Chapter 48

48.1 Ἰδιώτου στάσις καὶ χαρακτήρ· οὐδέποτε ἐξ ἑαυτοῦ προσδοκᾷ ὠφέλειαν ἢ βλάβην, ἀλλ' ἀπὸ τῶν ἔξω. φιλοσόφου στάσις καὶ χαρακτήρ· πᾶσαν ὠφέλειαν καὶ βλάβην ἐξ ἑαυτοῦ προσδοκᾷ. 48.2 σημεῖα προκόπτοντος· οὐδένα ψέγει, οὐδένα ἐπαινεῖ, οὐδένα μέμφεται, οὐδενὶ ἐγκαλεῖ, οὐδὲν περὶ ἑαυτοῦ λέγει ὡς ὄντος τι ἢ εἰδότος τι. ὅταν ἐμποδισθῇ τι ἢ κωλυθῇ, ἑαυτῷ ἐγκαλεῖ. κἄν τις αὐτὸν ἐπαινῇ, καταγελᾷ τοῦ ἐπαινοῦντος αὐτὸς παρ' ἑαυτῷ· κἂν ψέγῃ, οὐκ ἀπολογεῖται. περίεισι δὲ καθάπερ οἱ ἄρρωστοι, εὐλαβούμενός τι κινῆσαι τῶν καθισταμένων, πρὶν πῆξιν λαβεῖν. 48.3 ὄρεξιν ἅπασαν ἦρκεν ἐξ ἑαυτοῦ· τὴν δ' ἔκκλισιν εἰς μόνα τὰ παρὰ φύσιν τῶν ἐφ' ἡμῖν μετατέθεικεν. ὁρμῇ πρὸς ἅπαντα ἀνειμένῃ χρῆται. ἂν ἠλίθιος ἢ ἀμαθὴς δοκῇ, οὐ πεφρόντικεν. ἑνί τε λόγῳ, ὡς ἐχθρὸν ἑαυτὸν παραφυλάσσει καὶ ἐπίβουλον.

The Difference between a Philosopher and a Non-philosopher

Epictetus first presents the basic difference between a philosopher and non-philosopher. He then goes on to enumerate the signs that one is progressing in philosophy.

προσδοκᾷ: > προσδοκάω, “expects”

τῶν ἔξω: “from the outside,” i.e., “from external things,”

48.2

προκόπτοντος: “of one making progress.” On the Stoic concept of making progress, see ch. 12.1 and Diss. 1.4.18.

εἰδότος: perf. act. part. gen. masc. sg.

ἐμποδισθῇ ... κωλυθῇ: 3 sg. aor. pass. subj.

τι: “in any way,” adv. acc. (G. 540; S. 1606)

αὐτὸς παρ' ἑαυτῷ: “inwardly”

ψέγῃ: pres. subj. act. 3 sg., understand τις αὐτὸν from the previous sentence.

περίεισι: > περίειμι (εἶμι ibo), pres. ind. act. 3 sg., “he goes about”

τῶν καθισταμένων: “of the (parts of the body which are) calming down,” i.e., healing (LSJ καθίστημι B.4)

πρίν: After an affirmative clause πρίν takes the infinitive and means “before” (G. 568; S. 2431).

48.3

ἦρκεν: > αἴρω, 3 sg. perf. act. ind., “has removed” (LSJ ἀείρω III)

μετατέθεικεν: > μετατίθημι, 3 sg. perf. act. ind., “has directed” into (εἰς), “has focused” on

ὁρμῇ πρὸς ἅπαντα ἀνειμένῃ χρῆται: “his impulse toward everything is calm” (Smith 2014). ὁρμή is the Stoic term for a (positive) impulse, which is sent out once someone assents to an impression or opinion (φατασία). It is one of the things that are “up to us” (1.1). In ch. 2 Epictetus proposes that the student act on positive and negative impulses with reservation (μεθ' ὑπεξαιρέσεως), which seems to mean that one should perform appropriate action (the object of impulse) with the knowledge that it may not be fulfilled: for example, to love one’s wife or child and do all so that they live a long and healthy life is a natural impulse, but we should also know that they are mortal and subject to death and disease. ἀνειμένῃ: > ἀνίημι, perf. pass. part. dat. f. sg., “without (mental) straining,” “in a relaxed state of mind.” See Introduction, Assent.

πεφρόντικεν: 3 sg. perf. act. ind. (equivalent to a present in the condition).

ἑνί τε λόγῳ: “in a word”

ἰδιώτης, -ου, ὁ, a private person, layman, common man; a non-philosopher

στάσις, -εως, ἡ, condition

χαρακτήρ, -ῆρος, ὁ, character

οὐδέποτε, never

προσδοκάω, προσδοκάσω, προσεδόκησα, to expect, look for, wait for

ὠφέλεια, -ας, ἡ, benefit, advantage

βλάβη, -ης, ἡ, harm

φιλόσοφος, -ου, ὁ, philosopher

προκόπτω, προκόψω, προέκοψα, to advance; in Stoic terminology: to progress morally and philosophically

ψέγω, ψέξω, ἔψεξα, to blame

ἐπαινέω, ἐπαινέσω, ἐπῄνεσα, to praise

μέμφομαι, μέμψομαι, ἐμέμφθην, to accuse

ἐγκαλέω, ἐγκαλῶ, ἐνεκάλεσα, to rebuke, reproach + dat.

ἐμποδίζω, -ποδιῶ, -επόδισε, to hinder, frustrate

καταγελάω, καταγελάσω, κατεγέλασα, to laugh or smile at + gen

ἀπολογέομαι, -έσομαι, ἀπελογησάμην, to speak in defense, defend

περίειμι, to go about (> εἶμι ibo)

καθάπερ, (adv.) just as, as if

ἄρρωστος, -ον, weak, sick

εὐλαβέομαι, -ήσομαι, ηὐλαβήθην, to be cautious; to guard against (doing something)

πῆξις, -εως, ἡ, setting, fixing, stabilizing

ὄρεξις, -εως, ἡ, desire

ἔκκλισις, -εως, ἡ, aversion, avoidance

μετατίθημι, μεταθήσω, μετέθηκα, to place among, apply, transfer

ὁρμή, -ῆς, ἡ, impulse

ἀνίημι, ἀνήσω, ἀνῆκα, to send up, let go, set free; to relax, unfasten, slacken, diminish; to allow; (pass.) to let oneself go

ἠλίθιος, -α, -ον, foolish

ἀμαθής, -ές, ignorant

φροντίζω, φροντιῶ, ἐφρόντισα, to take thought for, to care

παραφυλάσσω, to guard carefully, safeguard

ἐπίβουλος, -ον, treacherous

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Suggested Citation

Albert Watanabe, Epictetus: Encheiridion. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2020. ISBN: 978-1-947822-13-9.
http://dcc.dickinson.edu/epictetus-encheiridion/chapter-48