Chapter 1.32

Hāc ōrātiōne ab Dīviciācō habitā, omnēs quī aderant magnō flētū auxilium ā Caesare petere coepērunt.  Animadvertit Caesar ūnōs ex omnibus Sēquanōs nihil eārum rērum facere quās cēterī facerent sed trīstēs capite dēmissō terram intuērī. Eius reī quae causa esset mīrātus ex ipsīs quaesiit. Nihil Sēquanī respondēre, sed in eādem trīstitiā tacitī permanēre. Cum ab hīs saepius quaereret neque ūllam omnīnō vōcem exprimere posset, īdem Dīviciācus Aeduus respondit: hōc esse miseriōrem et graviōrem fortūnam Sēquanōrum quam reliquōrum, quod sōlī nē in occultō quidem querī neque auxilium implōrāre audērent absentisque Ariovistī crūdēlitātem, velut sī cōram adesset, horrērent; proptereā quod reliquīs tamen fugae facultās darētur, Sēquanīs vērō, quī intrā fīnēs suōs Ariovistum recēpissent, quōrum oppida omnia in potestāte eius essent, omnēs cruciātūs essent perferendī.

The desperate lot of the Sequani, showing what might happen to all.

hāc ōrātiōne habitā: the idiom ōrātiōnem habēre means “to deliver / give a speech.”

magnō flētū: = multīs cum lacrimīs (Walker); ablative of manner (AG 412). The shedding of tears by men was much more common among the Gauls and Romans than among us (Hodges). Caesar often mentions the demonstrative manners of the Gauls (Kelsey).

auxilium ā Caesare petere: the Gauls failed to see that they were simply changing masters in appealing to Caesar against Ariovistus (Kelsey).

ūnōs … Sēquanōs: Ūnōs used in the plural with Sēquanōs, which, as the name of a people, is a word without singular, i.e., it is plural in form and singular in sense (L-E): “the Sequani alone.” Some commentators think it altogether incredible that the Sequani, who had invited Ariovistus into Gaul against the Aedui, and who had been accustomed to wage continual wars with them, should now be found acting in concert with the delegates of the latter people. The cruelty and oppression of Ariovistus, however, which the Sequani had experienced in a still stronger degree than even the Aedui, had very naturally brought about this result, and united in one common cause those who had previously been open enemies to each other. It will be seen, moreover, from Chapter 35, that the Sequani were desirous of restoring to the Aedui the hostages which they had in their possession belonging to that nation, if Ariovistus would allow this to be done (Anthon).*

nihil eārum rērum: “none of those things,” i.e., supplications and tears (Kelsey); eārum rērum is partitive genitive (AG 346) dependent on nihil.

quās cēterī facerent: relative clause with subjunctive in indirect discourse, as containing part of Caesar’s thought (animadvertit) (L-E).

trīstēs: “disconsolately” (Hodges).

capite dēmissō: “with bowed head”; ablative absolute (AG 419), where the old instrumental notion can be seen (H-T), or ablative of manner, which never takes cum (AG 412) (Walker).

intuērī: “looked upon” (Hodges).

eius reī: “of this [behavior],” i.e., their silence and sadness (Harkness).

quae causa esset: indirect question after mīrātus (AG 574) (A-G).

respondēre, permanēre: historical infinitives (AG 463) in place of the imperfects respondēbant and permanēbant (Anthon).

eādem trīstitiā: their demeanor was intended as an appeal to the pity of Caesar (Kelsey).

saepius: “again and again” (Hodges).

quaereret: a pluperfect would seem more natural (Stock).

vōcem exprimere: “to extort an answer” (Harkness); “to force out an utterance” (Hodges); “to elicit a response”; the phrase is used in reference to one who compels another to speak (Anthon).

Aeduus: ironically, an Aeduan is now speaking for the Sequani, who were formerly bitter enemies of the Aeduans (Hodges).

hōc esse … perferendī: Diviciacus’ response is reported in indirect discourse. Here it is converted to direct discourse, with changes underlined:  Hōc estgravior fortūna Sēquanōrum …  quod sōlī nē in occultō quidem querī … audent; absentisque Ariovistī crūdēlitātem, vēlut sī cōram adsit, horrent, proptereā quod reliquīs tamen fugae facultās datur, Sēquanīs vērō, quī …  Ariovistum recēpērunt, quōrum oppida … in potestāte eius sunt, omnēs cruciātūs sunt perferendī.

hōc: “in this respect” (A-G); “on this account” (Anthon), explained by the following quod-clause (Hodges). Ablative of cause (AG 404) (Stock).

quam reliquōrum: sc. fortūnam: “than that of the rest” (Harkness).

in occultō quidem: “not even in hiding”; notice the position of nē … quidem before and after the emphatic word or phrase (A-G).

audērent: subjunctive in a subordinate quod-clause that is part of indirect discourse (AG 580).

absentis: “even when absent” (A-G); “though absent” (Harkness). A present participle used for a concessive clause (Kelsey).

crūdēlitātem horrērent: the old signification of the verb horrēre had the intransitive sense of “to bristle” or “become erect” (H-T). Used transitively with a direct object we may say something like “to shudder [in horror] at” (Hodges); this is the only instance in Caesar where horrēre is used transitively (L-E). In Latin horrēre applies always to disagreeable sensations, as fear, dread, etc., although the root originally admitted the idea of both pleasure and pain (H-T).

velut sī cōram adesset: “just as if he were there in person”; the imperfect subjunctive adesset would be used also in the direct discourse, since this is a present contrary-to-fact condition (AG 517) (Hodges).

cōram: = co-ōram, compounded of cum and ōs, ōris, literally meaning “face to face,” and so used only with persons (L-E).

tamen: “at any rate,” as a last resort (Hodges), though they could not resist Ariovistus (Stock); “in spite (of all they had suffered)” (M-T).  Before this word a clause is understood with this meaning: although the others may not be able to take vengeance on Ariovistus, or expel him, still (tamen) they may take to flight (Moberly).

reliquīs fugae facultās darētur: “the rest might possibly escape from Ariovistus” (M-T); “to the others the means of escape was offered” (Harkness), i.e., they still had it in their power to escape his cruelty by flight (Anthon).

Sēquanīs: dative of agent (AG 374) with the passive periphrastic essent perferendī (A-G): “the Sequani must endure” (A-G).

quōrum oppida omnia in potestāte eius essent: this is explained a little farther on (Chapter 44) where Ariovistus states that he had settlements in Gaul granted by the people of that country themselves. These settlements were the towns which he had first gotten possession of by agreeing to garrison and defend them, and which he subsequently retained in order to keep the Sequani and other Gauls under his control (Anthon). The Sequani still held Vesontio (Besançon), which was their strongest fortified place (see Chapter 38) (Hodges).

omnēs cruciātūs: “all [possible] kinds of cruelties” (Anthon).

Dīviciācus, -ī, m.: Diviciacus: (1) a druid, one of the Aedui. He was brother of Dumnorix, but, unlike the latter, was friendly to the Romans; (2) a king of the Suessiones.

flētus, -ūs m.: weeping, lamenting.

animadvertō, -vertere, -vertī, -versus: turn the thoughts toward, give attention to, notice, perceive; animadvertere in, take notice of, take measures against, punish; cf. animum advertere.

Sēquanī, -ōrum m.: the Sequani, a tribe of eastern Gaul, west of the Jura Mountains

dēmissus, -a, -um: bowed; low.

intueor, -tuērī, -tuitus: look upon.

trīstitia, -ae f.: sadness, sorrow, dejection.

tacitus, -a, -um: silent.

permaneō, -manēre, -mānsī, -mānsūrus: stay, remain; continue, hold out.

omnīnō: adv., wholly, entirely, utterly; in all; only; at all.

exprimō, -primere, -pressī, -pressus: force out, extort; carry up.

Aeduus, -a, -um: Aeduan; as subst., m., a Aeduan; pl., the Aedui, a prominent tribe of Gaul, usually friendly to the Romans.

quod: conj., that, in that, because, since; as to the fact that: the fact that.

occultus, -a, -um: covered up, hidden, secret; ex occultō, in (from) ambush; sē in occultum abdere, go into hiding; in occultō, in a secret place, secretly

implōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: beg, entreat.

Ariovistus, -ī, m.: Ariovistus, a German chief, or king.

crūdēlitās, -ātis f.: harshness, cruelty, barbarity.

cōram: adv., present, before one's eyes, face to face, in person.

horreō, horrēre, horruī: bristle; shudder at, dread.

proptereā: adv., therefore, on that account; proptereā quod, for the reason that, because.

facultās, -ātis f.: ability, power; opportunity, chance, occasion, leave; supply, abundance; pl., resources.

cruciātus, -ūs m.: torment, torture.

perferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus: bear through, bear; endure, submit to, suffer; carry, announce, report.

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Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-02-3.