Chapter 1.3

Hīs rēbus adductī et auctōritāte Orgetorīgis permōtī, cōnstituērunt ea quae ad proficīscendum pertinērent comparāre, iūmentōrum et carrōrum quam māximum numerum coëmere, sēmentēs quam māximās facere ut in itinere cōpia frūmentī suppeteret, cum proximīs cīvitātibus pācem et amīcitiam cōnfīrmāre. Ad eās rēs cōnficiendās biennium sibi satis esse dūxērunt: in tertium annum profectiōnem lēge cōnfīrmant. Ad eās rēs cōnficiendās Orgetorīx dēligitur. Is sibi lēgātiōnem ad cīvitātēs suscēpit. In eō itinere persuādet Casticō, Catamantāloedis fīliō Sēquanō, cūius pater rēgnum in Sēquanīs multōs annōs obtinuerat et ā senātū populī Rōmānī amīcus appellātus erat, ut rēgnum in cīvitāte suā occupāret, quod pater ante habuerat; itemque Dumnorīgī Aeduō frātrī Dīviciācī, quī eō tempore prīncipātum in cīvitāte obtinēbat āc māximē plēbī acceptus erat, ut idem cōnārētur persuādet, eīque fīliam suam in mātrimōnium dat. Perfacile factū esse illīs probat cōnāta perficere, proptereā quod ipse suae cīvitātis imperium obtentūrus esset: nōn esse dubium quīn tōtīus Galliae plūrimum Helvētiī possent; sē suīs cōpiīs suōque exercitū illīs rēgna conciliātūrum cōnfīrmat. Hāc ōrātiōne adductī inter sē fidem et iūs iūrandum dant, et rēgnō occupātō per trēs potentissimōs āc fīrmissimōs populōs tōtīus Galliae sēsē potīrī posse spērant.

The Helvetii make preparations. Orgetorix conspires with other chiefs.

his rebus adducti: ‘Prompted by these considerations’ (Kelsey); ‘induced by these considerations’ (Harper & Tolman)

pertinerent: the subjunctive is used because Caesar is not giving his own opinion as to what preparations were required, but that of the Helvetii: 'to make the necessary preparations' means 'to make the preparations which, as they considered, were necessary' (Rice Holmes) ( AG 592). Subjunctive in a relative clause of characteristic (AG 534) (Patty Lister).

quam maximum numerum: 'as great a number as possible' or 'as many...as possible'. (Walker) ( AG 291.c)

ut copia suppeteret: 'in order that a supply might be at hand' (Walker)

ad eas res conficiendas biennium sibi satis esse duxerunt: Ad…conficiendas: gerundive construction ‘to complete these preparations’ (Kelsey); Biennium satis esse: ‘that two years would be sufficient’ (Kelsey); Duxerunt: here a verb of thought; ‘they reckoned’ (Kelsey); Biennium…duxerunt: ‘they judged that two years were sufficient’ (Walker)

ad…conficiendas: ‘to carry out these arrangements’ (Kelsey) ( AG 506)

in tertium annum: in tertium annum means directly after the end of the two years' preparation; we might say, 'at the beginning of the third year'.

civitates: ‘clans,’ such as the Aedui, Sequani, &c., - about 60 in all, - whose territory had no local name, but was known only by that of the clan, which was sovereign and wholly independent, except for voluntary alliances. (Allen & Judson)

cuius pater...appellatus erat: this clause is parenthetical; in working out the sentence, omit it until the rest has been thoroughly grasped. Then go back and read this clause; then read the entire sentence. (Towle and Jenks)

amicus: the Romans sometimes gave this distinction to barbarian chiefs whose aid they wished to gain. (Towle and Jenks)

itemque: Item: ‘also’ (Kelsey, 10)

qui: i.e. Dumnorix

principatum…obtinebat: Principatum: ‘the foremost place’ (Kelsey); Distinct from regnum, and implying the influential position in his tribe of a man of high birth, wealth, and military distinction. ‘Who at that time held a leading position in his state.’ (Merryweather & Tancock); ‘highest rank,’ as distinct from political power. (Allen & Greenough)

factu: ‘of accomplishment,’ lit. ‘in respect to the doing’ (Kelsey)( AG 510).

probat: ‘He showed them’ (Kelsey).

obtenturus esset: ‘he was going to seize’ (Kelsey)

Non esse dubium: ‘that there was no doubt’ (Kelsey)

quin…possent: ‘that the Helvetians were the most powerful (people) in all Gaul, ‘ lit. ‘were able the most of the whole (of) Gaul’ (Kelsey); Quin…plurimum…possent: ‘that the Helvetii were the most powerful nation of Gaul.’ ‘Possum’ means here absolutely ‘to be powerful:’ not prolatively, ‘to be able to do a thing.’ (Moberly) ( AG 558.a)

regno occupato: ‘having seized the supreme power’ (Kelsey); ‘in case they should get in their hands the royal power’ (Allen & Greenough)

per-mŏvĕo, -mŏvēre, -mōvi, -mōtum: to stir up, rouse up, excite; to influence, lead, induce, persuade, prevail on

cōn-stituō -stituere -stituī -stitūtum: determine to do (something), resolve to, decide to

iūmentum -ī n.: beast of burden

carrus -ī m.: cart 

cŏ-ĕmo, -ĕre, -ēmi, -emptum: buy in large quantities, buy up

sēmentis, -is f.: a sowing, planting

suppĕto, -ĕre, -īvi or ĭi, -ītum: be in store, be at hand; suffice

confirmo, -are: to make firm, establish

bĭennĭum, -i n.: space of two years

prŏfectĭo, -ōnis f.: departure

dē-lĭgo, -ĕre, -lēgi, -lectum: choose, select

lēgātĭo, -ōnis f.: the office of an ambassador, an embassy, a legation

persuādĕo, -ere, -si, -sum: persuade

Casticus, -i m. a Gallic chieftain

Catamantaloedis, -is m. a Gallic chieftain, father of Casticus

Sequanus -i m.: Gallic tribe

Dumnorix, -igis m.: Dumnorix, a Aeduan chieftan, brother of Diviacus

Aeduus, -a, -um: of the Aedui, one of the most powerful of the Gallic tribes

Diviciacus, -i m.: a chief of the Aedui, friendly to the Romans

princĭpātus, ūs, m.: the chief place in the state or the army, the post of commander-in-chief

obtĭnĕo, -ere, -tĭnŭi, -tentum: to take hold of, assert, maintain

acceptus, -a, -um: welcome, pleasant, agreeable

mātrĭmōnĭum, -ii n.: marriage

perfăcĭlis, -e: very easy

factus, -ūs m.: a making, building

perfĭcĭo, -ere, -fēci, -factus: achieve, execute, accomplish, finish

proptĕrĕā: for that cause, on that account; proptĕrĕā quod, 'for the reason that', 'because'

Gallia, -ae f.: Gaul, roughly equivalent to modern France

Helvetii, -orum m.: the Helvetii or Helvetians. historical map

concĭlĭo, -āre: to procure, provide, prepare, produce something for one

confirmo, -āre: to make firm, establish, strengthen, confirm

iūs iūrandum: an oath

firmus, -a, -um: firm, strong, stout

pŏtĭor, -īrī, -ītus sum: to become master of, to take possession of, to get, obtain, acquire (+ abl.)

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Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-02-3. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/caesar/book-1/chapter-1-3