summa, the public interest, common weal, 11.302; the chief conflict, 2.322.

tōtus, a, um

(adj.), the whole, total, entire, 1.128, et al.; tōtō corpore, with all one's strength, 12.920.

sanguis, inis, m.

blood, 3.30, et al.; parentage, lineage, descent, race, 1.19; offspring, son, 6.835.

gēns, gentis, f.

a family stock or gens; a race; a clan or tribe, 10.202; nation, 1.17; people, 3.133; lineage, child, offspring, descendant, 10.228; descent, 11.331; (meton.), a country, land, 1.533; 11.324; pl., gentēs, ium, nations; the world. (genō, gignō)

socius, iī, m.

an associate, ally, 9.150; companion, friend, comrade, 1.198, et al.

ūnus, a, um (gen. ūnīus, dat. ūnī)

(num. adj.), one, 2.527, et al.; one alone, a single one (emphatically), 1.47; only, alone, 9.544; one in particular, 5.704; with a comparative, 1.15; with a superl., 2.426; with ante aliōs, 3.321; common, 5.308; one and the same, at once, 10.871; pl., one, 2.642; ad ūnum, to a man, without exception, utterly, 5.687; in ūnum, in one, together, 12.714; (adv.), ūnā, in one place or at one time, together with, at once, at the same time, 3.634, et al.; with -que following, 11.864.

possum, potuī, posse, irreg. n.

to be able; can, 1.242, et al.; to avail, have influence, power, 4.382. (potis and sum)

noster, tra, trum

(poss. adj. pron.), our, ours, our own, freq.; of us, or me, given by me, 12.51; favorable to us, auspicious, 12.187, et al. (nōs)

for, fātus sum, 1, dep. a. and n.

to speak, report, say, 1.131, 610; ger., fandī; cōpia fandī, opportunity of speaking, 1.520; fandō, by report, 2.81; while speaking, 2.6; p., fandus, a, um; subst., fandum, ī, n., that may be uttered; right, 1.543. (rel. to φημί)

dictum, ī, n.

a thing said; word, 1.197; command, precept, injunction, 1.695; promise, 8.643. (dīcō)

moenia, ium, n.

fortified walls, city walls, ramparts, fortifications, walls, 1.7; battlements, 11.506; town, city, 1.410; prison house, 6.549.

īgnis, is, m.

fire, 1.175, and freq.; torch, 7.320; conflagration, 2.312; light, 3.585; lightning, 1.90; fiery spirit; wrath, rage, fury, 2.575; 7.577; fire of love, passion, 4.2; the beloved; one's flame, love, firebrand or fiery missile, 7.692; pl., torches, 4.384.

nōmen, inis, n.

a name, 1.248, et al.; designation, name, indicating attribute, invention, gift for mischief, 7.337; word, 3.444; fame, renown, 2.583, et al. (nōscō)