Chapter 1.35

Hīs respōnsīs ad Caesarem relātīs, iterum ad eum Caesar lēgātōs cum hīs mandātīs mittit: quoniam tantō suō populīque Rōmānī beneficiō adfectus, cum in cōnsulātū suō rēx atque amīcus ā senātū appellātus esset, hanc sibi populōque Rōmānō grātiam referret ut in colloquium venīre invītātus gravārētur neque dē commūnī rē dīcendum sibi et cognōscendum putāret, haec esse quae ab eō postulāret: prīmum nē quam multitūdinem hominum amplius trāns Rhēnum in Galliam trādūceret; deinde obsidēs quōs habēret ab Aeduīs redderet Sēquanīsque permitteret ut quōs illī habērent voluntāte eius reddere illīs licēret; nēve Aeduōs iniūriā lacesseret nēve hīs sociīsque eōrum bellum īnferret. Sī id ita fēcisset, sibi populōque Rōmānō perpetuam grātiam atque amīcitiam cum eō futūram; sī nōn impetrāret, sēsē, quoniam M. Messālā, M. Pīsōne cōnsulibus senātus cēnsuisset utī quīcumque Galliam prōvinciam obtinēret, quod commodō reī pūblicae facere posset, Aeduōs cēterōsque amīcōs populī Rōmānī dēfenderet, sē Aeduōrum iniūriās nōn neglēctūrum.

Caesar sends an ultimatum, demanding that Ariovistus cease his oppression of the Gauls.

hīs respōnsīs: plural because Ariovistus’ answer consisted of several points (Walpole).      

iterum ad eum Caesar lēgātōs … mittit: Caesar’s object, in sending these ambassdors a second time, was purposely to irritate Ariovistus, and lead him on to some act of hostility (Anthon).

cum hīs mandātīs: “with these instructions” (Harkness) to the envoys, which were to be presented orally, and summarized in the passage that follows (Kelsey). The defiant reply of the king no doubt seemed to Caesar the height of impertinence (L-E).

quoniam … neglēctūrum: This portion of the chapter is reported in indirect discourse; converted to direct discourse it is as follows, with changes underlined: Quoniam tantō meō populīque Rōmānī beneficiō adfectus, cum in cōnsulātū meō rēx … appellātus sit, hanc mihi … grātiam refert, ut in colloquium venīre … gravētur neque dē commūnī rē dīcendum sibi … putet, haec sunt quae ab eō postulō: prīmum, nē quam multitūdinem … in Galliam trādūcat; deinde obsidēs quōs habet ab Aeduīs reddat, Sēquanīsque permittat ut quōs illī habent (habeant) voluntāte eius reddere …  liceat; nēve Aeduōs … lacessat, nēve hīs … bellum īnferat. Sī id ita fēcerit, mihiperpetua grātia … cum eō erit; sī nōn impetrābō, ego,˗quoniam … senātus cēnsuit utī quīcumque Galliam prōvinciam obtinēret … Aeduōs … dēfenderet,˗(ego) Aeduōrum iniūriās nōn neglegam. (A-G).

quoniam … putāret: a causal clause; quoniam (“since”) cannot introduce appellātus esset, because another conjunction, cum, comes between. It must, therefore, introduce referret (Hodges): “Since, though so greatly favored by the Romans, he made such an [ill] return (hanc grātiam referret) as to grudge coming to a conference when invited, and did not consider that he ought to speak or hear about their common business, [therefore] these were the demands he made / required of him … (etc.)” Observe that in Latin the significant word, the verb postulāret, becomes in English a noun (“demands”) (A-G).

tantō suō populīque Rōmānī beneficiō adfectus: participle with a concessive force: “though treated … ” (Walpole); “having been treated with such great kindness on his part and that of the Roman people” (Harkness). Ariovistus knew as well as anyone how much gratitude he owed to Rome for these beneficia (Moberly). Beneficiō, an ablative of manner (AG 412) (Walpole), is explained by cum … esset; and grātiam referret is explained by ut … putāret (A-G). Populī Rōmānī is subjective genitive (AG 343 note 1).

in cōnsulātū suō: i.e., during Caesar’s consulship of the previous year, 59 B.C. (Kelsey), after Ariovistus’ victory at Admagetos (M-T).

rēx atque amīcus ā senātū appellātus esset: The title of “king” bestowed by the senate was equivalent to the formal recognition of a foreign potentate (Spencer). The truth seems to be that in the strifes between the Aedui and Ariovistus the Roman senate thought it the best policy to stand in well with both sides. The senate therefore continued to profess friendship for the Aedui, but after they sustained a crushing defeat at Admagetos’s stronghold (see Chapter 31) it courted Ariovistus. To what extent Caesar was personally responsible for the conferring of the titles on Ariovistus, we do not know (Kelsey).

hanc … grātiam referret: “since he was making such a requital” (L-E); “since he made this return,” explained by the substantive clause ut …  gravārētur … putāret (Hodges). The plural of grātia is used in the sense of “thanks” with agō, the singular usually appears with other verbs (M-T).

ut in colloquium venīre … gravārētur: “that he raised objections to coming to a discussion” (Kelsey), explaining hanc grātiam (M-T). Venīre is dependent on gravārētur (M-T).

invītātus: “when he had been invited” (Kelsey).

neque … dīcendum sibi et cognōscendum putāret: sc. esse (Harkness): “and did not consider himself under obligation to discuss and take under advisement” (Kelsey); “and did not think it necessary to discuss and learn” (Hodges). The gerundives express necessity (AG 500). Cognōscere literally is “to find out” (what Caesar had to say) (M-T).

dē commūnī rē: “a matter of mutual interest” (Kelsey).

sibi … sibi: the first sibi refers to Caesar, and the second to Ariovistus (A-G).

haec esse quae ab eō pōstulāret: note the change of subject of pōstulāret to Caesar (Walpole): “the following were the demands he [Caesar] made of him [Ariovistus]” (L-E); “that these were [the things] which he demanded”; i.e., those which he now proceeds to specify. Esse depends upon a verb of saying implied in lēgātōs mittit (Harkness). This is the principal clause of the sentence (Hodges).

nē …  trāns Rhēnum … trādūceret: this and the following clauses are in apposition with haec. They have the form, therefore, which clauses depending on postulō regularly take (ut / nē + subjunctive), substantive purpose clause (AG 531) (Harkness). We may supply ut to introduce redderet and permitteret (Hodges). Observe the repetition of the preposition trāns (Hodges).

nē quam: “not any” (A-G); quam is shortened from aliquam.

hominum: partitive genitive (AG 346) with multitūdinem.

amplius: “in addition” (Kelsey), i.e., for the future (Walpole).

deinde: “in the next place” (Anthon).

Sēquanīsque permitteret: “and grant permission to the Sequani” (L-E); “and allow the Sequani” (Moberly).

ut quōs illī habērent voluntāte eius reddere illīs licēret: “that they might return (literally, “it might be allowed to them to return”) with his consent those which they had”; “to have his [Ariovistus’s] approval in returning [to the Aedui the hostages] which” (Kelsey). Notice the pleonasm of permitteret, voluntāte, and licēret which all contain the same idea (Moberly).

voluntāte eius: “with his full consent”; eius refers to Ariovistus (Anthon).

quōs illī, illīs: The antecedent of quōs is the omitted object of reddere (H-T), i.e., obsidēs. Illī and illīs refer to the Sequani (A-G).

nēve … nēve: regularly used for et nē. It introduces Caesar’s third demand, which, like the second, is in two parts: “and not … .nor” (Hodges).

hīs sociīsque: dative indirect object with the compound verb inferret (AG 370): “to wage war upon them and their allies.”

sī [id] ita fēcisset: sc. Ariovistus as subject (Walpole). Ita is not strictly necessary to the thought, but is often thus combined with id in Caesar (Harkness). Fēcisset stands for a future perfect indi-cative (Stock) in a future more vivid condition included as part of an indirect discourse (AG 583)

sibi populōque Rōmānō … futūram: sc. esse: “that he [Caesar] and the Roman people would have” (L-E). Sibi refers to Caesar (Hodges); dative of the possessor (AG 373).

perpetuam grātiam: “lasting favor / gratitude” (Kelsey).

sī nōn impetrāret: “if he should not obtain his request” (Hodges); “if he fail in obtaining his demands” (M-T), i.e., this pledge or assurance (A-G).

sēsē: the subject of neglectūrum [esse] (Hodges), i.e., Caesar.

M. Messālā, M. Pīsōne cōnsulibus: this was in 61 B.C. (A.U.C. 693). Caesar was in that year appointed to the province of Further Spain as propraetor (Spencer). Ablative of time when (AG 423.1).

senātus cēnsuisset: “the senate had decreed” (Anthon). Cēnseō was the word used by senators       in declaring their vote or opinion (sententia) in a debate; so here it is used of the resolution of the whole body (M-T). This decree of the senate was the only result of the entreaties of Diviciacus         (Chapter 31), and no governor had paid any attention to it, as Ariovistus very well knew (Stock).

quīcumque … obtinēret: “whoever should hold (as governor)” (A-G), i.e., might govern for the time being (Anthon). This important government was always held by one of the outgoing consuls (Walpole). Subjunctive in indirect discourse (AG 583), being a part of the senātūs cōnsultum, which is itself dependent on indirect discourse, as part of Caesar’s answer to Ariovistus (M-T).

quod … dēfenderet: quod = quantum (Anthon) or quoad (Spencer): “should, as far as he could do so consistently with the interests of the republic, protect … ,” i.e., should take care that, while he was protecting the Aedui and the other friendly states, none of the more important interests of the Roman people were jeopardized by the step. This refers to the clause Aeduōs …  dēfenderet as its antecedent, and is itself the object of facere (Harkness). Ariovistus knew also the reasons of this decree (see Chapter 33) (Moberly).

quod commodō reī pūblicae … facere posset: “so far as he could do so consistently with the public interests / benefit of the state” (H-T); “ … to the advantage of the state” (A-G); literally “as regards that which he could do … ” (M-T). Quod commodō reī pūblicae … posset is a common formula in decrees of the senate (L-E). Commodō is ablative of specification (AG 418) (A-G) or ablative of manner (AG 412) (M-T); reī pūblicae is objective genitive (AG 348).

dēfenderet: the purpose of this decree was to induce the tribes of central Gaul to oppose the emigration of the Helvetii. It was passed in the interest of Rome, not Gaul, and Ariovistus knew this (L-E).

sē Aeduōrum iniūriās nōn neglēctūrum: sc. esse: “that he would not leave unnoticed the outrages done to the Aedui,” a threat sufficiently forceful, although veiled (Kelsey). is a repetition of the previous sēsē on account of the long parenthesis (A-G). Aeduōrum is objective genitive (AG 348) with iniūriās.

respōnsum, -ī n.: answer.

mandātum, -ī n.: charge, injunction, order, commission.

cōnsulātus, -ūs m.: consul's term; consulship, consulate.

conloquium, -ī n.: conference, conversation, interview.

invītō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: invite, urge, induce, attract.

gravor, -ārī, -ātus: be unwilling, hesitate.

postulō, -āre, -āvī, -ātūs: demand, request, require, call for; make necessary.

trans: prep. with acc., across, over, to the further side of; beyond, on the other side of; through. In comp., across, over, through.

Rhēnus, -ī, m.: the Rhine, a large river forming the boundary between Gaul and Germany.

Gallia, -ae f.: Gaul

trādūcō, -dūcere, -dūxī, -ductus: lead across, bring over; win over; transfer, promote.

obses, -sidis m. and f.: hostage.

Aeduus, -a, -um: Aeduan; as subst., m., a Aeduan; pl., the Aedui, a prominent tribe of Gaul, usually friendly to the Romans

Sēquanī, -ōrum m.: the Sequani, a tribe of eastern Gaul, west of the Jura Mountains

nēve or neu: conj., and that . . . not, and lest, and not, nor.

lacessō, lacessere, lacessīvī, lacessītus: provoke; challenge, harass, attack.

nēve or neu: conj., and that . . . not, and lest, and not, nor.

socius, -ī m.: comrade; confederate, ally.

Rōmānus, -a, -um: Roman; as subst., m., a Roman; pl., Romans, the Romans.

impetrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: accomplish; ask and receive, obtain on request, get.

M.: the abbreviation for the praenomen Mārcus, Marcus, Mark.

Messāla, -ae, m.: Messala, a Roman cognomen; Marcus Valerius Messala, consul in 61 b.c.

Pīsō, -ōnis, m.: Piso, a Roman cognomen: (1) Lucius Calpurnius Piso, consul in 58 b.c., father-in-law of Caesar; (2) Lucius Calpurnius Piso, grandfather of (1); (3) Marcus Pupius Piso, consul in 61 b.c.; (4) Piso, an Aquitanian of high rank.

obtineō, -tinēre, -tinuī, -tentus: hold against (another), hold fast, hold, possess, keep, occupy; preserve, maintain; get possession of, gain.

commodum, -ī n.: convenience, profit, advantage, blessing.

rēs publica reī publicae f.: republic

neglegō, -legere, -lēxī, -lēctus: disregard, neglect, overlook, be indifferent to.

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Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-02-3.