Vergil, Aeneid XII 311-345

At pius Aeneas dextram tendebat inermem

nudato capite atque suos clamore uocabat:

'quo ruitis? quaeue ista repens discordia surgit?

o cohibete iras! ictum iam foedus et omnes

compositae leges. mihi ius concurrere soli;315

me sinite atque auferte metus. ego foedera faxo

firma manu; Turnum debent haec iam mihi sacra.'

has inter uoces, media inter talia uerba

ecce uiro stridens alis adlapsa sagitta est,

incertum qua pulsa manu, quo turbine adacta,320

quis tantam Rutulis laudem, casusne deusne,

attulerit; pressa est insignis gloria facti,

nec sese Aeneae iactauit uulnere quisquam.

Turnus ut Aenean cedentem ex agmine uidit

turbatosque duces, subita spe feruidus ardet;325

poscit equos atque arma simul, saltuque superbus

emicat in currum et manibus molitur habenas.

multa uirum uolitans dat fortia corpora leto.

seminecis uoluit multos: aut agmina curru

proterit aut raptas fugientibus ingerit hastas.330

qualis apud gelidi cum flumina concitus Hebri

sanguineus Mauors clipeo increpat atque furentis

bella mouens immittit equos, illi aequore aperto

ante Notos Zephyrumque uolant, gemit ultima pulsu

Thraca pedum circumque atrae Formidinis ora335

Iraeque Insidiaeque, dei comitatus, aguntur:

talis equos alacer media inter proelia Turnus

fumantis sudore quatit, miserabile caesis

hostibus insultans; spargit rapida ungula rores

sanguineos mixtaque cruor calcatur harena.340

iamque neci Sthenelumque dedit Thamyrumque Pholumque,

hunc congressus et hunc, illum eminus; eminus ambo

Imbrasidas, Glaucum atque Laden, quos Imbrasus ipse

nutrierat Lycia paribusque ornauerat armis

uel conferre manum uel equo praeuertere uentos.345

CORE VOCABULARY

Aenēās, ae, m.: 1. A Trojan chief, son of Venus and Anchises, and hero of the Aeneid, 1.92. 2. Aenēās Silvius, one of the Alban kings, 6.769.

inermis, e: unarmed; helpless, defenseless, 1.487, et al.

nūdō, āvī, ātus, 1. a.: to make bare, naked; lay open, bare, 1.211; (fig.), expose, 5.586; lay open, disclose, 1.356. (nūdus)

ruō, ruī, rutus, 3, n. and a.: to fall with violence; tumble down, fall, freq.; fall in battle, 10.756; of the sun, go down, set, 3.508; rush forward, 2.64; of the chariot of Nox, hasten up; ascend, rise, 2.250; advance, 10.256; plunge, rush, 2.353; flee, 12.505; tremble, quake, 8.525; hasten, pass away, 6.539; cause to fall; cast down, 9.516; plow, 1.35; cast, throw up, 1.85; throw up or together, 11.211.

repēns, entis: (adj.), sudden, 12.313.

discordia, ae, f.: difference in feeling, or mind; dissension, strife; personified, Discord or Eris, 6.280. (discors)

ō: (interj. expressing joy, grief, astonishment, desire, or indignation), O! oh! ah! w. voc., 2.281, et al.; w. sī and the subj., oh that, 11.415; sometimes placed after the word to which it relates, 2.281.

cohibeō, uī, itus, 2, a.: to hold together, restrain, confine, 3.424; check, curb, repress, 12.314. (com- and habeō)

icō and iciō (obsolete in the present except in the forms icit, iciunt), īcī, ictus, 3, a.: to smite, hit, strike, 6.180; of treaties or leagues, make, ratify, 12.314.

foedus, eris, n.: a treaty, league, alliance, freq., truce, 5.496; side or party, 12.658; covenant, contract, 4.339; laws of hospitality, hospitality, 10.91; pledge, love, 4.520; law, term, condition, rule, 1.62. (rel. to fīdō, trust)

concurrō, currī (rarely cucurrī), cursus, 3, n.: to run together or at once; crowd around, 12.297; rush, 2.315; rush to conflict, 7.224; rush against a foe; (with dat.), engage, encounter, 1.493.

fīrmus, a, um: (adj.), firm, strong, solid, 2.481; (fig.), resolute, steadfast, 6.261.

manus, ūs, f.: the hand, 1.487; freq.; (meton.), action, movement of the hand; work, art, handiwork, 3.486; prowess, heroic deed, action, 2.434; force, violence, 2.645; a collection of persons; a band, crew, troop; an army, 2.29; forces, 5.623; multitude, 6.660; pl., manūs, workmen, 11.329; dare manūs, to yield, 11.558; extrēma manus, the finishing hand or touch, 7.572.

Turnus, ī, m.: the chief of the Rutulians, 7.56, et al.

sacrum, ī, n.: a holy thing; pl., sacra, ōrum, n., sacred symbols, rites, 12.13; sacred rites, ceremonies, sacrifices, 2.132; sacred things, utensils, symbols, 2.293; mysteries, 3.112.

strīdeō, 2, n., and strīdō, strīdī, 3: to produce a grating or shrill sound; to creak, 1.449; gurgle, 4.689; rustle, 1.397; whiz, roar, 1.102; hiss, 8.420; twang, 5.502.

āla, ae, f.: a wing, 1.301; the feather of an arrow, 9.578; the wing of an army; cavalry, 11.730; troop, battalion, 11.604; horsemen, mounted huntsmen, 4.121.

adlābor, lāpsus sum, 3, dep. n.: to glide to; (with dat., rarely acc.), sail to, reach, 3.569; advance, glide (with abl. of manner), 10.269; fly to, 9.474; descend, fall upon, 12.319.

sagitta, ae, f.: an arrow, 1.187, et al.

incertus, a, um: (adj.), uncertain, 2.740; wavering; fickle, 2.39; doubtful, 3.7; undistinguished, base, 11.341.

turbō, inis, m.: a tornado, whirlwind; storm, tempest, 1.442; whirling cloud, 3.573; wind accompanying the lightning; lightning-blast, 1.45; 6.594; whirling or stormy force, 11.284, et al.; a whirling top, a child's top, 7.378. (cf. turba)

adigō, ēgī, āctus, 3, a.: to drive, take, bring to, 9, 601; thrust, 9, 431; to strike down, hurl, 4, 25; force, urge, impel, with inf., 6, 696; drive, 10, 850. (ad and agō)

Rutulī, ōrum, m.: the Rutulians, an ancient tribe of Latium dwelling south of the Tiber, 1.266, et al.

īnsīgnis, e: beautiful, 3.468; splendid, adorned, 4.134; conspicuous, 6.808; marked, renowned, distinguished, 1.10; illustrious, glorious, 10.450. (in and sīgnum)

nec or neque: (adv. and conj.), and not; neither, nor, 1.643, et al.; in prohibition, 3.394, et al.; neque (nec) — neque (nec), neither — nor, 5.21, et al.; nec — et, or -que, may be rendered neither — nor, 12.801; 2.534; nec nōn, and also, nor less, 6.183; nec nōn et, and also, 1.707.

iactō, āvī, ātus, 1, freq. a.: to throw often or much; toss to and fro; toss, freq.; hurl, cast, 2.459; thrust out, 5.376; aim, 5.433; (fig.), throw out words, utter, say, 1.102; of the mind, revolve, meditate, 1.227; sē iactāre, boast, exalt one's self, rejoice, glory, 1.140; prae sē iactāre, to make pretense of, 9.134; p., iactāns, antis, arrogant, assuming, ambitious, 6.815. (iaciō)

subitus, a, um: having come up suddenly; unexpected, sudden, 2.692; suddenly, 3.225. (subeō)

fervidus, a, um: adj. (ferveō), glowing hot; glowing; fired, 9.736; furious, 7.397; boiling, 7.24; threatening, 12.894; eager, impetuous, 12.748.

saltus, ūs, m.: a leap, bound, spring, 2.565; an ascending, 6.515. (saliō)

ēmicō, uī, ātus, 1, n.: to leap, spring forth, 6.5; to dart, bound, or spring upward, 2.175; run, rush, dart forward, 5.319.

mōlior, ītus sum, 4, dep. a. and n.: to pile up; build, erect, construct, 1.424; plan, undertake, attempt, 2.109; pursue, 6.477; cleave, 10.477; contrive, devise, 1.564; occasion, 1.414; prepare, equip, 4.309; arrange, adjust, 12.327; of missiles, discharge, hurl, 10.131. (mōlēs)

habēna, ae, f.: a rein, 1.63, et al.; strap, thong, 9.587; whip, 7.380; immissīs or laxīs habēnīs, with all the reins let out, without restraint, unchecked, 5.662; pressīs or adductīs habēnīs, with tightened reins, 12.622. (habeō)

volitō, āvī, ātus, 1, freq. n.: to fly about, whirl about, hover, flit, 6.329; ride or gallop around, 12.126; circulate, pass rapidly, fly. (1. volō)

lētum, ī, n.: death, destruction, 2.134, et al. (cf. dēleō)

sēminex (nom. not in use), ecis: adj. (semi- and nex), half slain, half dead, 5.275.

volvō, volvī, volūtus, 3, a.: to roll, 1.86; roll along or down, 1.101; roll or cast up, 3.206; toss, hurl, 12.906; roll over, roll in the dust, 12.329; cast, hurl down, 1.116; 9.512; roll, wheel, 1.163; of books, open, unroll, 1.262; of the Fates, fix the circle of events, decree, ordain, dispose, 1.22; 3.376; of the mind, revolve, meditate, reflect upon, 1.305; pass, continue, live through, experience, endure, suffer, 1.9; rotam volvere, to complete a cycle, period; (pass.), volvī, roll over, roll, 10.590; turn or wind about, 7.350; to be shed, to flow, 4.449; roll on, revolve, 1.269.

prōterō, trīvī, trītus, 3, a.: to rub before; trample upon or down, crush to pieces, 12.330.

ingerō, gessī, gestus, 3, a.: to carry, bring, throw, cast into, at, or upon, 9.763.

hasta, ae, f.: a spear, 2.50, and freq.; hasta pūra, a headless spear, 6.760; pampinea hasta, a thyrsus, 7.396.

gelidus, a, um: adj. (gelū), frosty, ice-cold; cold, cool, icy, chilling, 2.120; chilled, 3.30.

concieō, īvī, itus, 2, a.: to call together; incite, to stir up, arouse; enrage, fire, make furious, 9.694; hurl, shoot from, 12.921; disturb, 3.127; (pass.), to be impelled on, dart along, 11.744; hasten, speed, 12.902.

Hēbrus, ī, m.: a river of Thrace, 1.317, et al.; a Trojan slain by Mezentius, 10.696.

sanguineus, a, um: adj. (sanguis), of blood; bloodshot, 4.643; of bloody color or aspect, bloody, 2.207; fiery, bloody, 10.273; ruddy, burnished, 8.622; bloodthirsty, 12.332.

Mārs (archaic form, Māvors), Mārtis: Mars, son of Jupiter and Juno; the patron of war and tutelar god of the Romans, 1.274, et al.; (meton.), martial spirit, courage, warlike fury, 6.165; battle, conflict, 2.335, et al.

clipeus, ī, m., and clipeum, ī, n.: a round shield; a shield, 2.227, et al.

increpō, uī, itus, rarely āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.: to make a noise or din; resound, 8.527; clash, 12.332; snap, 12.755; (fig.), chide, blame, reprimand, 6.387; taunt, 9.560; (w. cognate acc.), utter, 9.504.

furō, uī, 3, n.: to be mad; freq., to rave, be frantic, rage, 1.491; to be furious, burn, storm (for war), 7.625; to be burning or mad with love, 1.659; to be frenzied, in a frenzy, 6.100; inspired, 2.345; distracted with grief, 3.313; plunge madly, 9.552; boil, 7.464; with cognate acc., give vent to one's fury, 12.680.

immittō, mīsī, missus, 3, a.: to send upon or to; drive to, 6.312; bring upon, 4.488; let in, 2.495; let fly, go, loosen, 6.1; hurl, fling, cast, 11.562; (with sē), rush into, 6.262; p., immissus, a, um, of the reins of horses, let loose; hence, (fig.), swiftly running, 5.146; unchecked, unbridled, 5.662; of the hair or beard, descending, left growing, neglected, long, 3.593.

aperiō, uī, tus, 4, a.: to uncover, lay bare, 1.107; throw open, open, 2.60; disclose to the view, 3.206; disclose, reveal, 6.12; (pass.), aperīrī, to appear, 8.681; p., apertus, a, um, opened, 8.585; unguarded, 11.748; adj., open, 1.155; clear, pure, 1.587. (ab and root par, whence pariō)

Notus, ī, m.: identical in meaning with auster; the south-wind, 1.85; wind, 6.355; storm, 1.575.

Zephyrus, ī, m.: Zephyrus or Favonius, the god of the west wind, 2.417, et al.; west wind, 4.562; wind, 10.103.

volō, āvī, ātus, 1, n.: to fly, 1.300, et al.; of rumor, to be spread rapidly, noised or spread abroad, 3.121.

gemō, uī, itus, 3, n. and a.: to groan, 7.501; sigh, 1.465; bemoan, bewail, lament, 1.221; of inanimate things, creak, 6.413.

pulsus, ūs, m.: a striking or beating; tramp, reverberation, 6.591. (pellō)

Thrāca, ae, f.: Thrace, 12.335.

circum: (adv.), about, around; (prep. with acc.), around, about.

āter, tra, trum: (adj.), black; dark, gloomy, 1.60, et al.; smoky, lurid, 7.456; 4.384; clotted, dark, 3.622; soiled, blackened, 2.272; (fig.), sad, fatal, 6.429; venomous, deadly; of the odor of smoke, 12.591.

formīdō, inis, f.: dread, dismay, apprehension, terror, fear, 2.76; awe, 7.608; personif., Fear, Dismay, 12.335. (formīdō)

īra, ae, f.: anger, fury, wrath, freq.; resentment, hatred, 1.251; revengeful, wrathful thought, 2.575; curse, wrathful intent, 11.443; vengeance, 12.946; pl. angry passions, wrath, 1.4, et al.; personif., Īrae, ārum, f., the Demon of wrath, Wrath, 12.336.

īnsidiae, ārum, f.: a sitting down, or lying in ambuscade; an ambush, 11.783; snare, toil; plot, treachery, wile, 2.36; stealthy journey or enterprise, 9.237; artifice, stratagem, 2.421; personif. pl., Īnsidiae, ārum, Stratagem, 12.336. (īnsideō)

comitātus, ūs, m.: an accompanying or following; a suite, train, retinue, 4.215. (comitor)

alacer (alacris, m., 5.380), cris, cre: (adj.), lively; active, eager; bold, darting, exulting, 10.729; joyful, 5.380.

fūmō, āvī, ātus, 1, n.: to smoke, 3.3, et al.; send up vapor; fume, reek, 2.698; foam, 12.338. (fūmus)

sūdor, ōris, m.: sweat, 2.174. (sūdō)

quatiō, no perf., quassus, 3, a.: to shake, freq.; brandish, 11.767; flap, 3.226; shatter, 2.611; make tremble, 5.200; thrill, penetrate, 3.30; ransack, beat up, search, scour, 11.513; torment, 6.571; assault, 9.608; spur, 12.338.

miserābile: (adv.), wretchedly, pitiably, 12.338.

īnsultō, āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.: (w. dat.), to leap upon, bound upon, gallop over, trample on, 12.339; (w. acc.), bound, dance, rush through, 7.581; absol., prance, 11.600; insult, be insolent, mock, 2.330; exult, 10.20. (īnsiliō, leap upon)

spargō, sparsī, sparsus, 3, a.: to scatter, strew; cast in fragments, 3.605; disperse, 1.602; shower, hurl, 12.51; sprinkle, 4.512; besprinkle, bedew, stain, 8.645; infuse, 4.486; (fig.), spread abroad, disseminate, 2.98; bring over or upon, diffuse, 7.754.

rapidus, a, um: adj. (rapiō), that tears away; violent, fierce; swiftly moving, rapid, 1.42; speedy, quick, prompt, 5.513.

ungula, ae, f.: a hoof, 8.596. (unguis)

rōs, rōris, m.: dew, freq.; moisture, 5.854; rōrēs, drops of blood, 12.339.

cruor, ōris, m.: shed blood; gore, 3.43; 4.455; blood.

calcō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to put under the heel; trample upon; mix by trampling, 12.340. (calx)

harēna, ae, f.: sand, 1.112; sandy shore, strand, 1.540; sandy ground, arena; space for races; an arena, 5.336.

nex, necis, f.: murder, slaughter, violent death, destruction, death, 2.85, et al. (necō)

Sthenelus, ī, m.: 1. Sthenelus, an Argive chief, charioteer of Diomedes, 2.261. 2. A Trojan slain by Turnus, 12.341.

Thamyrus, i, m.: a Trojan, 12.341.

Pholus, ī, m.: a centaur, son of Ixion; a Trojan warrior, 12.341.

congredior, gressus sum, 3, dep. n.: to step, go together; encounter, 1.475; join battle; proceed to battle, 12.13. (com- and gradior)

ēminus: (adv.), from afar, at a distance, 10.346. (ē and manus)

ambō, ae, ō: (adj.), both, 1.458.

Imbrasidēs, ae, m.: the son of Imbrasus; Asius, a Lycian follower of Aeneas, 10.123.

Glaucus, ī, m.: a fabled fisherman of Boeotia, one of the Argonauts, who was transformed into a sea-god, 5.823. 2. The father of Deiphobe, the Cumaean sibyl, 6.36. 3. A Lycian prince, allied with Priam, and slain by Ajax, son of Telamon, 6.483.

Ladēs, is, m.: a Lycian follower of Aeneas, slain by Turnus, 12.343.

Imbrasus, ī, m.: a Lycian, 12.343.

nūtriō, īvī or iī, ītus, 4, a.: to nourish, suckle, 11.572; breed, rear, train, 7.485.

Lycia, ae, f.: a country on the S.W. coast of Asia Minor, 4.143.

pār, paris: (adj.), equal, 1.705; like, 2.794; equal, well-poised, steady, 4.252; side by side, 5.580; well-matched, 5.114.

ōrnō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to adorn, equip, 10.638.

praevertō, vertī, versus, 3, a.: to turn before; to preoccupy, prepossess, 1.721; surpass, 7.807; pass. as dep. (only in pres.), praevertor, to surpass, outstrip, 1.317.

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Suggested Citation

Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/vergil-aeneid/vergil-aeneid-xii-311-345