Vergil, Aeneid XII 1-17

Turnus ut īnfrāctōs adversō Marte Latīnōs

dēfēcisse videt, sua nunc prōmissa reposcī,

sē sīgnārī oculīs, ultrō implācābilis ārdet

attollitque animōs. Poenōrum quālis in arvīs

saucius ille gravī vēnantum vulnere pectus5

tum dēmum movet arma leō, gaudetque comantīs

excutiēns cervīce torōs fīxumque latrōnis

impavidus frangit tēlum et fremit ōre cruentō:

haud secus accēnsō glīscit violentia Turnō.

Tum sīc adfātur rēgem atque ita turbidus īnfit:10

'Nūlla mora in Turnō; nihil est quod dicta retrāctent

ignāvī Aeneadae, nec quae pepigēre recūsent:

congredior. Fer sacra, patēr, et concipe foedus.

Aut hāc Dardanium dextrā sub Tartara mittam

dēsertōrem Asiae (sedeant spectentque Latīnī),15

et sōlus ferrō crīmen commūne refellam,

aut habeat victōs, cēdat Lāvīnia coniūnx.'


    Turnus, ī, m.: the chief of the Rutulians, 7.56, et al.

    īnfringō, frēgī, frāctus, 3, a.: to break in; break, 12.387; (fig.), to break down, subdue, 5.784; dishearten, paralyze, 9.499. (in and frangō)

    Mārs (archaic form, Māvors), Mārtis: Mars, son of Jupiter and Juno; the patron of war and tutelar god of the Romans, 1.274, et al.; (meton.), martial spirit, courage, warlike fury, 6.165; battle, conflict, 2.335, et al.

    Latīnī, ōrum, m.: the people of Latium; the Latins, 12.823, et al.

    prōmissum, ī, n.: a promise, 2.160; a thing promised; prize, 5.386.

    reposcō, 3, a.: to demand back, demand again; require, 11.240; demand in return, 2.139; ask, 6.530; summon, 10.374; reassert, 12.573; w. two accusatives, demand back from, 7.606.

    sīgnō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to distinguish by a mark or symbol, 6.780; mark, mark out; indicate, designate, 2.697; inscribe, record, 3.287; of the mind, observe, mark, notice, 2.423. (sīgnum)

    ultrō: (adv.), to the farther side; furthermore, over and above, moreover, 2.145, et al.; even, 9.127; beyond the limit of necessity; uncompelled, unasked, unimpelled; apart from all external influences, of one's self, of one's own accord or motion, voluntarily, willingly; unprompted by any words on another's part, first, 2.372; 4.304; unaddressed, 10.606; promptly, 10.282; impetuously, 12.3. (cf. ulterior)

    implācābilis, e: (adj.), inexorable, inflexible, 12.3.

    attollō, 3, a.: to lift or raise up, throw, cast up, 3.574; rear, build, 2.185; (fig.), to rouse, excite, 2.381; with se, lift one’s self or itself, 4.690; come into view, appear, 3.205; (fig.), arise, be exalted, 4.49; (pass.), attollī, to rise, 5.127. (ad and tollō)

    Poenī, ōrum, m.: the Carthaginians, 1.302; Africans, 12.4.

    saucius, a, um: (adj.), wounded, 2.223; pierced, 4.1.

    vēnor, ātus sum, 1, dep. n. and a.: to hunt, 4.117.

    dēmum: (adv.), at length, at last, 1.629; at least, indeed, especially. (dē with n. superl. ending -mum, hence, perhaps meaning downmost)

    leō, leōnis, m.: a lion, 2.722, et al.

    comāns, antis: hairy, 3.468; crested, 2.391; leafy, 12.413. (como -are)

    excutiō, cussī, cussus, 3, a.: to shake out or off, 2.224; throw or cast down, 1.115; cast out, 10.590; drive away, 3.200; expel, 7.299; shake out, uncoil, 3.267; uncoil and arrange (set the sails), 3.683; deprive of, 6.353; throw aside, break, 12.158; hurry forth, call forth, 9.68. (ex and quatiō)

    cervīx, īcis, f.: the neck, including the back or nape of the neck, 1.477, et al.

    torus, ī, m.: a bed, couch, 1.708; seat, 5.388; royal seat, throne, 8.177; bank, 6.674; the swelling part of flesh; a brawny muscle.

    fīgō, fīxī, fīxus, 3, a.: to fix or fasten; freq., the object in or on which, in the abl., 1.212; abl. w. prep., 6.636; acc. w. prep., 9.408; fasten up, suspend from, 3.287; hang up, 1.248; set up, establish, make, 6.622; transfix, pierce, 5.516; hurl (fix by hurling), 10.883; wound, 10.343; inscribe, 11.84.

    latrō, ōnis, m.: a hired servant, mercenary soldier, huntsman, 12.7.

    impavidus, a, um: (adj.), not afraid; fearless, intrepid, 10.717.

    fremō, uī, itus, 3, n. and a.: to make a murmuring noise; to roar, 1.56; whinny, neigh, 12.82; raise lamentations, 6.175; whiz, 12.922; resound, 4.668; rage, 5.19; to be fierce, furious, 4.229; fume, rave, 12.535; shout and sing, 4.146; a., rage, rave for, clamor for, 11.453, et al.; ore fremere, applaud, shout applause, 5.385; p., fremēns, entis, raging, 4.229.

    cruentus, a, um: (adj.), bloody, blood-stained, 1.296; covered with blood, 10.498.

    secus: following, late; otherwise, differently; nōn or haud secus, not otherwise, not less; likewise, even so, 2.382, et al.; none the less, nevertheless, 5.862; haud secus ac, nor otherwise than, just as. (comp. adv.), sētius, less, the less; haud sētius, not the less, 7.781.

    accendō, ī, cēnsus, 3, a.: to set fire to, light up, enkindle, 5.4; enrage, exasperate, incense, 1.29; incite, rouse, 4.232. (ad and candō, rel. to candeō)

    glīscō, 3, inc. n.: to grow, swell; rise, increase, rage, 12.9.

    violentia, ae, f.: violence, 11.354; fierceness, impetuosity, fire, passion, fury, rage, 12.9. (violentus)

    adfor, fātus sum, 1, dep. a.: to speak to; address, 1.663; beseech, supplicate, 2.700; bid adieu, farewell to, 2.644.

    turbidus, a, um: adj. (turbō), confused; mingled, foul, 6.296; dismal, dark, 6.534; whirling, 5.696; of the mind, sad, troubled, 4.353; startled, in alarm, 11.814; furious, 11.742.

    īnfit, irreg. def.: one begins; he begins to speak, 5.708, et al.

    quod: (conj.), as to which thing; in that, that, indeed that, because; but, moreover, however, freq.; quod sī, but if, indeed if, if however, 6.133.

    dictum, ī, n.: a thing said; word, 1.197; command, precept, injunction, 1.695; promise, 8.643. (dīcō)

    retrāctō, āvī, ātus, 1, freq. a. and n.: to handle again; gripe or grasp again, 10.396; take up again, resume, 7.694; recall, 12.11; n., hesitate, hold back, 12.889.

    ignāvus, a, um: (adj.), inactive, idle, slothful, spiritless, cowardly, 12.12; of inanimate things, unoccupied, inactive.

    Aeneadēs, ae, m.: a son of Aeneas; pl., Aeneadae, ārum, followers of Aeneas, the Trojans, 1.565; Aeneadae, 3.18.

    nec or neque: (adv. and conj.), and not; neither, nor, 1.643, et al.; in prohibition, 3.394, et al.; neque (nec) — neque (nec), neither — nor, 5.21, et al.; nec — et, or -que, may be rendered neither — nor, 12.801; 2.534; nec nōn, and also, nor less, 6.183; nec nōn et, and also, 1.707.

    pangō, pēgī or pepigī, pāctus, 3, a.: to fasten; strike, covenant, agree to, contract, 10.902; appoint, 11.133; devise, attempt, undertake, 8.144.

    recūsō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to bring a reason against; object; reject, decline, 5.417; refuse, 2.607; shrink back, recoil, 5.406. (re- and causa)

    congredior, gressus sum, 3, dep. n.: to step, go together; encounter, 1.475; join battle; proceed to battle, 12.13. (com- and gradior)

    sacrum, ī, n.: a holy thing; pl., sacra, ōrum, n., sacred symbols, rites, 12.13; sacred rites, ceremonies, sacrifices, 2.132; sacred things, utensils, symbols, 2.293; mysteries, 3.112.

    concipiō, cēpī, ceptus, 3, a.: to take completely; assume, 11.519; take in; conceive, 5.38; imagine, 4.502; to be possessed, filled with, 4.474; conceive, form, or express in words; form, draw up, 12.13. (com- and capiō)

    foedus, eris, n.: a treaty, league, alliance, freq., truce, 5.496; side or party, 12.658; covenant, contract, 4.339; laws of hospitality, hospitality, 10.91; pledge, love, 4.520; law, term, condition, rule, 1.62. (rel. to fīdō, trust)

    Dardanius, a, um: adj. (Dardanus), Dardanian, Trojan, 5.711; subst., Dardanius, iī, m., the Dardanian; the Trojan, 12.14.

    Tartarus, ī, m., pl., Tartara, ōrum, n.: the lower world, Hades; especially that portion which was set apart for the wicked; Tartarus, 5.734, et al.

    dēsertor, ōris, m.: one who has deserted; a renegade, 12.15. (dēserō)

    Āsia, ae, f.: 1. Asia, a town of Lydia, near the river Cayster. 2. Asia Minor; Asia, 7.224, et al.

    refellō, fellī, 3, a.: to prove that one is in error; refute, gainsay, 4.380. (re- and fallō)

    Lāvīnia, ae, f.: a Latin princess, daughter of King Latinus, 6.764, et al.

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    Suggested Citation

    Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5.