Vergil, Aeneid VII 511-539

At saeua e speculis tempus dea nacta nocendi

ardua tecta petit stabuli et de culmine summo

pastorale canit signum cornuque recuruo

Tartaream intendit uocem, qua protinus omne

contremuit nemus et siluae insonuere profundae;515

audiit et Triuiae longe lacus, audiit amnis

sulpurea Nar albus aqua fontesque Velini,

et trepidae matres pressere ad pectora natos.

tum uero ad uocem celeres, qua bucina signum

dira dedit, raptis concurrunt undique telis520

indomiti agricolae, nec non et Troia pubes

Ascanio auxilium castris effundit apertis.

derexere acies. non iam certamine agresti

stipitibus duris agitur sudibusue praeustis,

sed ferro ancipiti decernunt atraque late525

horrescit strictis seges ensibus, aeraque fulgent

sole lacessita et lucem sub nubila iactant:

fluctus uti primo coepit cum albescere uento,

paulatim sese tollit mare et altius undas

erigit, inde imo consurgit ad aethera fundo.530

hic iuuenis primam ante aciem stridente sagitta,

natorum Tyrrhi fuerat qui maximus, Almo,

sternitur; haesit enim sub gutture uulnus et udae

uocis iter tenuemque inclusit sanguine uitam.

corpora multa uirum circa seniorque Galaesus,535

dum paci medium se offert, iustissimus unus

qui fuit Ausoniisque olim ditissimus aruis:

quinque greges illi balantum, quina redibant

armenta, et terram centum uertebat aratris.

CORE VOCABULARY

at and ast: (conj., denoting addition either with the notion of difference, or of decided opposition), but, 1.46; yet, still, after conditional propositions; in adding new particulars, and in transitions, but also, but, now, 4.1; denoting indignation, with execration, 2.535.

specula, ae, f.: a lookout; watch-tower, 4.586; eminence, hill, 3.239; a height, 11.526. (speciō, look)

tempus, oris, n.: 1. Time in general, a period, time, 1.278; interval or space of time, 4.433; crisis, circumstance, juncture, 7.37; season, fitting time, opportunity, proper moment, 4.294; ex longō (tempore), in or for a long time, 9.64. 2. The temple of the forehead, 9.418; commonly pl., 2.684; of animals, 12.173.

nancīscor, nactus or nanctus sum, 3, dep. a.: to obtain, secure, get, 7.511; find, overtake, 12.749.

arduus, a, um: (adj.), steep; erect, high, raised high, 2.475; 5.480; lofty, towering, 2.328; rearing, 11.638.

stabulum, ī, n.: stable, stall, 2.499; a shepherd's dwelling, grange, 7.512; den, haunt, 6.179; cattle-camp, 8.207. (stō)

culmen, inis, n.: a top, summit, height, 2.290; house top, ridge, roof, 2.458. (cf. columna)

pāstōrālis, e: adj. (pāstor), pertaining to shepherds; country, rustic, 7.513.

recurvus, a, um: (adj.), curving back or round; bending, crooked, rounding, 7.513.

Tartareus, a, um: adj. (Tartarus), pertaining to Tartarus; Tartarean, 6.551; in a general sense, infernal, Tartarean, 6.295.

contremō, uī, 3, n.: to tremble, 7.515.

īnsonō, uī, 1, n.: to sound within; resound, snap, 5.579; (w. acc.), sound, crack (as to, or with) the lash, 7.451.

profundus, a, um: (adj.), deep, 5.614; lofty, deep-vaulted, 1.58; subst., profundum, ī, n., the deep, the sea, 12.263.

Trivia, ae, f.: an epithet of Hecate or Diana, whose images were placed at the forks of roads, 6.13, et al. (trivium)

lacus, ūs, m.: a lake, pool, source, 8.74; fen, 2.135.

sulphureus, a, um: adj. (sulphur), sulphureous, 7.517.

Nār, Nāris, m.: the Nar, a river of Umbria, 7.517.

Velīnus, ī, m.: a lake in the country of the Sabines, 7.517.

trepidus, a, um: (adj.), agitated, uneasy, disturbed, trembling, affrighted, 2.380; excited, tumultuous, 11.300; confused, in disorder, 10.283; alarmed, fearful of, anxious for, w. gen., 12.589; panic-stricken, 12.583.

būcina, ae, f.: a trumpet, 7.519.

dīrus, a, um: (adj.), accursed; portentous; fearful, dreadful, awful, dire, cruel, horrible, freq.; accursed, 2.261; unhallowed, impious, 6.373; foul, carrion, 3.262; wild, furious, ardent, 9.185; pl., dīra (adv.), fearfully, 10.572.

concurrō, currī (rarely cucurrī), cursus, 3, n.: to run together or at once; crowd around, 12.297; rush, 2.315; rush to conflict, 7.224; rush against a foe; (with dat.), engage, encounter, 1.493.

tēla, ae, f.: a web; the long thread of a woven fabric; the warp; web, 4.264. (texō)

indomitus, a, um: (adj.), untamed; unbridled, 2.594; impetuous, fierce, 2.440.

agricola, ae, m.: one who cultivates the land; a husbandman, 2.628. (ager and colō)

nec or neque: (adv. and conj.), and not; neither, nor, 1.643, et al.; in prohibition, 3.394, et al.; neque (nec) — neque (nec), neither — nor, 5.21, et al.; nec — et, or -que, may be rendered neither — nor, 12.801; 2.534; nec nōn, and also, nor less, 6.183; nec nōn et, and also, 1.707.

Trōius, a, um: (adj.), of Troy, Trojan, 1.119.

pūbēs, is, f.: the groin, middle, 3.427; the youthful population; youth, young men; youthful band, 1.399; brood, offspring, 6.580.

Ascanius, iī, m.: Ascanius, son of Aeneas, and traditional founder of Alba Longa, 1.267.

effundō, fūdī, fūsus, 3, a.: to pour out or forth; shed, 2.271; throw, cast out, 7.780; cast, 6.339; overthrow, 11.485; bring out, 9.68; unbind, dishevel, 4.509; dissolve, 2.651; let loose, throw out, 5.818; spend, lose, waste, 5.446; of words, utter, 5.780; (pass.), effundī, dart, 5.145; flow, 6.686. (ex and fundō)

dērigō, rēxī, rēctus, 3, a.: to lay straight, bring into a definite line; to aim, direct, 1.401, et al. (dē and regō)

certāmen, inis, n.: a striving, a struggle; effort, 5.197; combat, emulation, strife, 3.128; battle, war, 8.639; contest, game, 5.286. (certō)

agrestis, e: adj. (ager), pertaining to the fields or country; country-, rustic, rural, 3.34; wild, 7.111; subst., agrestis, is, m., a rustic, 7.504; husbandman.

stīpes, itis, m.: a log or post, stem, trunk of a tree, 3.43; club, 7.524.

sudēs, is, f.: a stake; a palisade, 11.473.

praeūrō, ussī, ūstus, 3, a.: to burn at the point, 7.524.

anceps, cipitis: adj. (am- and caput), two-headed or two-edged, 7.525; (fig.), twofold, 3.47; uncertain, wavering, doubtful, 5.654; 10.304; perplexed, perplexing, intricate, 5.589.

āter, tra, trum: (adj.), black; dark, gloomy, 1.60, et al.; smoky, lurid, 7.456; 4.384; clotted, dark, 3.622; soiled, blackened, 2.272; (fig.), sad, fatal, 6.429; venomous, deadly; of the odor of smoke, 12.591.

lātē: (adv.), widely; far and wide, 1.21; on all sides, far around, 1.163; all over, 12.308. (lātus)

horrēscō, horruī, 3, inc. n. and a.: to become rough; bristle, rise bristling, 7.526; (fig.), to tremble, shudder, 2.204; dread, 3.394. (horreō)

stringō, strīnxī, strīctus, 3, a.: to draw tight, bind; of a sword, draw out, draw, 2.334; graze, touch lightly, go near, 5.163; trim up, cut, 1.552; (fig.), touch the mind, 9.294.

seges, etis, f.: a field of grain; standing corn, 2.304; crop, harvest, growth of spears, 3.46; pasture land, 4.129.

ēnsis, is, m.: a sword, 2.393, et al.; knife, 2.155.

fulgeō, fulsī, 2, and fulgō, 3, n.: to shine brightly; flash, gleam, glance, 5.562.

lacessō, cessīvī, cessītus, 3, intens. a.: to provoke, rouse, irritate, incite, 5.429; call forth, summon, rouse, 10.10; challenge, attack, assail, 11.585; strike, smite, 7.527; slap with the hand, caress, cheer, 12.85.

nūbilum, ī, n.: cloudy weather.

iactō, āvī, ātus, 1, freq. a.: to throw often or much; toss to and fro; toss, freq.; hurl, cast, 2.459; thrust out, 5.376; aim, 5.433; (fig.), throw out words, utter, say, 1.102; of the mind, revolve, meditate, 1.227; sē iactāre, boast, exalt one's self, rejoice, glory, 1.140; prae sē iactāre, to make pretense of, 9.134; p., iactāns, antis, arrogant, assuming, ambitious, 6.815. (iaciō)

albēscō, 3, inc. n.: to grow white, whiten; to brighten, dawn, 4.586. (albeō)

paulātim: (adv.), little by little; gradually, 1.720. (paulum)

altē: (adv.), aloft, on high; high, 1.337; high up; deeply, deep; comp., altius, higher. (altus)

ērigō, rēxī, rēctus, 3, a.: to raise up, rear, erect, 4.495; cast upward, 3.423. (ex and regō)

īnferus, a, um: (adj.), below, lower; comp., īnferior, ius, lower; less distinguished, inferior, 6.170; superl., īnfimus or īmus, a, um, lowest, deepest, 2.419; inmost, 2.120; below, 4.387; lowest part, bottom of, 3.39; ex īmō, from the foundation, 2.625; īma, ōrum, n., depths.

cōnsurgō, surrēxī, surrēctus, 3, n.: to rise together, rise up; rise at once, 8.110; rise, 5.20; rise or spring to the oars, ply, 10.299.

fundus, ī, m.: the bottom, 2.419; depth, abyss, 6.581; the ground; a farm; fundō, from the foundation, 10.88.

strīdeō, 2, n., and strīdō, strīdī, 3: to produce a grating or shrill sound; to creak, 1.449; gurgle, 4.689; rustle, 1.397; whiz, roar, 1.102; hiss, 8.420; twang, 5.502.

sagitta, ae, f.: an arrow, 1.187, et al.

Tyrrheus (dissyll.), eī, m., and Tyrrhus, ī, m.: a shepherd of Latium, in the service of Latinus, 7.532, et al.

Almō, ōnis, m.: a Latin youth, son of Tyrrheus, 7.532.

sternō, strāvī, strātus, 3, a.: to spread out, spread, 1.700; stretch on the ground, strike down, slay, 1.190; cast down, prostrate, devastate, 2.306; make level, smooth, calm, 5.763; spread, cover, 8.719; strew, litter; overthrow, conquer, 6.858; pass. (in middle sense), sternor, ī, to stretch one's self, lie down, 3.509.

haereō, haesī, haesus, 2, n.: to stick; foll. by dat., or by abl. w. or without a prep.; hang, cling, adhere, cling to, 1.476, et al.; stop, stand fixed, 6.559; halt, 11.699; adhere to as companion, 10.780; stick to in the chase, 12.754; persist, 2.654; dwell, 4.4; pause, hesitate, 3.597; be fixed or decreed, 4.614.

guttur, uris, n.: the throat, 6.421.

ūdus, a, um: adj. (ūvidus, moist), wet, moist, 5.357.

tenuis, e: adj. (cf. tendō), stretched out; slender, thin, 4.278; light, 3.448; little, 10.511; airy, ethereal, 6.292; delicate, fine, 4.264; scanty, yielding a scanty livelihood, 8.409; reduced, perishing, sinking, 5.690; simple, trivial, humble.

inclūdō, clūsī, clūsus, 3, a.: to shut in, inclose, 6.680; secrete, 2.19; for interclūdō, stop, choke, 7.534; to mount, set, inlay, adorn, 12.211. (1. in and claudō)

senex, senis: (adj.), old, aged, hoary, 7.180; (comp.) senior, ōris, older; very aged, 5.179; hoary, 5.704.

Galaesus, ī, m.: a Latin nobleman, 7.535.

Ausonius, a, um: adj. (Auson), Ausonian; Italian, 4.349; subst., Ausoniī, ōrum, m., the Ausonians; Italians, 11.253.

quīnque: (num. adj. indecl.), five.

grex, gregis, m.: a herd, 6.38; flock; litter; the young, 8.85.

bālō, āvī, ātus, 1, n.: to bleat; subst., bālāns, antis (sc. ovis), f.; pl., bālantēs, ium or um, sheep.

quīnī, ae, a: distr. num. (quīnque), five each; as cardinal, five, 2.126.

redeō, īvī or iī, itus, īre, irreg. n.: to go, come back, return; retreat, 9.794.

armentum, ī, n.: collective (arō), beasts used for plowing; cattle, 2.499, et al.; of all kinds of animals, a herd, drove; of deer, 1.185; of horses, 3.540.

arātrum, ī, n.: a plow, 5.755, et al. (arō)

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Suggested Citation

Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5. https://dcc.dickinson.edu/vergil-aeneid/vergil-aeneid-vii-511-539