Notes and essays by Bret Mulligan
Chronology of Hannibal's Life [pdf]
|ca. 247 BC||Birth of Hannibal. Hamilcar fights the Romans in Sicily.|
|241||Rome defeats Carthaginian fleet at Aegates Islands. Carthage sues for peace.|
|241–237||Mercenary or Truceless War. Hamilcar leads the loyal resistance.|
|237||Hannibal joins his father, Hamilcar, on campaign in Hispania.||Ch. 2|
|229||Hamilcar killed in battle. His son-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair assumes command of Carthaginian forces in Hispania. Romans active in Illyria.||Ch. 3.1|
|226||Romans sign Ebro treaty with Hasdrubal.|
|224–222||Romans pacify the Gallic tribes of northern Italy.|
|221||Hasdrubal the Fair assassinated. Hannibal proclaimed as leader of Carthaginian forces in Hispania. Philip V ascends to Macedonian throne.|
Hannibal's campaign against Vaccaei worries Romans. Construction of the Via Flaminia, which improved transportation from Rome to northern Italy and Illyria.
|219||Saguntum besieged and captured by Carthaginians, leading to outbreak of Second Punic War between Carthage and Rome. Rome embroiled in Second Illyrian War.|
|218||Ch. 3.4 Ch. 4|
Roman army destroyed at Trasimene. Fabius Maximus elected dictator. Gnaeus and Publius Scipio win victories in Hispania. Hannibal nearly destroys the army of Minucius Rufus at Gerontium. Hannibal eludes Fabius in the Ager Falernus. Servilius raids Africa.
|216||Two Roman armies annihilated at Cannae. Another is destroyed in Gaul. Capua and many regions of southern Italy defect to Hannibal. Hannibal repulsed from Nola. Furius raids Africa.|
Hannibal's repeated attempts to take Nola are repulsed (215–214). He captures Casilinum. Bomilcar lands Carthaginian reinforcements in southern Italy. Gnaeus and Publius Scipio defeat Hasdrubal in Hispania. Otacilius raids Africa. A Carthaginian invasion of Sicily is thwarted by an outbreak of plague. Hannibal forges an alliance with Philip V of Macedon (First Macedonian War). Romans raid Carthaginian territory in Hispania.
|213||Romans raise an army of over 200,000 men. They besiege Syracuse. Carthage attempts to reinforce Syracuse. Romans recapture Saguntum.|
Hannibal captures Tarentum and other cities in southern Italy. Roman army defeated at Silarus. Romans under Marcellus capture Syracuse. Capua besieged by Romans. Major battles at Lucania and Herdonea in Italy.
Hannibal advances on Rome but is unable to capture city. Capua falls to Romans. In Hispania, Hasdrubal routs the armies of Gnaeus and Publius Scipio in the battles of the Upper Baetis. Major battles at Volturnus and Anio in Italy. Rome forges alliance with Aetolian League in Greece.
Roman army destroyed at Herdonea. Scipio Africanus, aged 25, appointed leader of Roman forces in Hispania. Battles of Numistro and Venusia in Italy. Roman completes re-conquest of Sicily. Rome resumes raids in Africa.
Twelve Latin cities refuse to supply troops to Rome. Fabius recaptures Tarentum. Battle of Canusium. Scipio captures New Carthage. Philip defeats Aetolians at Lamia. Carthaginian ﬂeet operates in Greek waters.
Consuls Claudius Marcellus and Quinctius Crispinus ambushed and killed. Scipio defeats Hasdrubal at Baecula. Hasdrubal moves into Italy. Romans begin raiding African coast. Carthaginian ﬂeet abandons Greece; another ﬂeet defeated off Africa.
|207||Attempt to reinforce Hannibal by land fails when Hasdrubal is killed at Metaurus. Hannibal retreats into far southern Italy.|
|206||Scipio annihilates a Carthaginian army at Ilipa, completing the conquest of Hispania. Romans campaign in Bruttium. Philip makes peace with Aetolians.|
Romans capture Locri. Philip V of Macedon negotiates a separate peace with Rome (Peace of Phoenike). Mago campaigns in northern Italy. Scipio elected consul.
|204||Continuing operations in Bruttium. Scipio begins offensive operations in northern Africa, besieges Utica, burns Carthaginian camp.|
Mago defeated in northern Italy; dies on route to Carthage. Carthaginians defeated at Great Plains in Africa. After Battle of Croton, Carthage sues for peace and Hannibal is recalled to Africa.
|202||Hannibal defeated at Battle of Zama by Scipio.||Ch. 6.3-4|
|201||Uneasy peace sworn between Rome and Carthage.||Ch. 7.1-5|
Hannibal elected to head Carthaginian government.
|195–194||Hannibal flees to Crete and then to the court of King Antiochus III in Syria.||Ch. 7.6, Ch. 8.4|
|191–190||Ch. 9, Ch. 10, Ch. 11|
Hannibal commits suicide in Bithynia. Death of Scipio Africanus.