Chapter 1.31

Eō conciliō dīmissō, īdem prīncipēs cīvitātum quī ante fuerant ad Caesarem revertērunt petiēruntque utī sibi sēcrētō [in occultō] dē suā omniumque salūte cum eō agere licēret. Eā rē impetrātā, sēsē omnēs flentēs Caesarī ad pedēs prōiēcērunt: nōn minus sē id contendere et labōrāre nē ea quae dīxissent ēnūntiārentur, quam utī ea quae vellent impetrārent; proptereā quod, sī ēnūntiātum esset, summum in cruciātum sē ventūrōs vidērent. Locūtus est prō hīs Dīviciācus Aeduus: Galliae tōtīus factiōnēs esse duās; hārum alterīus prīncipātum tenēre Aeduōs, alterīus Arvernōs. Hī cum tantopere dē potentātū inter sē multōs annōs contenderent, factum esse utī ab Arvernīs Sēquanīsque Germānī mercēde arcesserentur. Hōrum prīmō circiter mīlia XV Rhēnum trānsīsse; posteāquam agrōs et cultum et cōpiās Gallōrum hominēs ferī ac barbarī adamāssent, trāductōs plūrēs; nunc esse in Galliā ad centum et vīgintī mīlium numerum. Cum hīs Aeduōs eōrumque clientēs semel atque iterum armīs contendisse; magnam calamitātem pulsōs accēpisse, omnem nōbilitātem, omnem senātum, omnem equitātum āmīsisse. Quibus proeliīs calamitātibusque frāctōs, quī et suā virtūte et populī Rōmānī hospitiō atque amīcitiā plūrimum ante in Galliā potuissent, coāctōs esse Sēquanīs obsidēs dare nōbilissimōs cīvitātis et iūre iūrandō cīvitātem obstringere, sēsē neque obsidēs repetītūrōs neque auxilium ā populō Rōmānō implōrātūrōs neque recūsātūrōs quō minus perpetuō sub illōrum diciōne atque imperiō essent. Ūnum sē esse ex omnī cīvitāte Aeduōrum quī addūcī nōn potuerit ut iūrāret aut līberōs suōs obsidēs daret. Ob eam rem sē ex cīvitāte profūgisse et Rōmam ad senātum vēnisse auxilium postulātum, quod sōlus neque iūre iūrandō neque obsidibus tenērētur. Sed pēius victōribus Sēquanīs quam Aeduīs victīs accidisse, proptereā quod Ariovistus, rēx Germānōrum, in eōrum fīnibus cōnsēdisset tertiamque partem agrī Sēquanī, quī esset optimus tōtīus Galliae, occupāvisset et nunc dē alterā parte tertiā Sēquanōs dēcēdere iubēret, proptereā quod paucīs mēnsibus ante Harūdum mīlia hominum XXIIIĪ ad eum vēnissent, quibus locus ac sēdēs parārentur. Futūrum esse paucīs annīs utī omnēs ex Galliae fīnibus pellerentur atque omnēs Germānī Rhēnum trānsīrent; neque enim cōnferendum esse Gallicum cum Germānōrum agrō neque hanc cōnsuētūdinem vīctūs cum illā comparandam. Ariovistum autem, ut semel Gallōrum cōpiās proeliō vīcerit, quod proelium factum sit Admagetobrigae, superbē et crūdēliter imperāre, obsidēs nōbilissimī cuiusque līberōs poscere, et in eōs omnia exempla cruciātūsque ēdere, sī qua rēs nōn ad nūtum aut ad voluntātem eius facta sit. Hominem esse barbarum, īrācundum, temerārium: nōn posse eius imperia diūtius sustinēre. Nisi quid in Caesare populōque Rōmānō sit auxilī, omnibus Gallīs idem esse faciendum quod Helvētiī fēcerint, ut domō ēmigrent, aliud domicilium, aliās sēdēs remōtās ā Germānīs petant fortūnamque quaecumque accidat experiantur. Haec sī ēnūntiāta Ariovistō sint, nōn dubitāre quīn dē omnibus obsidibus quī apud eum sint gravissimum supplicium sūmat. Caesarem vel auctōritāte suā atque exercitūs vel recentī victōriā vel nōmine populī Rōmānī dēterrēre posse nē māior multitūdō Germānōrum Rhēnum trādūcātur, Galliamque omnem ab Ariovistī iniūriā posse dēfendere.

In secret session they beseech Caesar to defend Gaul against Ariovistus, Diviciacus stating their case.

eō conciliō dīmissō: “when this assembly had been [held and] dissolved”; i.e., after providing for the business now to be described (A-G); “when the assembly, [so summoned,] had been held and had broken up” (Anthon). Caesar with characteristic brevity informs the reader of the conference only by saying that it was broken up (Harkness), and leaves it to be inferred from the fact that his permission was given (eā rē permissā, end of Chapter 30) that the council was indeed held (L-E). Where the council of the leading men of Celtic Gaul was held we are not informed; perhaps at Bibracte (Kelsey).

īdem: = eīdem (Kelsey); i.e., the same ones who had met with him earlier.

quī ante fuerant: sc. apud Caesarem: “who had been with Caesar on the previous occasion” (Anthon).

petiēruntque utī … licēret: “they asked permission to,” as in Chapter 30 (Kelsey). When they had come to Caesar before, they had had no authority to act for their states. Now the council had authorized them to ask for Caesar’s help (Walpole).

sibi: refers to the subject of petiērunt (Harkness).

sēcrētō in occultō: “alone, in secret” (Harkness);“apart [from others] in a secret place” (A-G); “privately” (Kelsey), apart from any other audience than Caesar (M-T), as a protection against betrayal, and “in a secret place,” as a precaution against spies (Kelsey). This precaution indicates how great the dread of Ariovistus was (L-E). Some editors regard in occultō as a mere gloss (Anthon).

dē suā omniumque salūte: “for their own safety and [that] of all” (Walpole).

cum eō agere: “to confer with him” (Kelsey), i.e., with Caesar.

Caesarī ad pedēs prōiēcērunt: translate Caesarī as if genitive (Kelsey): “threw themselves at Caesar’s feet,” literally “to Caesar at the feet” (Harkness); Caesarī is dative of reference (AG 376) (A-G), or the indirect object of the compound verb prōiēcērunt (AG 370) (Harkness).

Dīviciācus Aeduus: he had been the leader of the Aedui in their battle with Ariovistus (see Chapter 19) (Moberly).

nōn minus … vidērent: sc. dīxērunt. At this point Diviciacus’ speech is reported in indirect discourse; converted into direct discourse, with changes underlined, it is as follows: nōn minus id contendimus et labōrāmus, nē ea quae dīxerimus ēnūntientur, quam utī ea quae volumus impetrēmus; proptereā quod, sī ēnūntiātum erit, summum in cruciātum nōs ventūrōs vidēmus.

nōn minus se id contendere et labōrāre … impetrārent: sc. dīcentēs (Stock): “[saying] that they strove and labored no less anxiously to prevent what they might say from being divulged, than to obtain what they wish” (Anthon); “that they were as earnestly and as desperately anxious that their secret should be kept as they were that their request should be granted” (Moberly). Id, stands in apposition to nē … ēnūntiārentur and at the same time expresses purpose (AG 531) (Harkness).

quae dīxissent: “what they should say” (Harkness); pluperfect subjunctive in indirect discourse for the future perfect (dīxerint) in direct discourse. So also ēnūntiātum esset below (M-T).

quam: “than,” with the comparative degree adverb minus (Hodges).

sī ēnūntiātum esset: “if they were reported” (L-E); “if reports should get out” (Walpole); “if disclosures should be (literally, “should have been”) made.” The verb is impersonal (Hodges). The pluperfect subjunctive stands for a future perfect (a future more vivid condition) in direct discourse (Walpole).

in cruciātum sē ventūrōs: “would suffer torture,” literally, “would come into torture” (Hodges); “would meet with torture” (L-E).

Galliae … tenērī: the speech continues in indirect discourse, converted thus to direct discourse: Galliae tōtīus factiōnēs sunt duae; hārum alterīus prīncipātum tenant Aeduī, alterīus Arvernī. Hī cum … multōs annōs contenderent, factum est utī … Germānī … arcesserentur. Hōrum prīmō  … mīlia … trānsiērunt; posteāquam agrōs … hominēs … adamāvērunt, trāductī sunt plūrēs; nunc sunt in Galliā ad CXX mīlium numerum (more probably ad … milīa numerō). Cum hīs Aeduī …  armīs contendērunt; magnam calamitātem pulsī accēpērunt, omnēs nōbilitātem … āmīsērunt. Quibus proeliīs … fractī, quī plūrimum ante … potuerant, coācti sunt … obsidēs dare, etc. Ūnus ego sum ex omnī cīvitāte … quī addūcī nōn potuerim ut iūrārem aut līberōs meōs obsidēs darem. Ob eam rem … profūgī et Rōmam ad senātum vēnī … quod sōlus neque iūre iūrandō neque obsidibus tenēbar.

Galliae tōtīus: not to be taken literally, but referring to the eastern part of Celtic Gaul (A-G).

factiōnēs … duās: “two parties” (A-G); “two leagues” made up of states (Kelsey). The regular Latin word for “political parties,” derived from facere, in the sense which this has in the phrase facere ab or cum aliquō, “to side with a person” (M-T). Factiō was originally a term of good import and denoted merely a certain class or order of persons. Its meaning of “party” or “faction” arose at a subsequent period (Anthon). The party of Druids, represented by Diviciacus, was in a manner the “popular” party, strong especially in the large towns; it was opposed to the old clan feeling kept up for ambitious purposes by military or tribal chiefs such as Orgetorix and Dumnorix. The former, or “popular” party, was headed by the Aedui; the latter, or “aristocratic” party, by the Sequani and Arverni. The Druids were a religious or priestly order, jealous of the aristocracy of the tribe or clan, which latter represented what may be called the patriotic or “native-Celtic” party (A-G).

hārum: sc. factiōnum (L-E).

alterīus …  alterīus: “the one … the other” (A-G).

prīncipātum tenēre: prīncipātum is a preponderating influence exerted by one tribe over others, which amounted to a virtual supremacy (L-E): “held the primary position”; “held the headship” (Kelsey); “stood at the head,” referring to the Aedui and Averni (Anthon).

hī: “these,” i.e., the Aedui with their party on the one hand, and the Arverni with theirs on the other (Harkness).

cum …  multōs annōs contenderent: “while they had been striving for many years (and were still striving)” (Hodges). The imperfect subjunctive is used here on the principal laid down for the imperfect indicative (Walpole), to express a repeated and on-going action.

potentātū: = prīncipātū (Harkness): “the superiority” (Anthon); “political supremacy,” which was the object for which the rival states were contending (M-T).  Potentātus is rather an uncommon word, used only here in Caesar, but still is to be met with in some good writers, among them Livy and Lactantius (Anthon).

Arvernōs: these people inhabited the mountainous country southwest of the Aedui, the modern Auvergne. They had been conquered by Rome in 121 B.C., but not reduced to a province. Before their conquest they had been one of the most powerful tribes. Apparently in the earlier wars the Aedui had befriended the Roman people from antagonism to these rivals (A-G). They traced their origin back to Troy and therefore claimed kinship with the Romans (L-E).

factum esse utī … arcesserentur: “it came to pass that … .were summoned” (A-G); “it had come about that” (Kelsey); “the result was that … ” Utī with the subjunctive forms a substantive result clause (AG 568) (Harkness).

Sēquanīs: these were the rivals of the Aedui on the north (A-G). They were at first clients of the Arverni, but seem to have succeeded them in the leadership of the faction opposed to the Aedui (L-E). They entered into alliance with the Arverni because of their hatred of the Aedui. The strife between the Sequani and the Aedui arose from the fact that the Arar (Saône) for a part of its course formed the boundary between the two states, and each claimed the exclusive right to levy tolls on passing vessels. Among its exports was bacon, which was highly esteemed in Rome (Kelsey). It was possibly the Sequani who were the first to suggest inviting in the Germans, and this may have augmented their influence (L-E).

mercēde: “for hire,” “for pay” (Kelsey); ablative of price (AG 416). The German were at first simply hired soldiers (L-E). This was fourteen years before Caesar came to Gaul (Walpole).

hōrum: = Germānōrum (Stock).

prīmō: apparently in 72 B.C. (L-E).                                                     

arcesserentur: “were brought over.” Finding themselves worsted by the Aedui, the Sequani hired Germans to fight for them (Kelsey).         

hōrum: “of these”; “of the latter,” referring to the Germans (A-G). Partitive genitive (AG 346) (Harkness).

circiter: “about”; an adverb modifying quīndecim (Harkness).

trānsīsse: = trānsiisse.

posteāquam agrōs …  trāductōs plūrēs: “that, after these savage and barbarous men had grown fond of the lands, and manner of living, and abundance of the Gauls, a larger number had been brought over” (Anthon). Posteāquam regularly takes an indicative verb, like postquam (Hodges), but here its verb (adamāssent) is subjunctive because the subordinate clause is part of indirect discourse.

cultum: “mode of life” (Harkness).

cōpiās: = opēs: “resources” (A-G); “riches,” “wealth” (Harkness). Cōpiae is generally used in the plural for “forces,” and in the singular for “abundance” or “plenty.” But sometimes, as in the present instance, the plural is used in the sense of “abundance” (Anthon).

ferī ac barbarī: “savage and uncouth” (Kelsey); “this fierce and barbarous people” (Mobery); “wild and uncivilized”; the two practically synonymous words are used to put the case strongly, as dīciōne atque imperiō below (Harkness). Ferus is the true Latain word, barbarus is the foreign import from Greek (βάρβαρος) in its secondary sense of “uncivilized,” perhaps used here in its original sense of “speaking an unintelligible language,” “foreign.” It was probably formed to imitate the apparently unmeaning sounds of a foreign speech (M-T).

adamāssent: = adamāvissent (A-G): “had formed an eager desire for” (Kelsey). The ad- in composition here intensifies the meaning of the root verb amāre, “fall in love with” (M-T).

trāductōs plūrēs: = plūrēs Germānōs trāductōs esse (A-G).

esse: sc. eōs, i.e.., Germānōs, as subject (Hodges).

nunc esse: sc. Germānōs (Stock).

ad C et XX milium numerum: “[up] to the number of 120,000” (Harkness).

clientēs: “dependents,” referring to the subject states (the Ambarri, Segusiavi, Aulerci) (A-G)) in alliance with and dependent upon their power (Anthon). The smaller Gallic tribes naturally attached themselves to the larger for the sake of protection, giving in return tribute and military service. Some client states maintained a separate government and army, others did not (L-E).

semel atque iterum: “again and again,” literally, “once and again” (Harkness); “time and again” (Kelsey).

calamitātem: explained by what follows (H-T).

pulsōs: sc. eōs as the subject of accēpisse and āmīsisse (Harkness): “as they were beaten, they had suffered … and lost” (L-E).

omnem nōbilitātem, omnem senātum, omnem equitātum: an exaggeration; Diviciacus was himself a nobleman, probably a senator; while his brother Dumnorix was a commander of the Aeduan cavalry (A-G). The nobles and cavalry of the Aedui were, in fact, very prominent in the campaigns of the Gallic War (L-E). Equitātum, collectively “knights,” mentioned last as the broadest term in the enumeration: apparently the “nobles” were a subdivision of the “knights,” preeminent on account of aristocratic birth as well as the possession of large resources (Kelsey).

senātum: a Roman name applied to a foreign institution. So also in Book 2, Chapter 28, Caesar speaks of senātōrēs of the Nervii; they were probably the leading men of the tribe who were members of the national council (M-T).

frāctōs: sc. eōs as the antecedent if quī and the subject of coāctōs esse (Harkness): “crushed” (Kelsey).

quī … coāctōs esse: “although they had once [been the most powerful]” (Walpole), … were compelled” (A-G). The antecedent is eōs (“they”) understood as the subject of coāctōs esse (Hodges).

populī Rōmānō hospitiō: “by the [relation of] hospitality of the Roman people” (Harkness), less close than the relation implied in amīcitia (Kelsey). Hospitium was a relation between two independent states in consequence of which mutual favors of honor and hospitality were granted (Hodges). When a nation was entitled to this, their ambassadors were allowed a place of honor at public spectacles, and were splendidly entertained at public expense (Anthon). It was this hospitium on the part of the Roman people that gave to the Aedui their power in Gaul (H-T).

amīcitiā: a compact by which each state engaged to adopt a friendly policy where the interests of the other were concerned, without any definite treaty of alliance (societās) (M-T).

plūrimum antepotuissent: “had previously possessed the greatest power / influence” (Kelsey). Even as far back as 121 B.C. the Aedui were allies of the Roman people (Walker).

nōbilissimōs: a substantive, “the noblest men” (Harkness).

sēsē: referring to the Aedui (Harkness).                                                    

neque obsidēs repetītūrōs: sc. esse: “they they would neither try to get back hostages” (Kelsey). This is the substance of the oath they were compelled to take (Hodges):

auxilium … implōrātūrōs: sc. esse: “solicit” (Kelsey). This is a thing the Aedui would be likely to do on account of the hospitium it enjoyed with Rome (L-E).

neque recūsātūrōs quōminus … essent: sc. esse: “nor refuse to be … ,” literally, “by which the less they should be” (Harkness). Quōminus = et eō minus; verbs of refusing (recūsātūrōs) and hindering often take the subjunctive with quōminus, especially when the verb is not negatived (AG 558 b). Recūsō (re-causa) literally means “to give reason against” doing a thing (M-T). The use of quōminus springs from the euphemistic courtesy of the Latin language. It is more polite to say, “I will hinder you so that you shall the less do what you wish,” than to say quīn (= ut nōn) faciās, “so that you shall not do it.”

perpetuō: “forever” (Kelsey).

sub illōrum diciōne atque imperiō: illōrum = Sēquanōrum (Kelsey): “to be under the sway and sovereignty of them,” i.e., to do the bidding of the Sequani (A-G).

ūnum sē: “that he alone” (Anthon); “that he was the only person” (Harkness). Divitiacus alludes here to himself (Anthon).

quī … potuerit: the same in direct discourse; the perfect subjunctive has been retained, contrary to the rule for tense sequence (A-G); relative clause of characteristic (AG 535) (Hodges).

ut iūrāret: “to take the oath” (Harkness).

obsidēs: “as hostages” (Harkness); accusative (Kelsey) in apposition to nōbilissimōs.

ob eam rem: compare the order of this phrase to that of quam ob rem (Harkness). In this phrase the position of the preposition is never changed (H-T).

profūgisse: “had fled” (Kelsey).

Rōmam ad senātum vēnisse: Diviciacus had come to Rome where he made the acquaintance of Cicero who was much interested in him and in what he had to say about nature; for Diviciacus was a Druid, and the Druids professed knowledge of the Universe (Kelsey). He was thoroughly impressed with the power and superiority of the Romans, and was a faithful friend and ally of Caesar (Anthon). Notice that with a verb of motion (vēnisse) both nouns are in the accusative expressing place to which (AG 426, 427) (H-T).

obsidibus: ablative of means / instrument (AG 409), used here instead of the ablative of agent with ab, because it was not the hostages, but the “act of giving over hostages” that would bind him (M-T).

auxilium postulātum: “to ask for help” (A-G); “to demand aid,” a strong word, justified by the urgency of the cause and the friendly relations between the Aeduan state and Rome (Kelsey). His application, however, was not successful (A-G): the senate, led by the consul Cicero, was engaged in combating Catiline at the time, and could not be induced to pay attention to the representatives of the Aeduan chief (L-E). Postulātum is an accusative supine expressing purpose with a verb of motion (vēnisse) (AG 509).

sed pēius … comparandam: the speech continues in indirect discourse, converted thus to direct discourse: Sed pēius victōribus Sēquanīs accidit, … quod Ariovistus … cōnsēdit tertiamque partem agrī … quī est optimus … occupāvit, et nunc … dēcēdere iubet, proptereā quod … mīlia hominum XXIIIIvēnērunt, quibus locus ac sēdēs parentur (possibly parārentur) …  Paucīs annīs … omnēs … pellentur atque omnēs Germānī Rhenum trānsībunt;  … neque enim cōnferendus est Gallicus cum Germānōrum agrō, neque haec cōnsuētūdō victūs cum illā comparanda.

pēius … accidisse: “that it had turned out worse” (L-E); “that a worse fate had befallen.” Pēius is used substantively (Harkness) as the subject of accidisse (Hodges). Observe that a misfortune is usually expressed with accidere, as it “fell” on one, while a good thing is expressed with ēvenīre (A-G).

victōribus Sēquanīs quam Aeduīs victīs: note the order of victōribus and victīs. In such an order the ideas cross; hence the name “chiasmus,” based on the Greek letter Χ (chi) (H-T). Dative of disadvantage with accidisse (AG 376): “the victorious Sequani than the defeated Aedui.”

eōrum: refers to the Sequani (Harkness).

Ariovistus: supposed to be the German word Heerfürst, “prince of the host” (A-G).

Germānōrum: apparently the Suebi (Swabians), the largest and strongest tribe in Gemany (L-E) (see Chapter 37). Ariovistus probably crossed the Rhine as early as 72 or 71 B.C. (Kelsey).

cōnsēdisset: Ariovistus had crossed the upper Rhine from modern Baden, his former home (L-E).

tertiam partem: this was probably an exaggeration. The part taken by Ariovistus corresponds pretty well with the upper Alsace, on the Rhine (Walpole), also a part of the German conquest of 1870. This was the same proportion of conquered land taken by the German invaders (Burgundians) in this very territory in the fifth century C.E. Such “annexation” seems to have been the ancient common law of conquest (A-G).

agrī Sēquanī: the territory of the Sequani lay between the Saône, the Rhone, the Jura, and the Rhine, and was very fertile (Harkness).

quī esset: “which was, according to him.” The subjunctive is here employed to express the sentiments of the speaker, not those of the writer himself. The same remark will hold with respect to the other subjunctives in the course of the speech (Anthon).

optimus tōtīus Galliae: this district (Franche Comté) is one of the most beautiful in France (A-G).

occupāvisset, iubēret: be careful to observe the tenses here (Hodges): the pluperfect indicates an action that had happened previously, while the imperfect indicates an action that was happening in present time: “he had seized … and he ordered to withdraw.”

et nunc … Sēquanōs dēcēdere iubēret: the same thing was afterwards done by the Burgundians (A-G).

dē alterā parte tertiā: “from a second third-part” (Kelsey).

paucīs mēnsibus ante: “a few months before” (H-T); mēnsibus is ablative of degree / measure of difference (AG 414), as ante has the force of a comparative (Hodges).                                                                                                     

Harūdum mīlia hominum XXIIIĪ: “twenty-four thousand of the Harudes”; Harudum is a partitive genitive (AG 346), depending upon the whole phrase mīlia hominum xxiiii (M-T). These people came from the country above Lake Constance between the Rhine and the Danube (Walker).

quibus locus ac sēdēs parārentur: “for whom a settlement and habitations were to be procured” (Anthon); “for whom a place for habitation was to be provided” (A-G), literally, “that a place of settlement might be provided for them” (H-T). Subjunctive in a relative purpose clause (AG 531.2) (A-G). Locus ac sēdēs is an instance of hendiadys (AG 640).

paucīs annīs: “in a few years”; ablative of time within which (AG 423).

futūrum esse utī … pellerentur atque … trānsīrent: “it would result that all would be expelled …  and … would cross over” (H-T); “the result would be that … ” (A-G); “it would come about that … ” (Kelsey). Utī introduces a substantive result clause with subjunctive (AG 568). The direct form was omnēs pellentur; as the future indicative must be rendered by the future infinitive, one might expect pulsum īrī, but this form of the future passive infinitive is very rare and the periphrasis found in the text is the usual method of expressing the future passive infinitive (Walpole). Futūrum esse is a future active periphrastic (AG 194 a).

utī omnēs: emphatic (H-T): “that they all,” not the Sequani only, but all the tribes of central Gaul (L-E).

omnēs … trānsīrent: as the Cimbri and Teutones had done fifty years before (L-E).

neque enim … comparandam: neque enim introduces an explanation admitting no doubt: “for you see,” “for you know,” “for of course” (A-G): “for neither was the Gallic territory to be compared with that of the Germans, nor the mode of living here to be placed on an equality with that of theirs.” The Gallic territory was far superior in point of fertility to the German, and the Gallic mode of life was more refined and civilized than that pursued by their German neighbors (Anthon).

cōnferendum esse: “was not to be compared [in respect to fertility] with the German land” (H-T). Caesar means that the land in Gaul is incomparably better than that in Germany; we usually state such comparisons in the opposite way (Kelsey).

Gallicum: sc. agrum (A-G), the subject of conferendum esse (Hodges).

Gallicum cum Germānōrum agro: = Gallicum cum Germānō agrō: “the Gallic territory with the German.” Such expressions as this are good illustrations of the fact that adjectives and the genitives of nouns are kindred forms, which are often interchanges (Harkness).

hanc consuētūdinem vīctūs: hanc = nostram Gallicam, said with some feeling of superiority or contempt (A-G): “this standard of living” (Kelsey); “this customary mode of life” (M-T); “this mode of living [of ours],” referring to the mode of life in Gaul (Harkness), as opposed to illa, “that of the Germans” (M-T). The Gauls looked upon the Germans as savages (A-G). Hic always relates to that which is near or belongs to the person speaking, whereas ille refers to some remote person or object (Anthon). The noun vīctus, vīctūs comes from the supine of vīvō, vīvere, vīxī, vīctum (“to live”), not from vincō, vincere, vīcī, victum (“to conquer”).

Ariovistum … sustinērī: the speech continues in indirect discourse, converted thus to direct discourse: Ariovistus ut semel … cōpiās … vīcit, quod proelium factum est ad Magetobrigam, superbē … imperat, obsidēs … poscit, et … exempla cruciātūsque ēdit, sī qua rēs nōn ad nūtum … eius … facta est. Homō est barbarus, īrācundus, temerārius; nōn possunt eius imperia diūtius sustinērī.

From here to the end of the speech Caesar changes to the primary tenses, i.e., the original tenses used by the speaker; perhaps because Divitiacus in these sections refers to the future, while up to now his reference has been to the past (M-T). The change of tense sequence marks the speaker’s approach to the topic of burning interest (Walker).

ut semel … vīcerit: “when once he had conquered” (Harkness), i.e., “as soon as … ” (Anthon). The perfect indicative of the direct discourse has become the perfect subjunctive of the indirect discourse (Harkness).

Gallōrum copiās: i.e., the Aeduans and their allies (Kelsey).

vīcerit, imperāre (etc.): representing perfects and presents in direct discourse, used for vividness; the pluperfect and perfect or imperfect in the direct discourse might have been expected, and in translation past tenses should be used (Kelsey).

quod proelium: “a battle which” (Kelsey); the second use of proelium is redundant. This final and decisive battle was fought two years before Caesar came to Gaul. It is probable that the Sequani had joined forces with the Aedui in an effort to expel Ariovistus (Walpole).

Magetobrigam: “in the vicinity of Magetrobria” (Anthon) somewhere a little northwest of Vesontio (Besançon) (A-G), probably near the upper Saône (L-E), where exactly we do not know. The Gallic name is said to mean “the stronghold of Admagetos” (Kelsey) or, “great mountain” (L-E). The battle is thought to have taken place in 61 or 60 B.C. (Hodges), three years before this (L-E).

superbē et crūdēliter: “with arrogance and cruelty” (Kelsey).

nōbilissimī cuiusque: “of all of the highest rank” (H-T); “of every man of rank” (Kelsey). The forms of quisque, “each,” with superlatives and ordinals have the force of “all” or “every” (L-E).

et in eōs exempla cruciātūsque ēdere: “and inflicted upon them all kinds of severity and torture” (Harkness); “and exercised upon them all manner of cruelties” (Anthon). Exempla cruciātūsque (“all forms [of punishment] and tortures”) is a so-called hendiadys (AG 640), put for exempla cruciātuum (Anthon). Exempla (= genera (Stock)) ēdere is to use every known form of (something) on the victims (A-G), which, by its severity, will be a warning or example to others (Harkness); cruciātūs ēdere means to employ tortures. The phrase combines the two ideas (A-G).

sī qua … nōn: = sī aliqua. The word nōn does not belong in sense to the sī-clause, in which case Caesar would have written nisi, but rather goes closely with ad nūtum, “if anything be done not at his beck or will” (M-T).

ad nūtum aut ad voluntātem: “according to his bidding or desire.” Nūtus, a “nod,” “beck,” is the outward expression of the desire, while voluntās is the desire itself (Harkness).

barbarum, īrācundum, temerārium: “rude, passionate, and reckless” (A-G); “that he was a savage, quick-tempered, rash man” (H-T); īrācundus denotes one of a hot, quick, passionate temper, īrātus one who is merely angry at some particular time (Anthon).

nōn posse: sc. (Harkness).

imperia: plural because containing the idea of “acts of despotism” (H-T).

nisi quidposse dēfendere: the speech concludes in indirect discourse, converted thus to direct discourse: Nisi quid in Caesare … erit auxiliī, omnibus … idem est faciedum quod Helvētiī fēcērunt, ut domō ēmigrent, aliud domicilium … petant fortūnamque, quaecumque accidat, experiantur. Haec sī ēnūntiāta Ariovistō sint, nōn dubitō quīn dē omnibus … quī apud eum sint (or sunt)...supplicium sūmat. Caesar … dēterrēre potest nē māior multitūdō … trādūcātur, Galliamque … potest dēfendere (A-G).

sustinērī: the subject is constantly omitted by Caesar (Walker).

nisi quid … sit auxiliī: “unless they find some help” (A-G); “unless, indeed, they could obtain some help,” a modest or remote supposition (Moberly). Auxiliī is partitive genitive (AG 346) with quid (Harkness).

Gallīs: dative of agent (AG 374) with esse faciendum (Hodges): “all the Celts would have to do the same thing” (Kelsey).

idem: explained by the appositive clause ut … experiantur (Kelsey).

ut domō ēmigrent: “to forsake their home” (A-G); “[namely,] to emigrate from home” (Anthon). A substantive result clause (AG 568) in apposition to idem.

fortūnamque, quaecumque accidat, experiantur: “and experience whatever fortune might befall them” (Harkness), i.e., submit to whatever fortune may fall to their lot (Anthon). Quaecumque, an indefinite relative (Kelsey), refers to fortūnam (Harkness).

haec: alluding to the disclosures he was now making (Anthon) and his appeal to Caesar (Kelsey). Notice the emphasis at the beginning of the sentence, as if he had said, “Why! If this very discussion should be reported … ” (A-G).

nōn dubitāre: sc. , i.e., Diviciācum (A-G): “that he (the speaker) did not doubt” (Hodges).

quīn dē omnibus obsidibus quī apud eum sint gravissimum supplicium sūmat: “that he (Ariovistus (Hodges)) would inflict the most severe punishment upon all the hostages who are in his possession”; the conjunction quīn introduces a substantive clause dependent on a verb of doubting (nōn dubitāre) (AG 558 a). Supplicium sūmere dē is “to inflict punishment upon” someone; supplicium solvere / persolvere is “to suffer punishment” (A-G).

Caesarem: construe with posse (Harkness). 

auctōritāte suā atque exercitūs: construe auctoritāte also with exercitūs (Harkness): “by his authority and that of his army” (Anthon); i.e., his personal reputation and the fear that it inspires (A-G), and the weight which the presence of his army would give to his interference in behalf of the Gauls (Anthon).

dēterrēre: sc. eum, referring to Ariovistus (Anthon).

nē māior multitūdō …  trādūcātur: with dēterrēre: “prevent a larger host of Germans from being brought across the Rhine” (Kelsey); “so as to prevent any greater number of Germans from being brought … ,” literally, “in order that any greater number of Germans may not be led … ” (Anthon). Subjunctive in a clause of fearing (AG 564).

Rhēnum: accusative after trans- in trādūcātur (A-G).

ab Ariovistī iniūriā: “from the outrages of Ariovistus” (Anthon). Ariovistī is subjective genitive (AG 343) (Harkness).

concilium, -ī, n.: assembly, meeting, council.

sēcrētō: adv., separately, apart, in private.

occultus, -a, -um: covered up, hidden, secret; ex occultō, in (from) ambush; sē in occultum abdere, go into hiding; in occultō, in a secret place, secretly

impetrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: accomplish; ask and receive, obtain on request, get.

prōiciō, -icere, -iēcī, -iectus: hurl forward, throw, throw down; abandon, reject; sē prōicere, prostrate oneself; hurl oneself, leap.

contendō, -tendere, -tendī, -tentus: strain, exert oneself; strive for, attempt, try; hasten, press forward; contend, vie; join battle, fight, quarrel; insist; demand.

ēnūntiō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: tell in public, announce, disclose.

impetrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: accomplish; ask and receive, obtain on request, get.

proptereā: adv., therefore, on that account; proptereā quod, for the reason that, because.

quod: conj., that, in that, because, since; as to the fact that: the fact that.

ēnūntiō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: tell in public, announce, disclose.

cruciātus, -ūs m.: torment, torture.

Dīviciācus, -ī, m.: Diviciacus: (1) a druid, one of the Aedui. He was brother of Dumnorix, but, unlike the latter, was friendly to the Romans; (2) a king of the Suessiones.

factiō, -ōnis f.: taking sides; faction, party.

prīncipātus, -ūs m.: first place; supremacy, leadership.

Aeduus, -a, -um: Aeduan; as subst., m., a Aeduan; pl., the Aedui, a prominent tribe of Gaul, usually friendly to the Romans

Arverni –orum m.: the Arverni, a powerful Gallic tribe north of the Roman province. The name remains in the modern Auvergne.

tantopere: adv., so much, so greatly, so earnestly; just as much.

potentātus, -ūs m.: power, ascendancy, sway.

contendō, -tendere, -tendī, -tentus: strain, exert oneself; strive for, attempt, try; hasten, press forward; contend, vie; join battle, fight, quarrel; insist; demand.

Sēquanī, -ōrum m.: the Sequani, a tribe of eastern Gaul, west of the Jura Mountains

Germānus, -ī, m.: a German; pl., the Germans; as adj., Germānus, -a, -um, German

mercēs, -ēdis f.: pay.

arcessō, -cessere, -cessīvī, -cessītus: cause to come, send for, invite, summon; procure.

prīmō: adv., at first, in the first place.

circiter: (1) adv., about, nearly; (2) prep. with acc., about, around, near.

quīndecim (xv): indecl. adj., fifteen.

Rhēnus, -ī, m.: the Rhine, a large river forming the boundary between Gaul and Germany.

posteāquam: conj., after; also posteā . . . quam.

cultus, -ūs m.: care; training; way of living, civilization.

adamō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: fall in love with, take a liking to.

trādūcō, -dūcere, -dūxī, -ductus: lead across, bring over; win over; transfer, promote.

vīgintī (xx); vīcēsimus, -a, -um: indecl. adj., twenty; twentieth

cliēns, -entis, m.: dependent, follower, client; pl., dependent tribe, tributaries, vassals.

contendō, -tendere, -tendī, -tentus: strain, exert oneself; strive for, attempt, try; hasten, press forward; contend, vie; join battle, fight, quarrel; insist; demand.

calamitās, -ātis, f.: loss, injury, disaster; overthrow, defeat.

nōbilitās, -ātis f.: nobility, rank; in a collective sense, nobles, aristocracy.

equitātus, -ūs m.: cavalry, body of horsemen.

calamitās, -ātis, f.: loss, injury, disaster; overthrow, defeat.

hospitium, -ī n.: tie of hospitality, guest-friendship, hospitality; friendship.

multum: adv., much, greatly; much of the time, often; nōn ita multum, not very long.

obses, -sidis m. and f.: hostage.

iūs iūrandum, gen. iūris iūrandī, n.: oath

obstringō, -stringere, -strīnxī, -strictus: bind; lay under obligations.

implōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: beg, entreat.

recūsō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: make objections; refuse, decline, reject.

quōminus (quō minus): conj., whereby the less, that . . . not, but that; terrēre quōminus, prevent from; recūsāre quōminus, refuse to.

perpetuō: adv., continually, forever.

diciō, -ōnis f.: bidding, sway, rule.

līberī, -ōrum m.: pl., children.

profugiō, -fugere, -fūgī: flee forth, escape.

postulō, -āre, -āvī, -ātūs: demand, request, require, call for; make necessary.

iūs iūrandum, gen. iūris iūrandī, n.: oath

Ariovistus, -ī, m.: Ariovistus, a German chief, or king.

cōnsīdō, -sīdere, -sēdī, -sessus: take a seat; settle, make a home; pitch camp; take a position, station oneself; hold a meeting.

Sēquanus, -a, -um: of the Sequani, Sequanian; as subst., m., a Sequanian; pl., the Sequanians, the Sequani, a tribe of eastern Gaul, west of the Jura Mountains.

dēcēdō, -cēdere, -cessī, -cessus: go away, depart, withdraw; avoid, shun; die.

mēnsis, -is m.: month.

Harūdēs, -um, m.: pl., the Harudes, a German tribe, originally perhaps living in Jutland.

vīctus, -ūs m.: m., that which sustains life, food; way of living, living; degree of civilization.

Magetobriga, -ae, f.: Magetobriga, a town near which Ariovistus defeated the Aedui and their allies. It was, perhaps, west of Vesontio on the Saône, but its site is uncertain.

crūdēliter: adv., cruelly, harshly.

līberī, -ōrum m.: pl., children.

cruciātus, -ūs m.: torment, torture.

nūtus, -ūs m.: nod, signal; will.

īrācundus, -a, -um: easily made angry, quick-tempered.

temerārius, -a, -um: rash, inconsiderate, hasty, imprudent.

ēmigrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: move away, go forth.

domicilium, -ī n.: home, dwelling-place.

remōtus, -a, -um: distant, remote, retired.

ēnūntiō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: tell in public, announce, disclose.

dēterreō, -terrēre, -terruī, -territus: frighten off; deter, hinder, prevent.

trādūcō, -dūcere, -dūxī, -ductus: lead across, bring over; win over; transfer, promote.

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Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-02-3. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/caesar/book-1/chapter-1-31