Vergil, Aeneid XII 441-467

Haec ubi dicta dedit, portis sese extulit ingens

telum immane manu quatiens; simul agmine denso

Antheusque Mnestheusque ruunt, omnisque relictis

turba fluit castris. tum caeco puluere campus

miscetur pulsuque pedum tremit excita tellus.445

uidit ab aduerso uenientis aggere Turnus,

uidere Ausonii, gelidusque per ima cucurrit

ossa tremor; prima ante omnis Iuturna Latinos

audiit agnouitque sonum et tremefacta refugit.

ille uolat campoque atrum rapit agmen aperto.450

qualis ubi ad terras abrupto sidere nimbus

it mare per medium (miseris, heu, praescia longe

horrescunt corda agricolis: dabit ille ruinas

arboribus stragemque satis, ruet omnia late),

ante uolant sonitumque ferunt ad litora uenti:455

talis in aduersos ductor Rhoeteius hostis

agmen agit, densi cuneis se quisque coactis

adglomerant. ferit ense grauem Thymbraeus Osirim,

Arcetium Mnestheus, Epulonem obtruncat Achates

Vfentemque Gyas; cadit ipse Tolumnius augur,460

primus in aduersos telum qui torserat hostis.

tollitur in caelum clamor, uersique uicissim

puluerulenta fuga Rutuli dant terga per agros.

ipse neque auersos dignatur sternere morti

nec pede congressos aequo nec tela ferentis465

insequitur: solum densa in caligine Turnum

uestigat lustrans, solum in certamina poscit.


    dictum, ī, n.: a thing said; word, 1.197; command, precept, injunction, 1.695; promise, 8.643. (dīcō)

    efferō, extulī, ēlātus, ferre, irreg. a.: to bear, or bring out or forth, 2.297; bear away, rescue, 3.150; raise, elevate, lift up or high, 1.127; elate, puff up, 11.715; efferre gressum or pedem, walk, go, come forth, 2.753; efferre sē, arise, 3.215. (ex and ferō)

    immānis, e: (adj.), vast, huge, immense, 1.110; wild, savage, barbarous, 1.616; cruel, ruthless, 1.347; unnatural, monstrous, hideous, 6.624; (adv.), immāne, wildly, fiercely, 12.535.

    manus, ūs, f.: the hand, 1.487; freq.; (meton.), action, movement of the hand; work, art, handiwork, 3.486; prowess, heroic deed, action, 2.434; force, violence, 2.645; a collection of persons; a band, crew, troop; an army, 2.29; forces, 5.623; multitude, 6.660; pl., manūs, workmen, 11.329; dare manūs, to yield, 11.558; extrēma manus, the finishing hand or touch, 7.572.

    quatiō, no perf., quassus, 3, a.: to shake, freq.; brandish, 11.767; flap, 3.226; shatter, 2.611; make tremble, 5.200; thrill, penetrate, 3.30; ransack, beat up, search, scour, 11.513; torment, 6.571; assault, 9.608; spur, 12.338.

    dēnsus, a, um: (adj.), thick, dense, crowded, compact, in close array, serried, 2.383; frequent, 5.459.

    Antheus (dissyl.), eos or eī, m.: Antheus, a companion of Aeneas, 1.181.

    Mnestheus, and Menestheus, eī and eos, m.: Mnestheus, one of the Trojan chiefs under Aeneas, 5.117; 10.129, et al.

    ruō, ruī, rutus, 3, n. and a.: to fall with violence; tumble down, fall, freq.; fall in battle, 10.756; of the sun, go down, set, 3.508; rush forward, 2.64; of the chariot of Nox, hasten up; ascend, rise, 2.250; advance, 10.256; plunge, rush, 2.353; flee, 12.505; tremble, quake, 8.525; hasten, pass away, 6.539; cause to fall; cast down, 9.516; plow, 1.35; cast, throw up, 1.85; throw up or together, 11.211.

    pulvis, eris, m., rarely f.: dust, 2.273; soil, ground, earth; dusty plain, 7.163.

    pulsus, ūs, m.: a striking or beating; tramp, reverberation, 6.591. (pellō)

    tremō, uī, 3, n. and a.: to tremble, quake, shake, quiver, 5.198; tremble at, fear, dread, 8.296.

    exciō, cīvī or ciī, ītus, 4, a., and excieō, itus, 2, a.: to rouse up or forth; call forth, assemble, 5.107; arouse, excite, agitate, 4.301; stir, shake, 12.445.

    veniō, vēnī, ventus: to come, freq.; come forth; approach, 6.755; rise, appear, 1.353; dawn, 10.241; to present one's self or itself, 5.344; descend, spring from, 5.373; impers., ventum est, we, they came or have come, 4.151.

    agger, eris, m.: materials gathered to form an elevation; a heap of earth or stones, dike, embankment, bank, 1.112; 2.496; heap of earth, 9.567; top, summit, ridge, raised surface, 5.44, 273; a rampart, 9.769, et al.; a height or rising ground, 12.446; aggerēs, mountains, mountain ramparts, 6.830. (aggerō)

    Turnus, ī, m.: the chief of the Rutulians, 7.56, et al.

    Ausonius, a, um: adj. (Auson), Ausonian; Italian, 4.349; subst., Ausoniī, ōrum, m., the Ausonians; Italians, 11.253.

    gelidus, a, um: adj. (gelū), frosty, ice-cold; cold, cool, icy, chilling, 2.120; chilled, 3.30.

    tremor, ōris, m.: a trembling; quaking; tremor, a shudder, horror, 2.121. (tremō)

    Iūturna, ae, f.: a Naiad, sister of Turnus, 12.154, et al.

    Latīnī, ōrum, m.: the people of Latium; the Latins, 12.823, et al.

    adgnoscō, nōvī, nitus, 3, a.: to recognize, 1.470.

    sonus, ī, m.: a sound, noise, 2.728. (sonō)

    tremefaciō, fēcī, factus, 3, a.: to cause to tremble or quake; to shake, 9.106; make to tremble with fear; cause to tremble, 6.803; p., tremefactus, a, um, trembling, 2.382; 10.102; quivering, 2.629. (tremō and faciō)

    refugiō, fūgī, 3, n. and a.: to fly, 3.258; flee away, 6.472; recede, stand distant, 3.536; shrink, 2.12; w. acc., start back from, 2.380; shrink from, refuse, 7.618; fugere, refugere, to fly to and fro, 12.753.

    volō, āvī, ātus, 1, n.: to fly, 1.300, et al.; of rumor, to be spread rapidly, noised or spread abroad, 3.121.

    āter, tra, trum: (adj.), black; dark, gloomy, 1.60, et al.; smoky, lurid, 7.456; 4.384; clotted, dark, 3.622; soiled, blackened, 2.272; (fig.), sad, fatal, 6.429; venomous, deadly; of the odor of smoke, 12.591.

    aperiō, uī, tus, 4, a.: to uncover, lay bare, 1.107; throw open, open, 2.60; disclose to the view, 3.206; disclose, reveal, 6.12; (pass.), aperīrī, to appear, 8.681; p., apertus, a, um, opened, 8.585; unguarded, 11.748; adj., open, 1.155; clear, pure, 1.587. (ab and root par, whence pariō)

    abrumpō, rūpī, ruptus, 3, a.: to break off, away, or tear away from, 9.118; tear asunder, rend, 3.199; end suddenly or abruptly, 4.388; put an end to, 4.631; violate, 3.55; p. abruptus, a, um, having burst, bursting, breaking forth, subst., abruptum, ī, n., anything broken off; a precipice; abyss, chasm, 3.422; in abruptum, headlong, 12.687.

    nimbus, ī, m.: a violent rain; storm, tempest, 1.51; a black cloud, thunder-cloud, cloud, 3.587; a bright cloud; the nimbus surrounding a god, 2.616; cloud of smoke, 5.666; a multitude, 7.793.

    heu: (interj.), alas! ah! oh! 2.289, et al.

    praescius, a, um: (adj.), foreknowing, prescient, 6.66; foreboding, ill-boding, 12.452.

    horrēscō, horruī, 3, inc. n. and a.: to become rough; bristle, rise bristling, 7.526; (fig.), to tremble, shudder, 2.204; dread, 3.394. (horreō)

    agricola, ae, m.: one who cultivates the land; a husbandman, 2.628. (ager and colō)

    ruīna, ae, f.: a falling down; fall, overthrow; convulsion, commotion, destructive force, 1.129; onset, shock, 11.613; pl., ruin, overthrow, destruction, 1.238; dare, trahere ruīnam, to fall in ruins, 2.310; bring destruction, 12.454. (ruō)

    strāgēs, is, f.: a prostrating; slaughter, havoc, carnage, 6.829, et al.; ēdere strāgem, to make havoc, 9.784. (cf. sternō)

    sata, ōrum, n.: things sown or planted; grain, growing grain; crops, 3.139. (serō, serere, sēvī, satus)

    lātē: (adv.), widely; far and wide, 1.21; on all sides, far around, 1.163; all over, 12.308. (lātus)

    sonitus, ūs, m.: a sounding; noise, 2.732, et al.; roaring, 2.209; thunder, 6.586. (sonō)

    ductor, ōris, m.: a leader, 1.189; captain, commander, 5.133; prince, king, 9.691. (dūcō)

    Rhoetēus, a, um: (adj.), of Rhoeteum, a promontory on the coast of the Troad; Rhoetean, 6.505; Trojan, 12.456.

    cuneus, ī, m.: a wedge, 6.181; a wedge-shaped battalion; battalion, 12.269; dare cuneōs, to form battalions, 12.575; pl., cuneī, ōrum, the seats of the theater; an assembly, 5.664.

    agglomerō, āvī, ātus, 1, a. and n.: to gather, assemble, crowd to, 2.341; sē agglomerāre, to join themselves to, 12.458. (ad and glomerō)

    feriō, 4, a.: to smite or strike, 1.103; cut, 4.580; pierce, 12.304; slay, 10.315; strike or slay the covenant victim; hence, of a treaty, to make, 10.154.

    ēnsis, is, m.: a sword, 2.393, et al.; knife, 2.155.

    Thymbraeus, ī, m.: a Trojan warrior, 12.458.

    Osīris, is or idis, m.: a Latin, 12.458.

    Arcetius, iī, m.: a Rutulian warrior, 12.459.

    Epulō, ōnis, m.: a Rutulian warrior, 12.459.

    obtruncō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to lop off; cut down; cut to pieces, slay, 2.663.

    Achātēs, ae, m.: Achates, a companion of Aeneas, 1.174, et al.

    Ūfēns, entis, m.: 1. A river of Latium flowing into the sea west of Terracina, 7.802. 2. A chief of the Aequi, 7.745, et al.

    Gyās, ae, m.: 1. Gyas, commander of one of the ships of Aeneas, 1.222. 2. A Latin slain by Aeneas, 10.318.

    Tolumnius, iī, m.: a Latin chief and soothsayer, 11.429, et al.

    augur, uris, m., and rarely f.: a soothsayer, foretelling from any kind of sign; augur, diviner, prophet, 4.376.

    torqueō, torsī, tortus, 2, a.: to wind, turn, twist, 4.575; roll along, 6.551; whirl, hurl, 3.208; shoot, 5.497; cast, dash, 1.108; direct, 4.220; turn away, 6.547; turn, cause to revolve, 4.269; control, 12.180; p., tortus, a, um, whirled, whirling, impetuous, 7.567.

    vicissim: (adv.), in turn, 4.80; in one’s turn, on one’s part, 6.531. (vicis)

    pulverulentus, a, um: adj. (pulvis), full of dust; covered with dust, dusty, 4.155.

    Rutulī, ōrum, m.: the Rutulians, an ancient tribe of Latium dwelling south of the Tiber, 1.266, et al.

    āvertō, vertī, versus, 3, a.: to turn (anything) away from, followed by an abl. with or without a prep., 1.38, et al.; turn or drive away, 1.472, et al.; transfer, with acc. of place, 4.106; drive away, end, 4.547; neut. by omission of se, to turn away, 1.402; (pass.), avertī, as middle or dep., with acc., to be averse to; to shun, loathe.

    dīgnor, ātus sum, 1, dep. a.: (w. acc. and abl.), to deem worthy of, 1.335; w. inf., think, fit, deign, 4.192; p., dīgnātus, a, um, with pass. meaning, deemed worthy of, honored by, 3.475. (dīgnus)

    sternō, strāvī, strātus, 3, a.: to spread out, spread, 1.700; stretch on the ground, strike down, slay, 1.190; cast down, prostrate, devastate, 2.306; make level, smooth, calm, 5.763; spread, cover, 8.719; strew, litter; overthrow, conquer, 6.858; pass. (in middle sense), sternor, ī, to stretch one's self, lie down, 3.509.

    nec or neque: (adv. and conj.), and not; neither, nor, 1.643, et al.; in prohibition, 3.394, et al.; neque (nec) — neque (nec), neither — nor, 5.21, et al.; nec — et, or -que, may be rendered neither — nor, 12.801; 2.534; nec nōn, and also, nor less, 6.183; nec nōn et, and also, 1.707.

    congredior, gressus sum, 3, dep. n.: to step, go together; encounter, 1.475; join battle; proceed to battle, 12.13. (com- and gradior)

    īnsequor, secūtus sum, 3, dep. a.: to follow up, pursue, follow, 5.321; press on, follow up; succeed, 1.87; persecute, pursue, 1.241; w. inf., proceed, 3.32.

    cālīgō, inis, f.: mist, fog, 3.203; misty, obscurity; darkness, dimness, obscurity, 6.267; smoke, 11.187; cloud of dust, 9.36; blinding dust, 12.466.

    vestīgō, 1, a.: to track; trace, explore, search; seek out, hunt, 12.467; 6.145; descry, 12.588.

    lūstrō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to purify by atonement, 3.279; go round the fields with the victims; hence to bless, ask for a blessing on; go or dance around an altar or the image of a god, 7.391; traverse, pass across, around, or over, 1.608; pass in review, parade before, 5.578; run through, 2.528; search, 1.577; observe, survey, 1.453; watch, mark, 11.763; of the sun, illuminate, 4.607. (lūstrum)

    certāmen, inis, n.: a striving, a struggle; effort, 5.197; combat, emulation, strife, 3.128; battle, war, 8.639; contest, game, 5.286. (certō)

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    Suggested Citation

    Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5.