Turnus, ut ante volāns tardum praecesserat agmen

vīgintī lēctīs equitum comitātus et urbī

imprōvīsus adest, maculīs quem Thrācius albīs

portat equus cristāque tegit galea aurea rubrā,50

'Ecquis erit mēcum, iuvenēs, quī prīmus in hostem—?

Ēn,' ait et iaculum attorquēns ēmittit in aurās,

prīncipium pūgnae, et campō sēsē arduus īnfert.

Clāmōrem excipiunt sociī fremitūque sequuntur

horrisonō; Teucrum mīrantur inertia corda,55

nōn aequō dare sē campō, nōn obvia ferre

arma virōs, sed castra fovēre. Hūc turbidus atque hūc

lūstrat equō mūrōs aditumque per avia quaerit.

Ac velutī plēnō lupus īnsidiātus ovīlī

cum fremit ad caulās ventōs perpessus et imbrīs60

nocte super mediā; tūtī sub mātribus agnī

bālātum exercent, ille asper et improbus īrā

saevit in absentīs; collēcta fatīgat edendī

ex longō rabiēs et siccae sanguine faucēs:

haud aliter Rutulō mūrōs et castra tuentī65

īgnēscunt īrae, dūrīs dolor ossibus ārdet.

quā temptet ratiōne aditūs, et quae via clausōs

excutiat Teucrōs vallō atque effundat in aequum?

Classem, quae laterī castrōrum adiuncta latēbat,

aggeribus saeptam circum et fluviālibus undīs,70

invādit sociōsque incendia poscit ovantīs

atque manum pīnū flagrantī fervidus implet.

Tum vērō incumbunt (urget praesentia Turnī),

atque omnis facibus pūbēs accingitur ātrīs.

dīripuēre focōs: piceum fert fūmida lūmen75

taeda et commixtam Volcānus ad astra favillam.


    Turnus, ī, m.: the chief of the Rutulians, 7.56, et al.

    volō, āvī, ātus, 1, n.: to fly, 1.300, et al.; of rumor, to be spread rapidly, noised or spread abroad, 3.121.

    praecēdō, cessī, cessus, 3, n.: to go before, 9.47.

    vīgintī: (num. adj. indecl.), twenty, 1.634.

    lēctus, a, um: gathered, collected, 6.228; picked, culled; chosen, choice, 9.272, et al. (legō)

    comitor, ātus sum, 1. dep. a.: to accompany, attend, follow, 3.660; p., comitātus, a, um, attended, accompanied, 1.312, et al. (comes)

    imprōvīsus, a, um: (adj.), unforeseen; unlooked for, unexpected, 1.595.

    adsum, adfuī, esse, irreg. n.: to be near or by; to be present, at hand, or here, 1.595; to have arrived, 2.132; to be with, attend, 2.701; aid, accompany, 10.547; be propitious, 3.116; to beset, 2.330; inf., adfore, to be about to come, destined to come, 7.270. (imp. subj., adforem, -ēs, -et, -ent)

    macula, ae, f.: a spot, 5.566, et al.

    Thrācius, a, um: (adj.), Thracian, 5.536, et al.

    crista, ae, f.: a crest, plume, 3.468; helmet, 7.185.

    galea, ae, f.: a helmet, either of leather or of metal, 3.468, et al.

    ruber, bra, brum: adj. (rubeō), red, ruddy, 12.247; lītore rubrō, shore of the Mare Rubrum or Persian Gulf, 8.686.

    ecquī, quae or qua, quod: (adj. interr. pron., denoting vehement feeling), whether any? any? 3.341. (ec and qui)

    ēn: (interj.), lo! behold! with nom., 1.461; in indignation, 4.597.

    iaculum, ī, n.: a thing hurled; a spear, dart, or javelin, 3.46, et al. (iaciō)

    attorqueō, 2, a.: to swing or hurl, 9.52. (ad and torqueō)

    ēmittō, mīsī, missus, 3, a.: to send forth, 6.898; hurl, throw, shoot, 11.676.

    arduus, a, um: (adj.), steep; erect, high, raised high, 2.475; 5.480; lofty, towering, 2.328; rearing, 11.638.

    fremitus, ūs, m.: a murmuring, an uproar, din; tumult, shouting, 2.338, et al.; buzzing, humming; neighing, 11.607. (fremō)

    horrisonus, a, um: adj. (horreō and sonus), having or making a fearful sound; harsh-sounding, thundering, 6.573.

    Teucrī, ōrum, m.: the Trojans, descendants of Teucer, 1.38, et al.; adj., Teucrian, Trojan, 9.779, et al. (Teucer)

    iners, inertis: without ability; without force; inactive, inanimate, indolent; feeble, timid, 9.730; helpless, lifeless, 2.364; of the voice, weak, 10.322.

    obvius, a, um: adj. (ob and via), in the way; presenting one's self or itself; meeting, 1.314; against, 6.880; opposing, 9.56; in the way of; exposed to, 3.499; obvius fierī, to encounter, meet, 10.380.

    foveō, fōvī, fōtus, 2, a.: to keep warm; (fig.), foster, protect, cherish, 1.281; soothe, 12.420; caress, make love to, 1.718; rest, incline, 10.838; to toy away, enjoy, 4.193; cherish, hope, long, desire, 1.18.

    turbidus, a, um: adj. (turbō), confused; mingled, foul, 6.296; dismal, dark, 6.534; whirling, 5.696; of the mind, sad, troubled, 4.353; startled, in alarm, 11.814; furious, 11.742.

    lūstrō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to purify by atonement, 3.279; go round the fields with the victims; hence to bless, ask for a blessing on; go or dance around an altar or the image of a god, 7.391; traverse, pass across, around, or over, 1.608; pass in review, parade before, 5.578; run through, 2.528; search, 1.577; observe, survey, 1.453; watch, mark, 11.763; of the sun, illuminate, 4.607. (lūstrum)

    aditus, ūs, m.: a going to; an approach, avenue, access, passage, entrance, 2.494; (fig.), approach, 4.423. (adeō)

    āvius, a, um: pathless, 2.736; devious, unapproachable, 12.480; that cannot be tracked, inaccessible, eluding pursuit, 11.810; subst., āvium, iī, n., a devious, inaccessible place, or way, 9.58.

    atque, or ac: (conj.), and in addition, or and besides; and, as well, and indeed, and, 1.575; freq.; even, 2.626; in comparisons, as, 4.90; than, 3.561.

    lupus, ī, m.: a wolf, 3.428, et al.

    īnsidior, ātus sum, 1, dep. n.: to lie in ambush; lie in wait, lurk for, w. dat., 9.59. (īnsidiae)

    ovīle, is, n.: a sheepcote, sheepfold. (ovis)

    fremō, uī, itus, 3, n. and a.: to make a murmuring noise; to roar, 1.56; whinny, neigh, 12.82; raise lamentations, 6.175; whiz, 12.922; resound, 4.668; rage, 5.19; to be fierce, furious, 4.229; fume, rave, 12.535; shout and sing, 4.146; a., rage, rave for, clamor for, 11.453, et al.; ore fremere, applaud, shout applause, 5.385; p., fremēns, entis, raging, 4.229.

    caulae, ārum, f.: an opening, a passage; sheepfold, 9.60.

    perpetior, pessus sum, 3, dep. a. and n.: to bear completely; suffer, endure, 9.60; permit, 12.644. (per and patior)

    imber, imbris, m.: a rain-storm; shower, 1.743, et al.; rain-cloud, 3.194; of sea-water, flood, 1.123; hail, 8.429.

    agnus, ī, m.: a lamb, 1.635.

    bālātus, ūs, m.: a bleating, 9.565. (bālō)

    asper, era, erum: (adj.), rough, 2.379; rugged, craggy, jagged, 6.360; chased, embossed, 5.267; (fig.), of the weather, stormy, 2.110; of temperament, spirit, or nature, barbarous, 5.730; formidable, fierce, 1.14; full of strife, warlike, 1.291; cruel, stern, 6.882; angry, 1.279; bitter, 2.96; displeased, 8.365.

    improbus, a, um: (adj.), not good; bad; malicious, wicked; cruel, 2.80; savage, 10.727; furiously impelled, destructive, 12.687; unappeasable, ravenous, rapacious, 12.250; importunate, raging, 2.356; of military devices, with warlike craft, 11.512; with murderous intent, 11.767; subst., m., shameless, impudent boaster, braggart, 5.397; wretch, 4.386.

    saeviō, iī, ītus, 4, n.: to be fierce; to be furious, rage; be angry, 6.544. (saevus)

    absum, āfuī or abfuī, āfutūrus or abfutūrus, abesse, irreg. n.: to be away; to be absent, 2.620; distant, 11.907; to be wanting, missing, 1.584; inf., āfore, or abfore, will be wanting, 8.147.

    fatīgō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to weary, tire, 1.316; exhaust, 11.306; goad, 9.610; harass, vex, pursue, 6.533; infuriate, 9.63; rouse, 4.572; beat up, hunt, scour, 9.605; disturb, confound, 1.280; strike upon, beat, 10.304; demand with importunity, clamor for, 7.582.

    rabiēs, em, ē, f.: madness, frenzy, fury, fierceness, 2.357, et al.; of inanimate things, 5.802, et al.

    siccus, a, um: (adj.), dry, 3.135; thirsty, dry, hungry, fasting, 2.358; nearly equivalent to carēns or prīvātus, with abl. foll., drained of blood, 8.261; hence, thirsting for blood, 9.64; subst., siccum, ī, n., dry ground, sand, or land, 10.301.

    faucēs, ium, f.: the jaws, throat, 2.358; (fig.), mouth, entrance, jaws, 6.241; defiles, 11.516.

    Rutulus, ī, m.: a Rutulian; Turnus, 7.409; for the pl., the Rutulians, 8.474.

    tueor, tuitus or tūtus sum, 2, dep. a.: to look at, gaze upon, behold, regard, 4.451, et al.; watch, guard, defend, maintain, protect, 1.564, et al.; p., tūtus, a, um, secure, safe; in safety, 1.243; sure, 4.373; subst., tūtum, ī, n., safety, place of safety, 1.391; pl., tūta, ōrum, safe places, safety, security, 11.882; adv., tūtō, with safety, safely, without danger, 11.381.

    īgnēscō, 3, inc. n.: to take fire; to be fired, inflamed, to burn, 9.66. (īgnis)

    excutiō, cussī, cussus, 3, a.: to shake out or off, 2.224; throw or cast down, 1.115; cast out, 10.590; drive away, 3.200; expel, 7.299; shake out, uncoil, 3.267; uncoil and arrange (set the sails), 3.683; deprive of, 6.353; throw aside, break, 12.158; hurry forth, call forth, 9.68. (ex and quatiō)

    vāllum, ī: a rampart, breastwork, or fort with palisades, 9.524.

    effundō, fūdī, fūsus, 3, a.: to pour out or forth; shed, 2.271; throw, cast out, 7.780; cast, 6.339; overthrow, 11.485; bring out, 9.68; unbind, dishevel, 4.509; dissolve, 2.651; let loose, throw out, 5.818; spend, lose, waste, 5.446; of words, utter, 5.780; (pass.), effundī, dart, 5.145; flow, 6.686. (ex and fundō)

    aequum, ī, n.: that which is even; right, justice, 2.427; in aequum, to the open field, 9.68.

    adiungō, iūnxī, iūnctus, 3, a.: to join to, moor, 9, 69; associate with, 8, 515; add, to ally, 7, 238.

    agger, eris, m.: materials gathered to form an elevation; a heap of earth or stones, dike, embankment, bank, 1.112; 2.496; heap of earth, 9.567; top, summit, ridge, raised surface, 5.44, 273; a rampart, 9.769, et al.; a height or rising ground, 12.446; aggerēs, mountains, mountain ramparts, 6.830. (aggerō)

    saepiō, saepsī, saeptus, 4, a.: to fence in; inclose, surround, 1.506; envelop, 1.411. (saepēs, inclosure)

    circum: (adv.), about, around; (prep. with acc.), around, about.

    fluviālis, e: adj. (fluvius), pertaining to a river or brook, 4.635.

    invādō, vāsī, vāsus, 3, a. and n.: to go into; enter, 3.382; enter upon, 6.260; invade, violate, 6.623; rush into, 12.712; attack, assail, 2.414; address, accost, 4.265; undertake, adventure, 9.186.

    incendium, iī, n.: a burning, conflagration; flame, fire, 2.706; desolation, 1.566; fiery material, firebrand, 9.71. (incendō)

    ovō, ātus, 1, n.: to shout, rejoice, 3.544; triumph, 6.589; p., ovāns, antis, exulting, joyous, shouting, triumphant, 4.543; of things, 10.409.

    manus, ūs, f.: the hand, 1.487; freq.; (meton.), action, movement of the hand; work, art, handiwork, 3.486; prowess, heroic deed, action, 2.434; force, violence, 2.645; a collection of persons; a band, crew, troop; an army, 2.29; forces, 5.623; multitude, 6.660; pl., manūs, workmen, 11.329; dare manūs, to yield, 11.558; extrēma manus, the finishing hand or touch, 7.572.

    pīnus, ūs or ī: a pine tree, pine, 3.659, et al.; (meton.), a ship, 5.153; a torch, 7.397; a pine brand or torch, 9.522.

    flāgrō, āvī, ātus, 1, n.: to be on fire or in flames; burn, blaze, 2.685; glow, 1.710; flash, 12.167; blush, 12.65; rage, 11.225.

    fervidus, a, um: adj. (ferveō), glowing hot; glowing; fired, 9.736; furious, 7.397; boiling, 7.24; threatening, 12.894; eager, impetuous, 12.748.

    incumbō, cubuī, cubitus, 3, n.: to lay one's self upon; lean or recline upon; (w. dat.), lie on or stretch over, 2.205; fall upon, 1.84; bend to, ply, 5.15; hasten, urge, press on, 2.653; overhang, 2.514; press or bend toward, 5.325; (w. ad and acc.), lean, hang, incline, 8.236; absolute, bend to, urge on the work, 4.397.

    urgeō, ursī, 2, a. and n.: to drive, impel, press forward, 1.111; ply, hasten, 9.489; press, oppress, crush, bear down, 3.579; press around, inclose, surround, hem in, 11.524; weigh upon, oppress, close, 10.745; overpower, 2.653; attack, 10.375; punish, torture, 6.561.

    praesentia, ae, f.: a being present; presence, 9.73. (praesēns)

    pūbēs, is, f.: the groin, middle, 3.427; the youthful population; youth, young men; youthful band, 1.399; brood, offspring, 6.580.

    accingō, cīnxī, cīnctus (pass. inf., accingier, 4.493), 3, a.: to gird on; gird, 2.614; arm, equip, 6.184; make one’s self ready; prepare, 1.210; resort to, 4.493. (ad and cingō)

    āter, tra, trum: (adj.), black; dark, gloomy, 1.60, et al.; smoky, lurid, 7.456; 4.384; clotted, dark, 3.622; soiled, blackened, 2.272; (fig.), sad, fatal, 6.429; venomous, deadly; of the odor of smoke, 12.591.

    dīripiō, ripuī, reptus, 3, a.: to tear apart or off; snatch, tear away, 3.227; plunder, pillage, sack, 2.563. See also dēripiō. (dis- and rapiō)

    focus, ī, m.: a fireplace, hearth, 5.660; home, 3.134; place where the funeral pyre has been consumed, place of burning, 11.212; fire, firebrand, 12.285.

    piceus, a, um: adj. (pix), of pitch; smoking with pitch, pitchy, 9.75; pitch-black, 3.573.

    fūmidus, a, um: adj. (fūmus), smoking, 9.75; steaming, 7.465; veiled with smoke, 7.76.

    taeda, ae, f.: pitch-pine, 4.505; a brand, 7.71; torch, nuptial torch, 4.18; marriage, 4.339.

    commisceō, uī, mixtus or mistus, 2, a.: to mix together, freq.; blend, mingle, 3.633.

    Vulcānus, ī, m.: the god of fire and of the forge, son of Jupiter and Juno, 8.422; (meton.), fire, 2.311, et al.

    favīlla, ae, f.: ashes, embers, cinders, 3.573.

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    Suggested Citation

    Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5. https://dcc.dickinson.edu/vergil-aeneid/vergil-aeneid-ix-47-76