Chapter 1.19

Quibus rēbus cognitīs, cum ad hās suspīciōnēs certissimae rēs accēderent, quod per fīnēs Sēquanōrum Helvētiōs trādūxisset, quod obsidēs inter eōs dandōs cūrāsset, quod ea omnia nōn modo iniussū suō et cīvitātis sed etiam īnscientibus ipsīs fēcisset, quod ā magistrātū Aeduōrum accūsārētur, satis esse causae arbitrābātur quārē in eum aut ipse animadverteret aut cīvitātem animadvertere iubēret. Hīs omnibus rēbus ūnum repugnābat, quod Dīviciācī frātris summum in populum Rōmānum studium, summam in sē voluntātem, ēgregiam fidem, iūstitiam, temperantiam cognōverat; nam nē eius suppliciō Dīviciācī animum offenderet verēbātur. Itaque prius quam quicquam cōnārētur, Dīviciācum ad sē vocārī iubet et, cōtīdiānīs interpretibus remōtīs, per C. Valerium Procillum, prīncipem Galliae prōvinciae, familiārem suum, cui summam omnium rērum fidem habēbat, cum eō colloquitur: simul commonefacit quae ipsō praesente in conciliō Gallōrum dē Dumnorige sint dicta, et ostendit quae sēparātim quisque dē eō apud sē dīxerit.  Petit atque hortātur, ut sine eius offēnsiōne animī vel ipse dē eō causā cognitā statuat, vel cīvitātem statuere iubeat.

Though convinced of the treachery of Dumnorix, Caesar consults his brother Diviciacus before taking action against him.

quibus rēbus cognitīs: quibus = hīs: “having found out these things” (Kelsey); understand the information contained in the preceding chapter as the antecedent of quibus rēbus.

suspīciōnēs: “grounds for suspicion” (Kelsey).

cum certissimae rēs accēderent: “since the most clearly proven facts (“the most undoubted facts” (Anthon)) were added” (L-E), referring to the facts mentioned in the subsequent quod clauses (Harkness). Accēdō is used as a kind of passive of addō (A-G).

quod … trādūxisset: “the fact that (as he learned) he had led.” The verbs in this and the subsequent quod clauses are in the subjunctive on the principal of implied or informal indirect discourse (AG 592) (A-G); these clauses are in apposition with rēs, but also involve reasons in the mind of Caesar (arbitrābātur) at the time of the event; hence the subjunctive. A reason assigned by Caesar as historian would require the indicative (Harkness). Note the repetition of quod (anaphora) in this and the next several clauses (Walpole).

quod obsidēs … dandōs cūrāsset: sc esse; cūrāsset = cūrāvisset: “whereas he had caused hostages to be exchanged” (Hodges); “the fact that he had procured an exchange of hostages (M-T).

inter eōs: i.e., the Helvetii and Sequani (A-G).

iniussū suō et cīvitātis: “without his authority or that of the state,” i.e., of the Aedui (Harkness); here suō is equivalent to a genitive (A-G). Iniussū is the ablative vestige of an obsolete noun (M-T).

īnscientibus ipsīs: “but even without the knowledge of the latter” (Anthon), literally, “they themselves not knowing” (Harkness). Ipsīs refers to Caesar and the Aedui, the latter implied in cīvitātis (Harkness).

quod … accūsārētur: “an offence of which he was accused” (Moberly).

ā magistrātū Aeduōrum: i.e., by Liscus, their chief magistrate or vergobretus (see Chapter 14) (Harkness).

satis esse causae: “there was sufficient reason,” literally, “enough of cause” (Harkness); causae is partitive genitive with satis, which is used as a noun (A-G).

quārē in eum aut ipse animadverteret aut cīvitātem animadvertere iubēret: quārē = propter quam (Kelsey): “why he should either himself punish him, or order the state (of the Aedui) to do so” (Anthon). Animadvertere literally means “to turn one’s attention toward” (Hodges), “to notice.” So especially of a magistrate, animadvertere in aliquem is “to take note of an offender for punishment” (M-T); this phrase always denotes that the conduct deemed reprehensible has been carefully inquired into previous to its being punished (Anthon). Relative clause of result introduced by the relative particle quārē (AG 537.2) (Harkness).

hīs omnibus rebus: “to all these considerations” (Moberly), i.e., the reasons which led to the conclusion that Dumnorix must be punished (Spencer).

ūnum repugnābat: “one fact opposed” (L-E); “one consideration weighed against”; ūnum refers to quod … verēbātur; i.e., though there were several reasons for punishing Dumnorix, there was yet one objection to this course (Harkness).

Dīviciācī frātris: Diviciacus, though a Druid of high rank, was the most Romanized of all the Gauls. In 63 B.C. he had gone to Rome to obtain help for his country against Ariovistus. The Senate being occupied at the time with Catiline’s conspiracy, deferred their answer; and Diviciacus remained at Rome, frequenting the best society, and enjoying the acquaintance of Cicero, who consulted him, as a Druid, on the subject of his treatise Dē Dīvinātiōne (Moberly).

quod … cognōverat: “that he well knew … ” The present inceptive cognoscō, has the meaning “to learn, begin to know”; hence in the perfect, “I have learned, I know” (H-T). This clause, in apposition with ūnum (“only one thing”), might in English be introduced by some such word as “namely” (A-G).

studium: “loyalty” (Harkness), “devotion” (Kelsey), “attachment,” as a partisan (A-G).

voluntātem: “affection,” here equivalent to benevolentia (Anthon), “good will” as a friend. Note the absence of connectives (asyndeton) in vivid narration (A-G).

ēgregiam fidem: “remarkable trustworthiness” (Kelsey).

temperantiam: “self-control” (Kelsey).

nē … offenderet verēbātur: “he feared that he would offend”; + subjunctive forms a positive fear clause with a verb of fearing (AG 564). Observe the force of the imperfect: “was fearing,” “was fearful” (Harkness).

eius: i.e., of Dumnorix (A-G).

suppliciō: “by the punishment” or “execution.” This word is derived from the adjective supplex, “bent down,” signifying “on the bended knee”; i.e., either as a suppliant for mercy, or, as here, to receive the blow of the executioner (A-G).

prius quam quicquam cōnārētur: “before he ventured on anything” (L-E), “before he should attempt anything” (AG 551b) (A-G).

Dīviciācum … vocārī: “that Diviciacus be summoned” (Kelsey).

cotīdiānīs interpretibus remōtīs: “having dismissed his ordinary (literally, “daily”) interpreters” (Harkness). Diviciacus, norwithstanding his visit to Rome, had evidently not learned to speak Latin; and Caesar did not understand Celtic (Kelsey).

per C. Valerium Procillum, prīncipem Galliae prōvinciae: this name is written variously in the MSS. as Troacillum, Traucillum and Procillum; “a leading man in the province of Gaul,” prīncipem here equivalent to inter prīmōrēs (Anthon). Galliae and prōvinciae are in apposition, the latter qualifying the former like an adjective, “of provincial Gaul” (M-T). Per is used here in the sense of “by means of” or “through the assistance of.”

familiārem: “intimate friend” (Kelsey)..

cui summam … fidem habēbat: fidem habēbat is equivalent to a verb meaning “trusted” (Hodges). An easier construction would be cuius fideī omnēs rēs crēdēbat (A-G): “in whom he was accustomed to place the highest trust” (Anthon), “in whom he had the utmost confidence” (Kelsey). The dative cui depends on fidem habēbat, which together are equivalent to a verb of trusting, like confidō, which takes dative (AG 367).

omnium … rerum: “in all respects” (Hodges), “on every occasion” (Anthon). Rērum is objective genitive with fidem (AG 348).

cum eō: i.e., with Diviciacus (A-G).

simul: construe with et: “and he at once reminds him … ” (Harkness).

commonefacit: “reminds” or “notifies” (A-G), “he called to mind” (Kelsey).

ipsō praesente: “in his (i.e., Diviciacus’s) very presence” (A-G).

quae … sint dicta, quae … dīxerit: subjunctives in indirect questions (AG 574) (Hodges).

ostendit: some editors omit this verb because commonefacit precedes it. But its presence is necessary for the meaning. Caesar “reminds” Diviciacus of certain things that had been said in the council, and now “shows” him other matters that were not previously known to the latter (Anthon).

quisque: “each one,” giving his individual information or opinion; omnēs would mean “all,” giving the same information or expressing the same opinion (Hodges).

apud sē: “in his (i.e., Caesar’s) presence” (A-G).

petit atque hortātur ut … statuat: “he besought and urged (Diviciacus)” (Kelsey); “begs and urges Diviciacus to allow him to hear and adjudge the case of Dumnorix”. Ut … statuat stands for ut statuere liceat, as is common after verbs of asking (M-T). Statuere, “to pass judgment,” is a somewhat milder word than animadvertere (Hodges).

vel cīvitātem statuere iubeat: “or that he direct the state (of the Aeduans) to pronounce judgment” (Kelsey).

sine eius offēnsiōne animī: “without any offence to his (Diviciacus’s) feelings” (Anthon); “without wounding his feelings” (Hodges). Caesar hopes, in what steps he takes or orders to be taken against Dumnorix, not to incur the resentment of his brother (A-G).

ipse: i.e., Caesar (A-G).

dē eō: i.e., “concerning [the fate of] Dumnorix.”

causā cognitā: “after investigating the case” (Hodges). Cognoscere is used in the sense of “making a legal inquiry,” “hearing a case” (M-T).

cīvitātem: i.e., the Aedui (Anthon).

suspīciō, -ōnis f.: mistrust, distrust, suspicion.

quod : conj., that, in that, because, since; as to the fact that: the fact that.

Sēquanī, -ōrum m. : the Sequani, a tribe of eastern Gaul, west of the Jura Mountains

Helvētius, -a, -um: Helvetian; as subst., m., a Helvetian; pl., the Helvetii, a rich and powerful tribe, whose country was nearly the same as modern Switzerland.

trādūcō, -dūcere, -dūxī, -ductus : lead across, bring over; win over; transfer, promote.

obses, -sidis m. and f.: hostage.

(iniussus, -ūs) m.: found only in the abl. sing. iniussū, without orders.

īnsciēns, -entis : adj., not knowing, unaware.

magistrātus, -ūs m.: magistracy, public office; municipal officer, magistrate; body of magistrates.

Aeduus, -a, -um: Aeduan; as subst., m., an Aeduan; pl., the Aedui, a prominent tribe of Gaul, usually friendly to the Romans

accūsō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus : accuse, blame, chide.

animadvertō, -vertere, -vertī, -versus : turn the thoughts toward, give attention to, notice, perceive; animadvertere in, take notice of, take measures against, punish; cf. animum advertere.

repugnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus : fight back, resist, defend oneself, oppose; be an objection.

Dīviciācus, -ī, m. : Diviciacus: (1) a druid, one of the Aedui. He was brother of Dumnorix, but, unlike the latter, was friendly to the Romans; (2) a king of the Suessiones.

Rōmānus, -a, -um : Roman; as subst., m., a Roman; pl., Romans, the Romans.

iūstitia, -ae f.: justice, uprightness.

temperantia, -ae f.: moderation, self-control.

offendō, -fendere, -fendī, -fēnsus : dash against, hit; offend, hurt; suffer disaster.

priusquam : conj., earlier than, sooner than, before; also prius . . . quam.

cottīdiānus, -a, -um : belonging to every day, daily; usual.

interpres, -etis, m. and f.: mediator; interpreter.

removeō, -movēre, -mōvī, -mōtus : move back; remove, take away, dismiss.

Gāius -iī m.: Gaius (name), abbreviated "C."

Valerius, -ī, m.: Valerius, a Roman nomen: (1) Gaius Valerius Flaccus, governor of Gaul in 83 b.c.; (2) Gaius Valerius Caburus, a Gaul who received Roman citizenship from (1); (3) Gaius Valerius Procillus and (4) Gaius Valerius Domnotaurus, sons of (2); (5) Lucius Valerius Praeconinus, a legate who was killed in Aquitania a few years before 56 b.c.; (6) Gaius Valerius Troucillus, a prominent Gaul of the province, friendly to Caesar. See also Messāla.

Gallia, -ae f.: Gaul

familiāris, -e m.: intimate friend, associate

colloquor, -loquī, -locūtus : converse, confer, talk.

commonefaciō, -facere, -fēcī, -factus : remind.

praesum, -esse, -fuī : be before, be set over, be in command of.

concilium, -ī, n.: assembly, meeting, council.

Gallus, -a, -um: a Gaul; pl., the Gauls, generally used as synonymous with Celtae, meaning the inhabitants of the central of Caesar's divisions of Transalpine Gaul (see Bk. I, Chap. I); also used as an adj.

Dumnorīx, -īgis m.: Dumnorix, an Aeduan, brother of Diviciacus.

sēparātim : adv., apart, separately, individually.

offēnsiō, -ōnis f.: striking against; offense; offēnsiō animī, wounding the feelings.

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Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-02-3.