Chapter 33

33.1 Τάξον τινὰ ἤδη χαρακτῆρα σεαυτῷ καὶ τύπον ὃν φυλάξεις ἐπί τε σεαυτοῦ ὢν καὶ ἀνθρώποις ἐντυγχάνων. 33.2 σιωπὴ τὸ πολὺ ἔστω ἢ λαλείσθω τὰ ἀναγκαῖα καὶ δι' ὀλίγων. σπανίως δέ ποτε καιροῦ παρακαλοῦντος ἐπὶ τὸ λέγειν τι ἥξομεν, ἀλλὰ περὶ οὐδενὸς τῶν τυχόντων· μὴ περὶ μονομαχιῶν, μὴ περὶ ἱπποδρομιῶν, μὴ περὶ ἀθλητῶν, μὴ περὶ βρωμάτων ἢ πομάτων, τῶν ἑκασταχοῦ λεγομένων, μάλιστα δὲ μὴ περὶ ἀνθρώπων ψέγοντα ἢ ἐπαινοῦντα ἢ συγκρίνοντα. 33.3 ἂν μὲν οὖν οἷός τε ᾖς, μέταγε τοὺς σοὺς λόγους καὶ τοὺς τῶν συνόντων ἐπὶ τὸ προσῆκον˙ εἰ δὲ ἐν ἀλλοφύλοις ἀποληφθεὶς τύχοις, σιώπα. 33.4 γέλως μὴ πολὺς ἔστω μηδὲ ἐπὶ πολλοῖς μηδὲ ἀνειμένος. 33.5 ὅρκον παραίτησαι, εἰ μὲν οἷόν τε, εἰς ἅπαν, εἰ δὲ μή, ἐκ τῶν ἐνόντων. 33.6 ἑστιάσεις τὰς ἔξω καὶ ἰδιωτικὰς διακρούου· ἐὰν δέ ποτε γίνηται καιρός, ἐντετάσθω σοι ἡ προσοχή μή ποτε ἄρα ὑποῤῥυῇς εἰς ἰδιωτισμόν. ἴσθι γάρ ὅτι, ἐὰν ὁ ἑταῖρος ᾖ μεμολυσμένος, καὶ τὸν συνανατριβόμενον αὐτῷ μολύνεσθαι ἀνάγκη, κἂν αὐτὸς ὢν τύχῃ καθαρός. 33.7 τὰ περὶ τὸ σῶμα μέχρι τῆς χρείας ψιλῆς παραλάμβανε, οἷον τροφάς, πόμα, ἀμπεχόνην, οἰκίαν, οἰκετίαν· τὸ δὲ πρὸς δόξαν ἢ τρυφὴν ἅπαν περίγραφε. 33.8 περὶ ἀφροδίσια εἰς δύναμιν πρὸ γάμου καθαρευτέον· ἁπτομένῳ δὲ ὧν νόμιμόν ἐστι μεταληπτέον. μὴ μέντοι ἐπαχθὴς γίνου τοῖς χρωμένοις μηδὲ ἐλεγκτικός, μηδὲ πολλαχοῦ τὸ ὅτι αὐτὸς οὐ χρῇ, παράφερε. 33.9 ἐάν τίς σοι ἀπαγγείλῃ ὅτι ὁ δεῖνά σε κακῶς λέγει, μὴ ἀπολογοῦ πρὸς τὰ λεχθέντα, ἀλλ' ἀποκρίνου διότι «ἠγνόει γὰρ τὰ ἄλλα τὰ προσόντα μοι κακά, ἐπεὶ οὐκ ἂν ταῦτα μόνα ἔλεγεν.» 33.10 εἰς τὰ θέατρα τὸ πολὺ παριέναι οὐκ ἀναγκαῖον. εἰ δέ ποτε καιρὸς εἴη, μηδενὶ ἄλλῳ σπουδάζων φαίνου ἢ σεαυτῷ, τουτέστι θέλε γίνεσθαι μόνα τὰ γινόμενα καὶ νικᾶν μόνον τὸν νικῶντα· οὕτω γὰρ οὐκ ἐμποδισθήσῃ. βοῆς δὲ καὶ τοῦ ἐπιγελᾶν τινι ἢ ἐπὶ πολὺ συγκινεῖσθαι παντελῶς ἀπέχου. καὶ μετὰ τὸ ἀπαλλαγῆναι μὴ πολλὰ περὶ τῶν γεγενημένων διαλέγου, ὅσα μὴ φέρει πρὸς τὴν σὴν ἐπανόρθωσιν· ἐμφαίνεται γὰρ ἐκ τοῦ τοιούτου ὅτι ἐθαύμασας τὴν θέαν. 33.11 εἰς ἀκροάσεις τινῶν μὴ εἰκῇ μηδὲ ῥᾳδίως πάριθι· παριὼν δὲ τὸ σεμνὸν καὶ τὸ εὐσταθὲς καὶ ἅμα ἀνεπαχθὲς φύλασσε. 33.12 ὅταν τινὶ μέλλῃς συμβάλλειν, μάλιστα τῶν ἐν ὑπεροχῇ δοκούντων, πρόβαλλε σεαυτῷ τί ἂν ἐποίησεν ἐν τούτῳ Σωκράτης ἢ Ζήνων, καὶ οὐκ ἀπορήσεις τοῦ χρήσασθαι προσηκόντως τῷ ἐμπεσόντι. 33.13 ὅταν φοιτᾷς πρός τινα τῶν μέγα δυναμένων, πρόβαλλε ὅτι οὐχ εὑρήσεις αὐτὸν ἔνδον, ὅτι ἀποκλεισθήσῃ, ὅτι ἐντιναχθήσονταί σοι αἱ θύραι, ὅτι οὐ φροντιεῖ σου. κἂν σὺν τούτοις ἐλθεῖν καθήκῃ, ἐλθὼν φέρε τὰ γινόμενα καὶ μηδέποτε εἴπῃς αὐτὸς πρὸς σεαυτὸν ὅτι «οὐκ ἦν τοσούτου»· ἰδιωτικὸν γὰρ καὶ διαβεβλημένον πρὸς τὰ ἐκτός. 33.14 ἐν ταῖς ὁμιλίαις ἀπέστω τὸ σαυτοῦ τινων ἔργων ἢ κινδύνων ἐπὶ πολὺ καὶ ἀμέτρως μεμνῆσθαι. οὐ γάρ ὡς σοὶ ἡδύ ἐστι τὸ τῶν σῶν κινδύνων μεμνῆσθαι, οὕτω καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἡδύ ἐστι τὸ τῶν σοὶ συμβεβηκότων ἀκούειν. 33.15 ἀπέστω δὲ καὶ τὸ γέλωτα κινεῖν· ὀλισθηρὸς γὰρ ὁ τόπος εἰς ἰδιωτισμὸν καὶ ἅμα ἱκανὸς τὴν αἰδῶ τὴν πρὸς σὲ τῶν πλησίον ἀνεῖναι. 33.16 ἐπισφαλὲς δὲ καὶ τὸ εἰς αἰσχρολογίαν ἐμπεσεῖν. ὅταν οὖν τι συμβῇ τοιοῦτον, ἂν μὲν εὔκαιρον ᾖ, καὶ ἐπίπληξον τῷ προελθόντι· εἰ δὲ μή, τῷ γε ἀποσιωπῆσαι καὶ ἐρυθριᾶσαι καὶ σκυθρωπάσαι δῆλος γίνου δυσχεραίνων τῷ λόγῳ.

Proper Behavior in Company

Epictetus advises the student about how to behave in social situations.

τάξον: > τάσσω (or τάττω), 2 sg. aor. act. imper.: “lay down,” “establish”

ἐπί … σεαυτοῦ: “on your own,” “alone”

ὢν ... ἐντυγχάνων: the participles are temporal: “when you are ... when you meet.”

33.2

τὸ πολὺ: “for the most part,” adverbial acc. (G. 540; S. 1609)

ἔστω: > εἰμί, 3 sg. pres. act. imper.

λαλείσθω: > λαλέω, 3 sg. pres. mid. imper.

δι' ὀλίγων: “in a few words”

καιροῦ παρακαλοῦντος: gen. absolute

ἐπὶ τὸ λέγειν τι ἥξομεν: “we will come to (the necessity of) saying something.” ἥξομεν is fut. > ἥκω. It is also possible to take ἐπὶ τὸ λέγειν τι with καιροῦ παρακαλοῦντος.

οὐδενὸς τῶν τυχόντων: “none of the usual subjects.” These are listed in what follows.

ψέγoντα ἢ ἐπαινοῦντα ἢ συγκρίνοντα: one expects nominative participles agreeing with the “we” of ἥξομεν, but most manuscripts have these acc. masc. participles, agreeing with an impersonal “one.” Boter (1999) explains that the construction has shifted, such that these are “free accusatives with infinitive, without expressed subject.” Supply δεῖ λέγειν: i.e., μάλιστα δὲ δεῖ σε ψέγoντα ἢ ἐπαινοῦντα ἢ συγκρίνοντα μὴ λέγειν περὶ ἀνθρώπων.

33.3

τοὺς τῶν συνόντων: supply λόγους. τῶν συνόντων: “of your companions”

ἐπὶ τὸ προσῆκον: “to something appropriate”

ἀποληφθεὶς: “separated,” “caught alone,” aor. pass. participle, masc. nom. sing. (LSJ, ἀπολαμβάνω IV)

τύχοις: > τυγχάνω, 2 sg. aor. act. opt.  

σιώπα: 2 sg. pres. act. imper. On imperatives of α-contract verbs, see μελέτα in ch. 1.5.

33.4

ἔστω: 3 sg. pres. act. imper.

ἐπὶ πολλοῖς: “at many things”

ἀνειμένος: > ἀνίημι, perf. mid. part. nom. masc. sg., “unrestrained,” agreeing with γέλως

33.5

παραίτησαι: 2 sg. aor. mid. imper.

ἐκ τῶν ἐνόντων: “as the situation permits.” ἐνόντων > ἔνειμι, “to be possible,” pres. part. used substantively. τὰ ἐνόντα = “what is possible.” ἐκ τῶν ἐνόντων, “on the basis of what is possible.” For the idiom, see Demosthenes, On the Crown 256.

33.6

τὰς ἔξω καὶ ἰδιωτικὰς: “those (dinner parties) offered by outsiders who are ignorant of philosophy”

διακρούου: 2 sg. pres. mid. imper.

καιρός: “occasion,” a situation in which one must attend such a dinner party

ἐντετάσθω: > ἐντείνω, 3 sg. perf. pass. imper. with προσοχή: “pay attention that ...”

ὑπορρυῇς: > ὑπορρέω, “slip, descend,” intransitive aor. pass. subj. 2 sg., after verb of caution + μή (G. 610 and 611b; S. 2220.b)

ἴσθι: > οἶδα, 2 sg. perf. act. imper.  

μεμολυσμένος ᾖ: > μολύνω, “to stain, taint,” 3 sg. perf. pass. periphrastic subj. (S. 599d)

τύχῃ: > τυγχάνω, 2 sg. aor. act. subj. τυγχάνω + ὤν = “happen to be.”

33.7

μέχρι τῆς χρείας ψιλῆς: “up to mere necessity,” “only the bare minimum”

οἷον: “for example”

τὸ δὲ πρὸς δόξαν: “that which is for reputation,” i.e., for outward show

33.8

ἀφροδίσια: “sexual pleasures”

εἰς δύναμιν: “as far as possible”

ἁπτομένῳ: consitional participle: “if one is to engage in it,” dative agent with the verbal adjective μεταληπτέον (S. 1488)

ὧν νόμιμόν ἐστι μεταληπτέον: “one must partake of (sex) which it is legitimate (to partake in).” Probably a reference to avoiding adultery and other dangerous liaisons. See Discourses 2.18.15: “Today, when I saw a handsome boy or a beautiful woman, I did not say to myself, ‘O that I could sleep with her!’ And, ‘How happy is her husband!’ (For he who says this, says too, ‘How happy is the adulterer!’)” (trans. R. Hard). ὧν is genitive after a verb of sharing (S. 1343). The relative pronoun has been attracted into the case of the omitted antecedent (G. 613 and 614; S. 2531 and 2536).

γίνου: 2 sg. pres. dep. imper.

τοῖς χρωμένοις: “those having sex” (LSJ χράομαι C.4.2).

τὸ ὅτι: “the fact that”

χρῇ: > χράομαι, 2 sg. pres. mid. ind.

33.9

ἀπαγγείλῃ: 3 sg. aor. mid. subj.

δεῖνα: “so and so,” a certain person

ἀπολογοῦ ... ἀποκρίνου: 2 sg. pres. dep./mid. imper.

τὰ λεχθέντα: > λέγω, aor. pass. part. acc. neut. pl.:“the things said (about you)”

τὰ ἄλλα τὰ προσόντα μοι κακά: “my other faults”

οὐκ ἂν ... ἔλεγεν: “would not have mentioned,” the apodosis of a contrary-to-fact condition (G. 649; S. 2292.1)

33.10

τὸ πολὺ: “often,” “for the most part,” adv. acc. (G. 540; S. 1609)

παριέναι: > πάρειμι (εἶμι ibo) “enter,” pres. act. infin.

εἴη: > εἰμί, 3rd sg. pres. act. opt.

σπουδάζων φαίνου: “show yourself to be a supporter.” φαίνου: 2nd sg. pres. mid. imper. + part. The construction of φαίνομαι with the participle denotes something that clearly is the case. With the infinitive it signifies that something seems to be the case (LSJ φαίνω B.II, G. 585a [see last example], and S. 2143).

τουτέστι: “that is”

ἐμποδισθήσῃ: 2 sg. fut. pass. ind.

ἀπέχου: 2 sg. pres. mid. imper.

μετὰ τὸ ἀπαλλαγῆναι: > ἀπαλλάσσω, aor. pass. infin., “after leaving,” (LSJ B.II)

τῶν γεγενημένων: > γίνομαι, perf. mid. part. gen. neut. pl.

διαλέγου: 2 sg. pres. mid. imper.

ὅσα μή: “except insofar as” (S. 2765)

33.11

ἀκροάσεις: recitations, whether of poetry or of practice speeches, were a popular type of entertainment in this period.

πάριθι: > πάρειμι, “enter,” 2 sg. pres. act. imper.

33.12

τῶν ἐν ὑπεροχῇ δοκούντων: “of those regarded as important” (LSJ δοκέω II.5), partitive genitive after τινὶ.

ἂν ἐποίησεν: “would have done” (S. 2305)

χρήσασθαι ... τῷ ἐμπεσόντι: “handle the situation” (LSJ ἐμπίπτω A.9)

33.13

φοιτᾷς πρός: “go to visit.” The situation imagined is the Roman custom of the salutatio, where humble clients visited more important patrons first thing in the morning, either to ask or offer a favor. They proverbially suffered humiliation if the great man was not home, declined to see them, or ignored their needs.

ἀποκλεισθήσῃ: 2 sg. fut. pass. ind.

ἐντιναχθήσονταί: 3 pl. fut. pass. ind.

σὺν τούτοις: “with these things (in mind),” “knowing all these possible outcomes”

εἴπῃς: > εἶπον, 2 sg. aor. act. subj.; prohibitory subj. (G. 473; S. 1840)

οὐκ ἦν τοσούτου: “it wasn’t worth it,” gen. of price (G. 513; S. 1372).

ἰδιωτικὸν γὰρ καὶ διαβεβλημένον πρὸς τὰ ἐκτός: supply ἐστι: “for it (i.e., complaining) is characteristic of an ordinary person and one showing dissatisfaction with external matters.” διαβεβλημένον > διαβάλλω, “complain,” perf. mid. part. (LSJ διαβάλλω V.1)

33.14

ἀπέστω τὸ σαυτοῦ τινων ἔργων ἢ κινδύνων ἐπὶ πολὺ καὶ ἀμέτρως μεμνῆσθαι: “refrain from constantly bringing up your own accomplishments and ventures” (Smith 2014). ἀπέστω: 3 sg. pres. act. imper.

οὐ: the negative goes with the second clause beginning with οὕτω.

τῶν σοὶ συμβεβηκότων: “your exploits,” > συμβαίνω, perf. act. part. gen. neut. pl.

33.15

γέλωτα: object of τὸ κινεῖν

ὀλισθηρὸς ... εἰς: “liable to slip into”

ἱκανὸς: “sufficient to” + infin.

τῶν πλησίον: “of those around you”

33.16

συμβῇ: > συμβαίνω, 3 sg. aor. act. subj.

τῷ προελθόντι: “the person who crossed the line,” by using foul language.

τῷ γε ἀποσιωπῆσαι καὶ ἐρυθριᾶσαι καὶ σκυθρωπάσαι: art. infin. functioning as datives of means (G. 526; S. 1507ff.)

δῆλος γίνου δυσχεραίνων: “clearly show your disgust” (LSJ δῆλος ΙΙ.2.). γίνου: 2 sg. pres. dep. imper.

χαρακτήρ, -ῆρος, ὁ, character

τύπος, -ου, ὁ, character, pattern

ἐντυγχάνω, ἐντεύξομαι, ἐνέτυχον, to meet with a person or thing + dat.

33.2

σιωπή, - ῆς, ἡ, silence

λαλέω, λαλήσω, ἐλάλησα, to talk, chat

ἀναγκαῖος, -α, -ον, necessary

σπανίως, (adv.) rarely

παρακαλέω, παρακαλέσω, παρεκάλεσα, to call to

μονομαχία, -ας, ἡ,  gladiatorial show

ἱπποδρομία, -ας, ἡ, a horse-race or chariot-race

ἀθλητής, -οῦ, ὁ, athlete

βρῶμα, -ατος, τό, food

πόμα, -ος, τό, a drink

ἑκασταχοῦ, everywhere

ψέγω, ψέξω, ἔψεξα, to blame

ἐπαινέω, ἐπαινέσω, ἐπῄνεσα, to praise

συγκρίνω, to compare

33.3

μετάγω, to transfer, lead

σύνειμι, συνέσομαι, to be with

ἀλλόφυλος, -ου, ὁ a stranger

33.4

γέλως, -ωτος, ὁ, laughter

ἀνίημι, ἀνήσω, ἀνῆκα, to send up, let go, set free; to relax, unfasten, slacken, diminish; to allow; (pass.) to let oneself go

33.5

ὅρκος, -ου, ὁ, an oath

παραιτέομαι, παραιτήσομαι, παρητησάμην, to decline, refuse

ἔνειμι, to be possible (> ἐν + ἐιμί)

33.6

ἑστίασις, -εως, ἡ, a banquet

ἰδιωτικός, -ή, -όν, of a private person, i.e. a non-philosopher

διακρούω, διακρούσω, ἐδιακπροῦσα, to avoid

ἐντείνω, ἐντενῶ, ἐνέτεινα, to stretch or strain

προσοχή, - ῆς, ἡ, attention, care

ὑπορρέω, ὑπορρεύσω, ὑπερρύη, to slip

ἰδιωτισμός, -οῦ, ὁ, the way (behavior) of a common person (a non-philosopher), vulgarity

ἑταῖρος, -ου, ὁ, a comrade, companion

μολύνω, μολυνῶ, ἐμόλυνα, to stain, to taint, to be vile

συνανατρίβω, συνανατρίψω, συνανήτριψα, to rub together, to associate with

καθαρός, -ά, -όν, clean, pure

33.7

χρεία, -ας, ἡ, use, need

ψιλός, -ή, -όν, bare, minimal

παραλαμβάνω, παραλήψομαι, παρέλαβον, to take, partake

πόμα, -ος, τό, a drink

ἀμπεχόνη, -ης, ἡ, clothes

οἰκετία, -ας, ἡ, a household of slaves

τρυφή, - ῆς, ἡ, luxury

περιγράφω, περιγράψω, περέγραψα, to avoid

33.8

ἀφροδίσιος, -α, -ον, sexual

γάμος, -ου, ὁ, a wedding, marriage

καθαρευτέος, -ον, one must keep oneself clean, pure

ἅπτω, ἅψω, ἥψα, to grasp, obtain, engage in, undertake (+ gen)

νόμιμος, -η, -ον, customary, legitimate

μεταληπτέον, one must have a share of, partake of (+ gen.)

ἐπαχθής, -ές, annoying

ἐλεγκτικός, -ή, -όν, fond of interrogating, critical

πολλαχοῦ, in many places, often

παραφέρω, παροίσω, παρήνεγκον, to bring forward, allege, cite

33.9

ἀπαγγέλλω, to report

δεῖνα, δεῖνος, ὁ, such and such a one, someone

ἀπολογέομαι, ἀπολογήσομαι, ἀπελογησάμην, to speak in defense, defend oneself

διότι, since, because, that

ἀγνοέω, ἀγνοήσω, ἠγνόησα, to not perceive or know

πρόσειμι, to attach to, to belong to

33.10

θέατρον, -ου, τό, theater, public show (games)

πάρειμι, to go to, attend

σπουδάζω, σπουδάσομαι, ἐσπούδασα, to support + dat.

ἐμποδίζω, -ποδιῶ, -επόδισε, to hinder, frustrate

βοή, βοῆς, ἡ, shouting

ἐπιγελάω, ἐπιγελάσομαι, ἐπεγέλασα, to laugh at (+ dat.)

συγκινέω, συγκινήσομαι, to stir up, excite

παντελῶς, (adv.) absolutely, completely

ἀπέχω, to keep away from, to refrain from (+ gen.)

ἀπαλλάσσω, ἀπαλλάξω, ἀπήλλαξα, to set free; (pass.) to be removed, depart

διαλέγω, to pick out; (mid.) to discuss

ἐπανόρθωσις,-εως,  ἡ, improvement

ἐμφαίνω, to show, indicate

θέα, θέης, ἡ, sight, spectacle

33.11

ἀκρόασις, -εως, ἡ, recitals, readings, lecture

εἰκῇ, (adv.) randomly, casually

σεμνός, -ή, -όν, revered, august, holy; dignified; remarkable

εὐσταθής,-ές, steadfast, tranquil

ἀνεπαχθής,-ές, inoffensive, not giving offense

33.12

συμβάλλω, to come together

ὑπεροχή,- ῆς, ἡ, prominence, pre-eminence, superiority

προβάλλω, -βαλῶ, -εβαλον, to put before oneself, to keep in mind, imagine

ἀπορέω, ἀπορήσω, ἠπόρησα, to be at a loss, be in doubt

προσηκόντως, (adv.) appropriately

ἐμπίπτω, ἐμπεσοῦμαι, ἐνέπεσον, to fall upon or into, happen

33.13

φοιτάω, φοιτάσω, ἐφοίτασα, to go to and fro, to visit, hang out

ἔνδον, within

ἀποκλείω, ἀποκλείσω, ἀπέκλεισα, to shut out

ἐντινάσσω, ἐντινάξω. ἐντίναξα, to slam

θύρα, -ας-ἡ, door

φροντίζω, φροντιῶ, ἐφρόντισα, consider, take thought for/care about (+gen.)

καθήκω, -ήξω, to come down to, reach to; to be fit or proper; τὰ καθήκοντα, appropriate actions or duties

ἰδιωτικός, -ή, -όν, of a private person, i.e. a non-philosopher

ἐκτός, (adverb) without, outside; τά ἐκτός, the external things

33.14

ὁμιλία, -ας , ἡ, conversation

ἄπειμι, to be away from, refrain from, avoid

ἀμέτρως, (adv.) without measure, excessively

33.15

γέλως, -ωτος, ὁ, laughter

ὀλισθηρός, -ά, -όν, slippery, liable to slip

ἰδιωτισμός, -οῦ, ὀ, the way (behavior) of a common person (a non-philosopher), vulgarity

αἰδώς, -όος, ἡ, reverence, self-respect

πλησίος, near, neighboring to; οἱ πλησίον, neighbors 

ἀνίημι, ἀνήσω, ἀνῆκα, to send up, let go, set free; to relax, unfasten, slacken, diminish; to allow; (pass.) to let oneself go

33. 16

ἐπισφαλής, -ές, prone to fall, dangerous

αἰσχρολογία, -ας,  ἡ, foul language, abuse

ἐμπίπτω, ἐμπεσοῦμαι, ἐνέπεσον, to fall upon or into, happen

συμβαίνω, συμβήσομαι, συνέβην, to happen, to occur, turn out

εὔκαιρος,-ον, opportune, appropriate, timely, convenient

ἐπιπλήσσω, ἐπιπλήξω, ἐπέπληξα, to punish, rebuke, strike, condemn

προέρχομαι, to advance, proceed

ἀποσιωπάω, ἀποσιωπήσομαι, ἀποσιώπησα, to be or keep silent

ἐρυθριάω, ἐρυθριάσω, ἠρυθρίασα, to blush

σκυθρωπάζω, σκυθρωπάσω, ἐσκυθρώπασα, to frown

δυσχεραίνω, δυσχερανῶ, ἐδυσχέρανα, to be disgusted or displeased

article Nav
Previous
Next

Suggested Citation

Albert Watanabe, Epictetus: Encheiridion. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2020. ISBN: 978-1-947822-13-9.
http://dcc.dickinson.edu/epictetus-encheiridion/chapter-33