Chapter 1.1

< Dē sitū Brittāniae vel Hiberniae et prīscīs eārum incolīs >

[1] Brittānia Ōceanī īnsula, cui quondam Albiōn nōmen fuit, inter septentriōnem et occidentem locāta est, Germāniae, Galliae, Hispāniae, maximīs Eurōpae partibus, multō intervāllō adversa. [2] Quae per mīlia passuum DCCC in boream longa, lātitūdinis habet mīlia CC, exceptīs dumtaxat prōlixiōribus dīversōrum promontoriōrum tractibus, quibus efficitur, ut circuitus eius quadrāgiēs octiēs LXXV mīlia compleat. [3] Habet ā merīdiē Galliam Belgicam, cuius proximum lītus trānsmeantibus aperit cīvitās, quae dīcitur Rutubī portus, ā gente Anglōrum nunc corruptē Reptacæstir vocāta, interpositō marī ā Gessoriacō Morynōrum gentis lītore proximō, trāiectū mīlium L sīve, ut quīdam scrīpsēre, stadiōrum CCCCL. [4] Ā tergō autem, unde Ōceanō īnfīnītō patet, Orcadās īnsulās habet.

[5] Opīma frugibus atque arboribus īnsula, et alendīs apta pecoribus ac iūmentīs; vīneās etiam quibusdam in locīs germināns, sed et āvium ferāx terrā marīque generis dīversī; fluviīs quoque multum piscōsīs ac fontibus praeclāra cōpiōsīs, et quidem praecipuē issicīō abundat et anguillā. [6] Capiuntur autem saepissimē et vitulī marīnī et delphinēs nec nōn et bālaenae, exceptīs variōrum generibus concyliōrum, in quibus sunt et mūsculae, quibus inclūsam saepe margarītam omnis quidem colōris optimam inveniunt, id est et rubicundī et purpureī et iacintīnī et prasinī sed maximē candidī. [7] Sunt et cocleae satis superque abundantēs, quibus tīnctūra coccineī colōris cōnficitur, cuius rubor pulcherrimus nūllō umquam sōlis ārdōre, nūllā valet pluviārum iniūriā pallēscere, sed quō vetustior eō solet esse venustior. [8] Habet fontēs salīnārum, habet et fontēs calidōs, et ex eīs fluviōs balneārum calidārum omnī aetātī et sexuī per distīncta loca iuxtā suum cuique modum accommodōs. [9] Aqua enim, ut sānctus Basilius dīcit, fervidam quālitātem recipit, cum per certa quaedam metalla trānscurrit, et fit nōn sōlum calida sed et ārdēns. [10] Quae etiam vēnīs metallōrum—aeris, ferrī, et plumbī, et argentī—fēcunda, gignit et lapidem gagātēm plūrimum optimumque; est autem nigrogemmeus, et ārdēns ignī admōtus, incēnsus serpentēs fugat, adtrītū calefactus adplicita dētinet, aequē ut sūcinum. [11] Erat et cīvitātibus quondam XX et VIII nōbilissimīs īnsignīta, praeter castella innumera, quae et ipsa mūrīs turribus portīs ac sērīs erant īnstrūcta firmissimīs.

[12] Et quia prope sub ipsō septentriōnālī vertice mundī iacet, lūcidās aestāte noctēs habet, ita ut mediō saepe tempore noctis in quaestiōnem veniat intuentibus, utrum crepusculum adhūc permaneat vespertīnum an iam advēnerit mātūtīnum, utpote nocturnō sōle nōn longē sub terrīs ad orientem boreālēs per plāgās redeunte; unde etiam plūrimae longitūdinis habet diēs aestāte, sīcut et noctēs contrā in brūmā, sōle nīmīrum tunc Lybicās in partēs sēcēdente, id est hōrārum XVIII; plūrimae item brevitātis noctēs aestāte et diēs habet in brūmā, hoc est sex sōlummodo aequinoctiālium hōrārum, cum in Armeniā Macedoniā Ītaliā cēterīsque eiusdem līneae regiōnibus longissima diēs sīve nox XV, brevissima VIIII compleat hōrās.

[13] Haec in praesentī iuxtā numerum librōrum quibus lēx dīvīna scrīpta est, quīnque gentium linguīs, ūnam eandemque summae vēritātis et vērae sublīmitātis scientiam scrūtātur et cōnfitētur, Anglōrum vidēlicet Brettōnum Scottōrum Pictōrum et Latīnōrum, quae meditātiōne scrīptūrārum cēterīs omnibus est facta commūnis.

 

[14] In prīmīs autem īnsula Brettōnēs sōlum, ā quibus nōmen accēpit, incolās habuit; quī dē tractū Armoricanō, ut fertur, Brittāniam advectī austrālēs sibi partēs illīus vindicārunt.

[15] Et cum plūrimam īnsulae partem incipientēs ab Austrō possēdissent, contigit gentem Pictōrum dē Scythiā, ut perhibent, longīs nāvibus nōn multīs Ōceanum ingressam, circumagente flātū ventōrum, extrā fīnēs omnēs Brittāniae Hiberniam pervēnisse, eiusque septentriōnālēs ōrās intrāsse atque, inventā ibi gente Scottōrum, sibi quoque in partibus illīs sēdēs petīsse, nec impetrāre potuisse. [16] Est autem Hibernia īnsula omnium post Brittāniam maxima, ad occidentem quidem Brittāniae sita, sed, sīcut contrā Aquilōnem eā brevior, ita in merīdiem sē trāns illīus fīnēs plūrimum prōtendēns, usque contrā Hispāniae septentriōnālia quamvīs magnō aequore interiacente pervenit. [17] Ad hanc ergō usque pervenientēs nāvigiō Pictī, ut dīximus, petiērunt in eā sibi quoque sēdēs et habitātiōnem dōnārī. [18] Respondēbant Scottī quia nōn ambōs eōs caperet īnsula, ‘sed possumus,’ inquiunt, ‘salūbre vōbīs dare cōnsilium, quid agere valeātis. [19] Nōvimus īnsulam aliam esse nōn procul ā nostrā contrā ortum sōlis, quam saepe lūcidiōribus diēbus dē longē aspicere solēmus. [20] Hanc adīre sī vultis, habitābilem vōbīs facere valētis; vel, sīquī restiterit, nōbīs auxiliāriīs ūtiminī.’ [21] Itaque petentēs Brittāniam Pictī habitāre per septentriōnālēs īnsulae partēs coepērunt; nam austrīna Brettōnēs occupāverant. [22] Cumque uxōrēs Pictī nōn habentēs peterent ā Scottīs, eā sōlum condiciōne dare cōnsēnsērunt, ut ubi rēs venīret in dubium, magis dē fēmineā rēgum prōsāpiā quam dē masculīnā rēgem sibi ēligerent; quod usque hodiē apud Pictōs cōnstat esse servātum.

[23] Prōcēdente autem tempore Brittānia post Brettōnēs et Pictōs tertiam Scottōrum nātiōnem in Pictōrum parte recēpit, quī duce Reūdā dē Hiberniā prōgressī vel amīcitiā vel ferrō sibimet inter eōs sēdēs quās hāctenus habent, vindicārunt; ā quō vidēlicet duce usque hodiē Dalreudinī vocantur, nam linguā eōrum daal partem significat.

[24] Hibernia autem et lātitūdine suī statūs et salūbritāte ac serēnitāte āerum multum Brittaniae praestat, ita ut rārō ibi nix plūs quam trīduāna remaneat; nēmō propter hiemem aut faena secet aestāte aut stabula fabricet iūmentīs; nūllum ibi reptile vidērī soleat, nūllus vīvere serpēns valeat; nam saepe illō dē Brittāniā adlātī serpentēs, mox ut proximante terrīs nāvigiō odōre āeris illīus adtāctī fuerint, intereunt; quīn potius omnia paene, quae dē eādem īnsulā sunt contrā venēnum valent. [25] Dēnique vīdimus, quibusdam ā serpente percussīs, rāsa folia cōdicum quī dē Hiberniā fuerant, et ipsam rāsūram aquae inmissam ac potuī datam, tālibus prōtinus tōtam vim venēnī grassantis, tōtum īnflātī corporis absūmsisse ac sēdāsse tumōrem. [26] Dīves lactis ac mellis īnsula nec vīneārum expers; piscium volūcrumque sed et cervōrum capreārumque vēnātū īnsignis. [27] Haec autem propriē patria Scottōrum est; ab hāc ēgressī, ut dīximus, tertiam in Brittāniā Brettōnibus et Pictīs gentem addidērunt.

[28] Est autem sinus maris permaximus, quī antīquitus gentem Brettōnum ā Pictīs sēcernēbat, quī ab occidente in terrās longō spatiō ērumpit, ubi est cīvitās Brettōnum mūnītissima usque hodiē, quae vocātur Alcluith; ad cuius vidēlicet sinūs partem septentriōnālem Scottī, quōs dīximus, advenientēs sibi locum patriae fēcērunt.

A DESCRIPTION OF BRITAIN

Bede derived his description of Britain from a number of sources, including Pliny the Elder, Isidore of Seville, Orosius, and Gildas.

(1) Brittānia Ōceanī īnsula: īnsula Ōceanī is in apposition to Brittānia (“Britain, an island...”).

Germāniae … adversa: “opposite to (across from) Germany…” Germāniae, Galliae, Hispāniae, maximīs…partibus are all dative, dependent on adversa, which agrees with Brittānia.

multō intervallō: ablative of degree of difference (AG 414).

(2) Quae: i.e., Brittānia

mīlia passuum: partitive genitive. “800 [of] miles.” The figure 800 is from Gildas; the actual length is about 600 miles.

in Boream: “to the north” (i.e., from south to north).

exceptīs … tractibus: ablative absolute. The description is taken from Gildas §1: exceptīs diversōrum prolixiōribus promontōrium tractibus.

dumtaxat: “at least”

quadrāgiēs octiēs LXXV: 48 x 75 = 3,600. The actual length of the coastline of the U.K. (England, Scotland, and Wales) is 7,723 miles.

(3) ā merīdiē: “to the south”

cuius … cīvitās: “to those traveling along the nearest shore of which a city appears (aperit)”: i.e., someone standing at the nearest point on coast of Belgian Gaul (Gessoriacum, or Boulogne) is able to see the city of Reptacæstir (Richborough) on the British coast.

interpositō marī ... stadiōrum CCCCL: interpositō marī is an ablative absolute, with trāiectū as an ablative of specification (AG 418) and ā Gessoriacō as an ablative of separation (AG 401): “with the sea intervening by a distance of ... from Gessoriacum ...”

Gessoriacō Morynōrum gentis: understand urbe: “from Gessoriacum, a city of the tribe of the Morīnī.”

lītore proximō: locative: “on the near shore” (i.e., the shore on which Gessoriacum is located).

Morynōrum gentis: the Morini were the Belgic tribe who lived along the English Channel, in the vicinity of present-day Calais.

stadiōrum CCCCL: A stadium (“stade”) equals about 607 feet (or 185 meters); 450 stadia is about 52 miles or 84 km.

(4) ā tergō: “on the far side”

Ōceanō īnfīnītō patet: the ablative (Oceānō infinītō) is treated as locative with the verb pateō: “it stretches out in the boundless sea.”

Orcadās īnsulās: Orkney.

FLORA, FAUNA, AND MINERALS OF BRITAIN

(5) āvium ferāx terrā marīque generis dīversī: “productive of a diverse kind of birds by land and by sea” (i.e., producing a variety of land birds and waterfowl). For the phrase terrā marīque, which functions as a locative, see AG 427.3a.

multum: adverbial, “very”

(6) vitulī marīnī: seals

exceptīs: “in addition,” “besides”

(7) cocleae: in fact, red (or purple) dye is made from whelks, not cockles.

cuius rubor … pallēscere: the verb valeō + the infinitive means “has the power (or ability) to.” In translating, it’s easiest to transfer the negative force of nullō and nullā to umquam (i.e., read ullō, ullā, and numquam). Translate: “whose most beautiful red has the power never to fade by any heat of the sun [or] by any rain damage.”

quō … eō: ablative of degree of difference (AG 414); for this correlative pair, see AG 414.a.

(8) fluviōs: “springs”

accommodōs: adjective agreeing with fluviōs, and taking the dative (omnī aetātī et sexuī): “springs ... appropriate to…”

per distīncta loca iuxtā suum cuique modum: “through the use of (per) separate quarters according to (iuxtā) the requirement for each.” In other words, there are separate facilities for men and women.

(9) sānctus Basilius: Bede quotes here from Hexaemeron by Basil of Caesarea an account of the six days of creation, written in the fourth century.

(10) Quae: = quae īnsula

lapidem gagātem: jet, a black stone found in the vicinity of Whitby along the coast of Yorkshire.

est autem nigrogemmeus: “it (jet) is sparkly black.” Autem (“however,” “now”) is the weakest of the adversatives, and often marks a mere transition and has hardly any adversative force perceptible (AG 324.d).

ignī admōtus: admovēre + dat. = “to bring into contact with”; so, “brought into contact with fire” (i.e., when heated).

adplicita: neuter plural (substantive), “things brought near,” “things applied (to it).”

(11) Erat: the subject is still īnsula (i.e., Britain).

īnsignīta: “famous (for)” (+ dative).

THE LENGTH OF DAYS AND NIGHTS

(12) sub ipsō septentriōnālī vertice mundī: “under the North Pole” (literally, “under the very northern pole of the world”)

habet: the subject is Britain.

ita ut: “such that” (introducing a result clause)

in quaestiōnem veniat: “it raises the question.”

utpote … redeunte: utpote reinforces the ablative absolute: “as you might expect when the sun is returning to the east at night not far below the lands [i.e., the horizon] through the northern zone.”

plūrimae longitūdinis: genitive of quality or measure (AG 345.b), after diēs: “days of greatest length.”

habet: the subject is Britain: “It has days…”

aestāte: ablative of time when: “in summer”

sicut et: “just as likewise”

noctēs: the syntax is condensed here; read: sicut et [habet] noctēs [plūrimae longitūdinis] contrā in brumā.

contrā: adverbial, “conversely”

nīmīrum: “presumably,” qualifying the causal ablative absolute: “presumably because the sun…”

tunc: “at that time” (i.e., in winter)

Lybicās in partēs: “into the Lybian regions” (i.e., the south)

horārum X et VIII: the genitive modifies noctēs, parallel to plūrimae longitūdinis: “that is, of 18 hours.”

plīrimae item … in brūmā: the syntax is condensed: plūrimae item brevitātis noctēs aestāte, et [plūrimae brevitātis] diēs habet in brūmā

sōlummodo: = sōlum

aequinoctiālium horārum: Because Romans divided the day into twelve equal parts (hours), those parts were longer in the summer when the days were longer, and shorter in the winter when the days were shorter. The average length of an hour would be that of an hour measured at the equinox, when the days and nights were roughly of equal length. These are the equinoctial hours Bede refers to here.

eiusdem līneae: “of the same latitude”

THE LANGUAGES OF BRITAIN

(13) Haec: i.e., Haec īnsula (Britain). Haec is the subject of the verbs scrutātur and confitētur.

iuxtā: “in proportion to”

lēx dīvīna: the Pentateuch, or first five books of the Bible. Bede notes that, just as the Pentateuch comprises five books, so five languages are spoken in Britain: English, British, Irish, Pictish, and Latin (the languages of the five main peoples: Anglōrum … Brettōnum Scottōrum Pictōrum et Latīnōrum).

quīnque gentium linguīs … confitētur: “by means of the five languages of its peoples, this island [haec] examines and confesses one and the same….”

Anglōrum vidēlicet: the genitives are apposition to gentium: “five languages of its peoples…, namely, of the Angles….”

quae: i.e., Latin. Latin is the common language because all of the peoples of Britain use it to study Scripture.

THE PEOPLES OF BRITAIN

Bede recounts the origin legends of how three of the four main peoples arrived in Britain: the Britons (Brettonēs) in the south, the Picts (Pictī) in the north, and the Irish (Scottī), some of whom settled north of the Clyde. The Angles (Anglī) arrived later (see 1.15).

(14) incolās: “as inhabitants” (predicate accusative, AG 392).

dē tractū Armoricānō: Armorica is the north-western part of Gaul known subsequently as Brittany.

Brittāniam: “to Britain” (see Bede’s Latin §A.2.1)

sibi … vindicārunt: “claimed [for themselves]” vindicārunt = vindicavērunt

contigit: “it came about that” (with accusative and infinitive). The infinitives (pervēnisse, intrā(vi)sse, petīsse, potuisse) are governed by contigit.

(15) Scythiā: Bede may be confusing Scythia with Scandia, a Roman term covering the southern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Picts were not, in fact, Scandinavian, but seem to have been a Celtic people.

ingressam: agrees with gentem, “the Pictish people…having set out on the Ocean….”

Hiberniam: “to Ireland.” “Bede gives another legend, concerning the Picts’ arrival in Ireland and their settlement in northern Britain, including a rationale for the origin of what he thought was a Pictish practice in his own day, that of female succession to kingship in exceptional circumstances. No such Pictish ruling queens are known; so this was probably a misunderstanding of Pictish matrilineal succession” (McClure and Collins, p. 362).

inventā ibi gente Scottōrum: ablative absolute, probably causal (“since the Irish people were found there”). In Bede, Scottī, refers to the Irish, some of whom later settled in what is now Scotland.

sibi … sedēs petīsse: “sought a place for themselves”

(16) contrā Aquilōnem: “to the north” (literally, “facing North”)

in merīdiem: “to the south”

sē trāns illīus fīnēs plūrimum prōtendēns: “extending a long way beyond its [i.e., Britain’s] borders.”

usque contrā Hispāniae septentriōnālia … pervenit: “it extends up to the level of the northern parts of Spain.” “This implies that Spain projects very much further to the west than is really the case; a mistake very common in ancient writers, e.g. Tac. Agr. c.10: Britannia ... in occidentem Hispāniae obtenditur” (Plummer). Septentriōnālia is substantive (“northern parts”).

(17) petiērunt … sēdēs et habitātiōnem dōnārī: petō + accusative-infinitive: “request”: “They requested that a homeland and a place to live be given….”

(18) quia: introduces indirect statement with subjunctive (“They responded that…”). See “Bede’s Latin” 6.3.

caperet: capere, here, means “hold, have room for” (“the island did not have room for…”). See LS, capio II.A.

(19) contrā ortum sōlis: “in an easterly direction.”

(20) quid agere valeātis: indirect deliberative question (AG 575b): “concerning what you would be able to do.” Valēre, here and below, means “to be able.”

sīquī: sī quis

ūtiminī: imperative (“make use of”)

(21) austrina: i.e., austrina loca

(22) condiciōne … ut: “on the condition that” (with ut + subjunctive).

cōnsēnsērunt: the subject is Scottī.

ēligerent: the subject is Pictī.

magis … eligerent: rearrange as: ēligerent sibi rēgem dē fēmineā prōsapiā rēgum magis quam dē masculīnā [prōsapiā]. Feminea prosapia means “the female (i.e., matrilineal) line.” The imperfect subjunctive follows the secondary main verb (consēnsērunt).

(23) Dalreudini: the kingdom of Dál Riata comprised Argyll, the islands off the west coast of Scotland, and the northeast coast of Ulster, Ireland. In Old English, dæl means “part.”

A DESCRIPTION OF IRELAND

(24) latitūdine suī statūs: “by the breadth of its stature.”

multum: adverbial.

rarō: adverbial (“rarely”).

propter hiemem: “for winter use,” “for the winter”

aut … aut: “either … or”

secet … valeat: the subjunctives all follow ita ut (result clause).

illō: “to that place,” i.e., Ireland

mox ut … adtāctī fuerint: “as soon as they (will) have been touched.” Future perfect passive indicative (fuerint for erunt; see Reading Bede §A.4.1). In classical Latin the perfect tense would probably be used (AG 543).

quīn potius: “as a matter of fact…”

(25) vīdimus: introducing indirect discourse (accusative-infinitive construction). The structure is: vīdimus … folia … et … rāsūram … tōtam vim …, tōtum … absūmsisse ac sēdāsse tumōrem: “we have seen that leaves … and scrapings … have absorbed and assuaged the entire force, the entire swelling.” The asyndeton, and the postponement of tumōrem in hyperbaton, raise the stylistic level. Isidore writes that “if dust or pebbles from Ireland were sprinkled in a bee-hive, the swarms deserted their honey-combs” (Etymologies XIV.6.6); Mayr-Harting suggests that Bede’s passage is a deliberate parody “of this sort of nonsense” (50).

quibusdam … percussīs: circumstantial ablative absolute (“when someone has been struck…”)

datam pōtuī: “given for (i.e., as) a drink” (“dative of purpose,” AG 382).

tālibus: “for such people”

venēnī grassantis: “of the attacking poison”

absūmsisse: absūmpsisse (< absūmō).

(26) piscium volūcrumque: probably with vēnātū īnsignis rather than with expers: “famous for the hunting of fish and birds, as well as of ....”

(28) sinus maris … quī ab occidente in terrās longō spatiō ērumpit: “an arm of the sea … which runs far into the land from the west.” The Firth of Clyde.

Alcluith: or Alt Clut (from Scottish Gaelic Alt Chluaidh, “Rock of the Clyde”), present-day Dumbarton.

NOTE: Lemmatization of Anglo-Saxon Names
—: declined forms unattested
[ ]: nominative forms unattested (back-formed for purposes of lemmatization)
*: form unattested but hypothesized based on existing patterns


Britannia –ae f.: Britain

ōceanus –ī m.: the ocean

Albiōn –ōnis f.: Britain

septentriōnes –um m.: the north (wind, stars)

occidēns –entis: western; west

locō locāre locāvī locātus: to place, put

Germānia –ae f.: Germany

Gallia Galliae f.: Gaul

Hispānia –ae f.: Spain

māximus –a –um: greatest; maxime: most, especially, very much

Eurōpa –ae f.: Europa (name)

intervāllum –ī n.: the space between two stakes; an interval

mīle passus mīlia passuum pl.: mile; miles

octingentī –ae –a; octingentēsimus –a –um: 800, 800th

Boreas –ae m.: the north

lātitūdō lātitūdinis f.: breadth

mīlle pl. mīlia: mile, miles

ducentī –ae –a; ducentēsimus –a –um: 200; 200th

dumtaxat: at least

prolixus –a –um: long, extensive

prōmontōrium or prōmunturium –ī n.: a headland (in the sea), a promontory

trāctus –ūs m.: dragging

circuitus –ūs m.: circuit, circle

quādrāgiēs: forty times

octies: 8 times

septuāgintā; septuāgēsimus –a –um: 70; 70th

quīnque; quīntus –a –um: 5; 5th

mīlle pl. mīlia: mile, miles

compleō complere complēvī complētus: to fill up

merīdiēs merīdiēī m.: midday

Gallia Galliae f.: Gaul

Belgium –ī n. or Belgica –ae f.: Belgium, a part of Gallia Belgica

proximus proximī m.: neighbor

transmeō or trāmeō –āre –āvī –ātum: to go over or across, to go through

Rutubi Portus: Richborough, Kent

portus portūs m.: port

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

Reptacaestir: Richborough, Kent

interpōnō interpōnere interposuī interposītus: to place between

Gesoriacum –ī m.: Boulogne-sur-Mer, France

Morinī –ōrum: the Morini

proximus proximī m.: neighbor

trāiciō –icere –iēcī –iectum: to transport

quīnquāgintā; quīnquāgēsimus –a –um: 50; 50th

stadium –iī n.: a stade (a distance equalling 625 Roman feet or 606 3/4 English feet)

quadringentī –ae –a; quādrāgentesimus –a –um: 400; 400th

ōceanus –ī m.: the ocean

īnfinītus –a –um: infinite, endless

Orcades –um f.: Orkney Islands, off of Scotland

opīmus –a –um: rich, fertile

frūx frūgis f.: fruit

iūmentum –ī n.: a beast of burden

vīnea –ae f.: grapevines

geminō gemināre –āvī –ātum: to double

ferāx –ācis: fertile

fluvius fluvi(ī) m.: river

multum: much, a lot

piscōsus –a –um: abounding in fish

praeclārus –a –um: very clear

cōpiōsus –a –um: plentiful

praecipuē: especially, particularly

esicius –ī m.: salmon

abundō abundāre abundāvī abundātus: to abound with

anguilla –ae f. : an eel

vitulus –ī m.: young bullock

marīnus –a –um: of the sea

delphīn –īnis and delphīnus –ī m.: dolphin

bālaena –ae f.: a whale or other marine animal

conchÿlium –ī n.: a mollusk, a shellfish that yields a costly purple dye; purple dye from the mollusk

mūsculus –ī m.: mussel

inclūdō inclūdere inclūsī inclūsus: to enclose

margarita –ae f.: a pearl

rubicundus –a –um: red, ruddy

purpureus –a –um: purple

hyacinthinus –a –um: hyacinth-colored

prasinus –a –um: leek-green

maximē: most greatly

coclea or cochlea –ae f.: a cockle (see note)

abundō abundāre abundāvī abundātus: to abound with

tingō tingere tinxī tinctum: to wet, moisten; dye, color

coccinus –a –um: scarlet, red

rubor rubōris m.: redness

ārdor ārdōris m.: burning, heat

pluvia –ae (sc. aqua) f.: rain

pallēscō –ere palluī –us: to grow pale

vetustus –a –um: old

venustus –a –um: charming

salīnae –ārum f.: salt-water

calidus –a –um: warm, hot

fluvius fluvi(ī) m.: river

balneārius –a –um: of the baths

calidus –a –um: warm, hot

sexus –ūs m.: a sex (male or female)

distinguō distinguere distīnxī distīnctum: to separate, divide

iūxtā: near, close

accommodus –a –um: fit

Basilius –ī m.: Basil of Caesarea, Saint Basil the Great, 329–379 AD

fervidus –a –um: intensely hot, blazing

quālitās –ātis f.: a quality

metallum –ī n.: mine; metal

trānscurrō –ere –currī or cucurrī –cursus: to run across; flash or shoot across

calidus –a –um: warm, hot

vēna vēnae f.: vein

metallum –ī n.: mine; metal

plumbum plumbī n.: lead

fēcundus –a –um: fruitful; productive

gagātēs –ae m.: jet

plūrimus –a –um: very many

optimus –a –um: best, excellent

nigrogemmeus –a –um: black-sparkling

admoveō admovēre admōvī admōtus: to move to, bring to

incendō incendere incendī incensus: to set fire to, burn

serpēns –entis (gen. pl. serpentum) m./f.: creeping thing; snake

atterō atterere atterīvī atterītus: to rub againt

calefaciō –ere –fēcī –factus ; (pass.) –calefīō –factus sum –fierī: to make hot

applicō applicāre applicāvī applicātus: to apply to, place to/near

dētineō –ēre –uī –tentus: to hold from or back; hold

sūcinum –ī n.: amber

vīgintī; vīcēsimus –a –um: 20; 20th

octō; octāvus –a –um: 8; 8th

īnsīgniō –īre –īvī or iī –ītus: to decorate with a mark; adorn

castellum castellī n.: castle, fort

innumerus –a –um: countless

turris turris f.: tower

portus portūs m.: port

sera –ae f.: bar, bolt

īnstruō īnstruere īnstrūxī īnstrūctus: to build upon; furnish; arrange

fīrmus –a –um: firm, strong

septentriōnālis –e: northern

vertex verticis m.: whirlpool

lūcidus –a –um: bright, shining

aestās aestātis f.: summer

quaestiō quaestiōnis f. (rarely quaesitiō): inquiry

intueor intuērī intuitus sum: to look at

uter utra utrum: either which (of two)

crepusculum –ī n.: evening, twilight

permaneō permanēre permānsī permānsum: to remain

vespertinus –a –um: of or belonging to evening or even-tide

mātūtīnus –a –um: pertaining to Mantua

utpote: namely

nocturnus –a –um: nocturnal

Oriēns –entis m.: east

boreālis –e: northern; pertaining to the north wind

plaga –ae f.: tract

longitūdō longitūdinis f.: length

aestās aestātis f.: summer

brūma –ae f.: the winter solstice; winter

nīmīrum: undoubtedly

Libycus –a –um: Libyan, i.e. northern Africa

sēcēdō sēcēdere sēcessī sēcessus: to withdraw

octō; octāvus –a –um: 8; 8th

brevitās –ātis f.: shortness

aestās aestātis f.: summer

brūma –ae f.: the winter solstice; winter

sex; sextus –a –um: 6; 6th

sōlummodo: only, merely, just

aequinoctiālis aequinoctiālis aequinoctiāle: equinoctial, connected with the equinox

Armenia –ae: Armenia, a country of Asia

Macedonia –ae f.: Macedonia

Italia Italiae f.: Italy

līnea or līnia –ae f.: a string

quīndecim; quintus –a –um decimus –a –um: 15; 15th

novem; nōnus –a –um: 9, 9th

compleō complere complēvī complētus: to fill up

iūxtā: near, close

dīvīnus –a –um: divine

quīnque; quīntus –a –um: 5; 5th

summus –a –um: highest

vēritās vēritātis f.: truth

sublīmitās –ātis f.: height, loftiness

scrūtor scrūtārī scrūtātus sum: examine thoroughly, search

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

vidēlicet: clearly

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

Latīnī –ōrum m.: Latini

meditātiō –ōnis f.: a thinking over, contemplation, meditation

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

incola incolae m. or f.: inhabitant

trāctus –ūs m.: dragging

Aremoricus –a –um: near the sea

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

advehō –ere –vexī –vectus: to carry or convey to

austrālis –e: southern

vindicō vindicāre vindicāvī vindicātus: to claim

Auster –trī m.: the southerly or south wind

possideō –ēre –sēdī –sessus: to hold, possess

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

Scythia –ae f: Scythia

perhibeō –ēre –uī –itus: to hold persistently; maintain

ōceanus –ī m.: the ocean

circumagō –ere –ēgī –āctum: to drive or turn in a circle, turn round

flātus –ūs m.: blowing; wind; blast

extrā: outside, beyond

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

Hibernia –ae f.: the island now called Ireland

septentriōnālis –e: northern

ōra –ae f.: shore, coast

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

impetrō impetrāre impetrāvī impetrātus: to obtain

Hibernia –ae f.: the island now called Ireland

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

māximus –a –um: greatest; maxime: most, especially, very much

occidēns –entis: western

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

Aquilō –ōnis m.: north

merīdiēs merīdiēī m.: midday

trāns: across

plūrimus –a –um: very many

prōtendō –ere –tendī –tēnsus or tentus: to stretch forth or out; extend

Hispānia –ae f.: Spain

septentriōnālis –e: northern

interiaceō –iacēre — —: to lie between

nāvigium –iī n.: boat

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

habitātiō –ōnis f.: a dwelling

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

ambō ambae ambō: both

salūber salūbris salūbre: healthy

ortus ortūs m.: birth, rising

lūcidus –a –um: bright, shining

habitābilis –e : habitable

sīquis or sīquī sīqua sīquid: if any (one)

restō restāre restitī: to resist

auxiliārius –a –um: helping, auxiliary

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

habitō habitāre habitāvī habitātus: to inhabit

septentriōnālis –e: northern

austrīnus –a –um: southern

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

cumque: whenever, always

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

cōnsentiō cōnsentīre cōnsēnsī cōnsēnsus: a

dubium dubiī n.: doubt, hesitation

fēmineus –a –um: feminine

prōsāpia –ae f.: a stock, race, family

masculīnus –a –um: masculine

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

nātiō nātiōnis f.: race

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

Reuda m.: Cairbre Riada, the legendary eponymous founder of Dál Riata

Hibernia –ae f.: the island now called Ireland

prōgredior prōgredī prōgressus sum: to go forward

hāctenus: thus far, so far, of space and time

vindicō vindicāre vindicāvī vindicātus: to claim

vidēlicet: clearly

Dalreudini –orum* m.: the people of Dál Riata, inhabiting modern-day south-west Scotland and north-east Ireland

daal m.: Dal, Irish term

significō significāre significāvī significātus: to indicate

Hibernia –ae f.: the island now called Ireland

lātitūdō lātitūdinis f.: breadth

salūbritās –ātis f.: healthfulness

serēnitās –ātis f.: clearness, serenity, fair weather

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

nix nivis f.: snow

trīduānus –a –um: three days' duration, lasting three days

remaneō remanēre remānsī remānsus: to stay behind

hiemō hiemāre hiemāvī hiemātus: to spend the winter

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faenum –ī n. : hay, straw

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secō secāre secuī sectum: to cut

aestās aestātis f.: summer

stabulum –ī n.: stable

fabricō fabricāre fabricāvī fabricātus: to construct

iūmentum –ī n.: a beast of burden

rēptilis –e n.: reptile

serpēns –entis (gen. pl. serpentum) m./f.: creeping thing; snake

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

serpēns –entis (gen. pl. serpentum) m./f.: creeping thing; snake

proximō –āre –āvī –ātus: draw near, approaoch; be near

nāvigium –iī n.: boat

odor –ōris m.: scent

attingō attingere attigī attāctus: to touch

intereō interīre interīvī/interiī interitūrus: to perish

potius: rather, more

venēnum venēnī n.: poison

serpēns –entis (gen. pl. serpentum) m./f.: creeping thing; snake

percutiō percutere percussī percussum: to strike

rādō rādere rāsī rāsum: to scratch; inscribe

folium foli(ī) n.: leaf

cōdex –icis m.: book, account book

Hibernia –ae f.: the island now called Ireland

rāsūra –ae f.: a scraping, an erasure

immittō immittere immīsī immīssus: to send in

venēnum venēnī n.: poison

grassor –grassārī: to go about, loiter, attack, riot

īnflō īnflāre īnflāvī īnflātus: to blow into; fill

absūmō absumere absūmpsī absūmptum: to reduce, consume

sēdō sēdāre sēdāvī sēdātus: to soothe

tumor –ōris m.: swelling; of the mind

lac –lactis n.: milk

mel mellis n.: honey

vīnea –ae f.: grapevines

expers expertis: lacking

piscis piscis m.: fish

cervus –ī m.: stag

caprea –ae f.: a kind of wild goat

venōr venārī venātus sum: to hunt, go hunting

īnsīgnis īnsīgne: distinguished

propriē: properly; particularly, especially; in the strictest or truest sense

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

permaximus –a –um: very great or large

antīquitus: in former times

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

sēcernō sēcernere sēcrēvī sēcrētum: to separate

occidēns –entis: western

ērumpō ērumpere ērūpī ēruptus: to break out, burst out

Britannī –ōrum m.: Britons

mūnītus –a –um: defended, fortified

Alcluith: Dumbarton

vidēlicet: clearly

septentriōnālis –e: northern

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland