Chapter 5.35

Quō praeceptō ab eīs dīligentissimē observātō, cum quaepiam cohors ex orbe excesserat atque impetum fēcerat, hostēs vēlōcissimē refugiēbant. Interim eam partem nūdārī necesse erat et ab latere apertō tēla recipī. Rūrsus cum in eum locum unde erant ēgressī revertī coeperant, et ab eīs quī cesserant et ab eīs quī proximī steterant circumveniēbantur. Sīn autem locum tenēre vellent, nec virtūtī locus relinquēbātur neque ab tantā multitūdine coniecta tēla cōnfertī vītāre poterant. Tamen tot incommodīs cōnflīctātī, multīs vulneribus acceptīs resistēbant et māgnā parte diēī cōnsūmptā, cum ā prīmā lūce ad hōram octāvam pūgnārētur, nihil quod ipsīs esset indīgnum committēbant. Tum T. Balventiō, quī superiōre annō prīmum pīlum dūxerat, virō fortī et māgnae auctōritātis, utrumque femur trāgulā trāicitur; Q. Lūcānius ēiusdem ōrdinis, fortissimē pūgnāns, dum circumventō fīliō subvenit, interficitur; L. Cotta lēgātus omnēs cohortēs ōrdinēsque adhortāns in adversum ōs fundā vulnerātur.

安比奥里克斯的军力在狭道中袭击了罗马队列。

Quo praecepto...observato: 绝对离格。Quo是连接关系词(Gaisser) (A&G 308.f)

ab latere aperto: “在他们暴露的侧翼”;由于士兵左手持盾,军队的右侧没有盾牌的保护 (Hammond)

sin…vellent: 与cum reverti coeperant形成对比。虚拟式偶尔会取代更常用的陈述式中的未完成式和过去完成式,用于表达从句中重复的动作(Hodges);vellent:这与现存事实并不矛盾,但是这里是一个影射过去的未来虚拟式。(A&G 516.f)

ad horam octavam: 即下午两点和三点之间。罗马人将白天分成12个小时,且每小时的长度会随着一年的具体的时间而变化。(Gaisser) (A&G 424.e).

T. Balventio: 表达劣势的与格(文中随后就会说明为什么)(Gaisser) (A&G 376).

primum pilum duxerat: “在此之前是个首席百夫长”(过去完成式)(Anthon)

in adversum os: “正好在脸上” (Gaisser).

funda: “投掷器(扔出的投掷物)”;手段(工具)离格 (Gaisser) (A&G 409).

praecĭpĭo, -ĕre, -cēpi, -ceptum: 命令;嘱咐;预测; praeceptum, -i 中性:命令,指挥

dīlĭgens, -ntis: 勤奋的,仔细的

observō, -āre, -āvi, -ātum: 注意,当心

quaepĭam adv.: 去任何地方

excēdo, exceděre, excessi, excessum: 出去,前进,离开,撤退

vēlox, -ōcis: 迅速地,快速地

rĕfŭgĭo, -ĕre, -fūgi: 逃跑,撤退

nūdo, -āre: 暴露,裸露

circumvĕnĭo, -īre: 包围,包抄,隔断,胜过

sin: 但是如果

cōnǐcǐo, cōnicěre, cōniēci, cōniectum: 集结,团结

confertus, -a, -um: 紧凑的,拥挤的

vīto, -āre: 避免,躲避

incommodum, i n.: 麻烦,困难,劣势

conflicto, -āre: 骚扰

resistō, resistěre, restitī: 站住,停止,停驻

octāvus, -a, -um: 第八个

indignus, -a, -um: 不值得,缺乏美德的

pīlum, i n.: 标枪

fortis, -e: 勇敢的,英勇坚韧的

fĕmur, -ĭnis n.: 大腿

trāgŭla, -ae f.: 标枪

trāĭcĭo, -ĕre, -iēci, -iectum: 刺穿

subvěnǐo, -věnire, -vēni, - ventum: 减轻(负担),帮忙

ǎdhortor, -āri, -ātus: 鼓励,激励,敦促

funda, -ae f.: 扔,投掷

vulněrō, -āre, -āvi, -ātum: 伤害,损害

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Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-02-3. https://dcc.dickinson.edu/zh-hans/chapter-5-35