Chapter 3.3

< Vt īdem rex postulāns dē gente Scottōrum antistitem accēperit Aidānum, eīdem in īnsulā Lindisfarnensī sēdem epīscopātūs dōnāverit.>

[1] Īdem ergō Osvald mox ubi rēgnum suscēpit, dēsīderāns tōtam cui praeesse coepit gentem fideī Chrīstiānae grātiā inbuī, cuius experīmenta permaxima in expugnandīs barbarīs iam cēperat, mīsit ad maiōrēs nātū Scottōrum, inter quōs exulāns ipse baptismatis sacrāmenta cum hīs quī sēcum erant mīlitibus cōnsecūtus erat, petēns ut sibi mitterētur antistes, cuius doctrīnā ac ministeriō gēns quam regēbat Anglōrum dominicae fideī et dōna disceret et susciperet sacrāmenta. [2] Neque aliquantō tardius quod petiit impetrāvit; accēpit namque pontificem Aedānum summae mānsuētūdinis et pietātis ac moderāminis virum, habentemque zēlum Deī, quamvīs nōn plēnē secundum scientiam. [3] Namque diem paschae dominicum mōre suae gentis, cuius saepius mentiōnem fēcimus, ā quartā decimā lūnā usque ad vicēsimamam observāre solēbat. [4] Hōc etenim ōrdine septentriōnālis Scottōrum prōvincia et omnis nātiō Pictōrum illō adhūc tempore pascha dominicum celebrābat, aestimāns sē in hāc observantiā sānctī ac laude dignī patris Anatoliī scrīpta secūtam. [5] Quod an vērum sit, perītus quisque facillimē cognōscit. [6] Porrō gentēs Scottōrum, quae in austrālibus Hiberniae īnsulae partibus morābantur, iamdūdum ad admonitiōnem apostolicae sēdis antistitis, pascha canonicō rītū observāre didicērunt.

[7] Venientī igitur ad sē episcopō, rēx locum sēdis episcopālis in īnsulā Lindisfarnēnsī, ubi ipse petēbat, tribuit. [8] Quī vidēlicet locus accēdente ac recēdente rheumate, bis cotīdiē īnstar īnsulae maris circumluitur undīs, bis renūdātō lītore contiguus terrae redditur. Atque eius ammonitiōnibus humiliter ac libenter in omnibus auscultāns, ecclēsiam Chrīstī in rēgnō suō multum dīligenter aedificāre ac dīlātāre cūrāvit. [9] Vbi pulcherrimō saepe spectāculō contigit, ut ēvangelīzante antistite, quī Anglōrum linguam perfectē nōn nōverat, ipse rēx suīs ducibus ac ministrīs interpres verbī existeret caelestis, quia nīmīrum tam longō exiliī suī tempore linguam Scottōrum iam plēnē didicerat. [10] Exin coepēre plūrēs per diēs dē Scottōrum regiōne venīre Brittāniam, atque illīs Anglōrum prōvinciīs, quibus rēgnāvit Osvald, magnā dēvōtiōne verbum fideī praedicāre et crēdentibus grātiam baptismī, quīcumque sacerdōtālī erant gradū praeditī, ministrāre. [11] Cōnstruēbantur ergō ecclēsiae per loca, cōnfluēbant ad audiendum verbum populī gaudentēs, dōnābantur mūnere rēgiō possessiōnēs et territōria ad īnstituenda monastēria, inbuēbantur praeceptōribus Scottīs parvulī Anglōrum ūnā cum maiōribus studiīs et observātiōne disciplīnae rēgulāris.

[12] Nam monachī erant maximē, quī ad praedicandum vēnerant. Monachus ipse episcopus Aedan, utpote dē īnsulā quae vocātur Hiī dēstinātus, cuius monastērium in cūnctīs paene septentriōnālium Scottōrum et omnium Pictōrum monastēriīs nōn parvō tempore arcem tenēbat, regendīsque eōrum populīs praeerat.Quae vidēlicet īnsula ad iūs quidem Brittāniae pertinet, nōn magnō ab eā fretō discrēta, sed dōnātiōne Pictōrum quī illās Brittāniae plāgās incolunt, iamdūdum monachīs Scottōrum trādita, eō quod illīs praedicantibus fidem Chrīstī percēperint.

OSWALD ASKS THE IRISH TO SEND HIM A BISHOP

As the son of Edwin's rival Æthelfrith, Oswald had gone into exile in the Scottish kingdom of Dál Riata after his father's defeat and death in 616. In exile, Oswald received religious instruction from Irish priests. Soon after assuming the throne of a reunited Northumbria in 634, Oswald sent to Dál Riata for an Irish bishop to reconvert Northumbria to Christianity. The bishop they sent was Aidan (ca. 590–651), from the monastery on the island of Iona. In Northumbria, Aidan's episcopal see was on the island of Lindisfarne.

(1) mox ubi: “as soon as”

cuius: the antecedent is gratia

experīmenta: “demonstrations,” “proofs”

Scottōrum: the Scottī are the Irish

exulāns: “when he was an exile”

ipse … cōnsecūtus erat: rearrange as: ipse cōnsecūtus erat sacrāmenta baptismatis cum hīs mīlitibus quī sēcum erant.

cuius doctrinā: “by whose teaching”

gēns … sacrāmenta: rearrange as: gēns Anglōrum, quam regēbat, et disceret dōna dominicae fideī et susciperet sacrāmenta; et…et…: “both…and…”

(2) Aedānum: Aidan of Lindisfarne

summae … moderāminis: genitives of quality (AG 345)

nōn … secundum scientiam: a quotation from Romans 10:2 (Vulgate): testimonium enim perhibeō illīs quod aemūlātiōnem Deī habent sed nōn secundum scientiam ("I bear them witness that they have a zeal for God, but it is not enlightened" RSV). Bede explains the relevance of this quotation in the next sentence: Aidan was mistaken about the calculation of Easter.

(3) diem paschae dominicum: Easter Sunday. Pascha, Easter, can be either feminine (pascha, -ae) or neuter (pascha, -ātis).

cuius saepius mentiōnem fēcimus: Bede previously the controversy over the date of Easter in 2.2, 2.4, and 2.19

ā quartā decimā lūnā usque ad vicēsimamam: literally, “from the 14th to the 20th moon,” meaning from the 14th to the 20th day of the lunar cycle.

(4) hōc … ōrdine: “by this rule,” “by this reckoning”

septentriōnālis Scottōrum provincia: “the northern province of the Irish”

pascha dominicum: Easter; pascha, here, is neuter singular accusative

laude: ablative with a form of dignus (AG 418.b)

patris: in apposition with Anatoliī.

Anatoliī: Anatolius of Alexandria was a 3rd c. CE scholar and saint who wrote a book on the computation of the date of Easter; the Irish seem to have based their computation of the date of Easter on a forged work attributed to Anatolius.

secūtam: secūtum esse, the infinitive in the accusative-infinitive construction of indirect discourse after aestimāns; the construction is: aestimans sē secūtam esse scrīpta; the subject of aestimans is nātiō: “the nation of the Picts…, thinking that they followed the writings….”

(6) morābantur: > moror, morārī = “to dwell,” “to live (in)”

apostolicae sēdis antistitis: “of the bishop of the apostolic seat,” i.e., the Pope

canonicō rītū: “in the canonical (or orthodox) manner”

AIDAN AND OTHER IRISH MONKS PREACH TO THE ANGLES

(7) ubi ipse: ipse refers to Aidan

(8) rheumate: rheuma, -matis: the tide, from the Greek ῥεῦμα = “stream” or “current.” Bede gives a similar description of the tides around Lindisfarne in his prose Life of St. Cuthbert. Today, the island (known since the 12th century as The Holy Island) is reached by a causeway that is submerged at high tide.

īnstar īnsulae: “like an island”

maris: with undīs

atque eius … cūrāvit: the subject is rex (Oswald).

auscultāns: auscultāre, “to obey,” can take a dative object (here, admonitiōnibus)

in omnibus: omnibus is a neuter substantive (“in all things”)

multum: “very”

(9) Vbi: picking up on in rēgnō suō: “in his kingdom…, where…”

pulcherrimō … spectāculō contigit: spectāculō is probably a dative of purpose or end (AG 382): “it happened as a beautiful sight” (i.e., it was a beautiful sight).

existeret: = esset

caelestis: agrees with verbī

(10) coepēre ... ministrāre: there are three infinitives dependent upon coepēre; the main thread of the sentence is: coepēre plūrēs ... venire ... atque ... praedicare et ... ministrāre.

plūrēs: "more [monks]"

per diēs: "every day"

grātiam: direct object of ministrāre

sacerdōtālī … praeditī: i.e., ordained as priests.

(11) Cōnstruēbantur … dōnābantur ... inbuēbantur: asyndeton

mūnere rēgiō: “by royal gift,” “through the king’s largesse”

ūnā cum maiōribus: “together with their elders”

praeceptōribus Scottīs: ablative of instrument in place of ablative of personal agent (see AG 405.b Note 1).

studiīs et observātiōne: imbuere (“to instruct in”) takes an ablative

IONA

(12) maximē: “for the most part”

utpote ... dēstinātus: "as is natural, having been appointed..." (DMLBS, utpote)

Hiī: the island of Iona

in cūnctīs ... monastēriīs: a good example of Bede's predilection for hyperbaton, the separating words that belong together grammatically.

arcem tenēbat: “was holding the highest position among” (with in + ablative). Literally, “was occupying the citadel.” See DMLBS, arx 1.d.

regendīs eōrum populīs praeerat: the gerundive and noun are datives with praeerat: "it was in charge of regulating their populations" (i.e., the monks living in the other monasteries).

ad iūs quidem Brittāniae: iūs = “jurisdiction.” Bede means simply that Iona belonged to Britain.

dōnātiōne Pictōrum: in Book 1, Chapter 1, Bede talks about how the Picts granted land in Britain to the Irish (known as the Dalreudini)

eō quod: “because” (with subjunctive)

illīs: the Irish (Scottī)

NOTE: Lemmatization of Anglo–Saxon Names
—: declined forms unattested
[ ]: nominative forms unattested (back–formed for purposes of lemmatization)
*: form unattested but hypothesized based on existing patterns


Osuald –ī m.: Oswald, King of the Northumbrians, 634-642

praesum praeesse praefuī praefutūrus: to be before; be present

Chrīstiānus –a –um: Christian

imbuō or inbuō –ere –uī –ūtus: to wet, moisten

experīmentum –ī n.: a test, experiment

permaximus –a –um: very great or large

expūgnō expaugnāre expūgnāvī expūgnātus: to assault, capture

maior māius: bigger

nātus –ūs m.: birth, age (used only in the abl.)

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

exsulō exsulāre exsulāvī exsulātus: to be in exile

baptisma –atis n.: baptism

sacrāmentum –ī n.: sacrament

antistēs –itis m.: bishop

doctrīna –ae f.: teaching, doctrine

ministerium –ī n.: service, ministry

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

dominicus –ī m.: Sunday

sacrāmentum –ī n.: sacrament

aliquantō : by some little

impetrō impetrāre impetrāvī impetrātus: to obtain

pontifex pontificis m.: priest

Aedan — m. (accusative: Aedanum): Aidan, Bishop of Lindisfarne and saint, 635-651

summus –a –um: highest

mānsuētūdō –inis f.: clemency, mercy

moderamen: governance, restraint

zēlus –ī m.: jealousy; zeal

secundum: after, behind

pascha –ae f.: Passover

dominicus –ī m.: Sunday

mentiō mentiōnis f.: mention

observō observāre observāvī observātus: to watch, observe

etenim: and indeed

septentriōnālis –e: northern

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

nātiō nātiōnis f.: race

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

pascha –ae f.: Passover

dominicus –ī m.: Sunday

aestimō aestimāre aestimāvī aestimātus: to appraise

observantia –ae f.: observance

Anatolius –ī m.: Anatolius

scripta –ōrum n. pl.: writings, works (in poetry or prose)

perītus –a –um: skilled

porrō: forward, of space, time, or of mental operations, far off

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

austrālis –e: southern

Hibernia –ae f.: the island now called Ireland

iamdūdum or iam dudum : now for a long time (+ present tense)

admonitiō –ōnis f.: suggestion, admonition

apostolicus –a –um: apostolic, of an apostle or the apostles

antistēs –itis m.: bishop

pascha –ae f.: Passover

canonicus, –a, –um: canonical

rītus –ūs m.: farm of religious ceremonial; form

observō observāre observāvī observātus: to watch, observe

episcopus –ī m.: bishop

episcopālis –e: episcopal

Lindisfarnensis –e: of, relating to Lindisfarne

tribuō tribuere tribuī tribūtus: to assign

vidēlicet: clearly

rheuma –atis n.: tide

bis: twice

cotīdiē/cottīdiē: daily

instar n.: the equivalent, just like, + gen.

circumluō –ere — —: to flow around

bis: twice

renūdō –āre –āvī –ātum: to uncover, reveal

contiguus –a –um: near, within reach

admonitiō –ōnis f.: suggestion, admonition

humilis humile: humble

libenter: willingly

auscultō –āre –āvī –ātum: to listen, overhear, eavesdrop on

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

Christus –ī m.: Christ

suum –ī n. or sua –ōrum n.: one's property

multum: much, a lot

dīligēns: careful

aedificō aedificāre aedificāvī aedificātus: to build, erect, establish

dīlāto –āre –āvī –ātus: to extend

spectāculum spectāculī n.: spectacle

ēvangelizō –āre –āvī –ātum: to evangelize, preach the Gospel

antistēs –itis m.: bishop

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

perficiō perficere perfēcī perfectus: to complete, accomplish

minister ministrī m.: attendant, servant

interpres –etis m./f.: an agent between parties; a mediator

exsistō –sistere –stitī: to exist, be; emerge

nīmīrum: undoubtedly

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

exinde (abbrev. exin): from that place

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

rēgnō rēgnāre rēgnāvī rēgnātus: to rule

Osuald –ī m.: Oswald, King of the Northumbrians, 634-642

dēvōtio –ōnis f.: piety, devotion, worship.

praedicō praedicāre praedicāvī praedicātus: to proclaim

baptismus –ī m.: baptism

sacerdōtālis –e: priestly, sacerdotal

praeditus –a –um: endowed with

ministrō ministrāre ministrāvī ministrātus: to attend, serve

cōnstruō –ere –strūxī –strūctus: to pile together

ecclēsia –ae f.: church

cōnfluō –fluere –flūxī –—: to flow together, run together

possessiō possessiōnis f.: possession

territōrium –ī n.: territory; piece of land

monastērium –ī n.: a monastery

imbuō or inbuō –ere –uī –ūtus: to wet, moisten

praeceptor –ōris m.: instructor

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

parvulus –a –um: very small

Anglī –ōrum m.: the Angles, a Germanic tribe; the English

ūnā: together

maior māius: bigger

observātiō –ōnis f.: a watching, investigation

rēgulāris –e: pertaining to the observance of a monastic rule; regular

monachus –ī m.: a monk

maximē: most greatly

praedicō –āre –āvī –ātum: to preach

monachus –ī m.: a monk

episcopus –ī m.: bishop

Aedan — m. (accusative: Aedanum): Aidan, Bishop of Lindisfarne and saint, 635-651

utpote: namely

Hīī: Iona, Scotland

dēstinō dēstināre dēstināvī dēstinātus: to determine, intend

monastērium –ī n.: a monastery

septentriōnālis –e: northern

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

monastērium –ī n.: a monastery

praesum praeesse praefuī praefutūrus: to be before; be present

vidēlicet: clearly

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

fretum fretī n.: straight, channel

discernō –ere –crēvī –crētus: to distinguish one thing from another; determine

dōnātiō –ōnis f.: gift, donation (esp. of land)

Pictī –ōrum m.: the Picts, a Celtic people of northern Britain

Britannia –ae f.: Britain

plaga –ae f.: tract

incolō incolere incoluī: to inhabit, dwell

iamdūdum or iam dudum : now for a long time (+ present tense)

monachus –ī m.: a monk

Scōtī –ōrum m.: Gaelic-speaking peoples of Ireland and later Scotland

quod: the fact that

praedicō –āre –āvī –ātum: to preach

Christus –ī m.: Christ

percipiō percipere percēpī perceptus: to take in

collēgium collēgi(i) n.: college, guild

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