Vergil, Aeneid XII 287-310

Īnfrēnant aliī currūs aut corpora saltū

subiciunt in equōs et strictīs ēnsibus adsunt.

Messāpus rēgem rēgisque īnsīgne gerentem

Tyrrhēnum Aulestēn, avidus cōnfundere foedus,290

adversō prōterret equō; ruit ille recēdēns

et miser oppositīs ā tergō involvitur ārīs

in caput inque umerōs. At fervidus advolat hastā

Messāpus tēlōque ōrantem multa trabālī

dēsuper altus equō graviter ferit atque ita fātur:295

'Hōc habet, haec melior māgnīs data victima dīvīs.'

Concurrunt Italī spoliantque calentia membra.

Obvius ambūstum torrem Corynaeus ab ārā

corripit et venientī Ebysō plāgamque ferentī

occupat ōs flammīs: ollī ingēns barba relūxit300

nīdōremque ambūsta dedit. Super ipse secūtus

caesariem laevā turbātī corripit hostis

impressōque genū nītēns terrae applicat ipsum;

sīc rigidō latus ēnse ferit. Podalīrius Alsum

pāstōrem primāque aciē per tēla ruentem305

ēnse sequēns nūdō superimminet; ille secūrī

adversī frontem mediam mentumque reductā

dissicit et sparsō lātē rigat arma cruōre.

Ollī dūra quiēs oculōs et ferreus urget

somnus, in aeternam conduntur lūmina noctem.310

CORE VOCABULARY

īnfrēnō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to furnish with a bridle; to rein, harness, 12.287.

saltus, ūs, m.: a leap, bound, spring, 2.565; an ascending, 6.515. (saliō)

subiciō, iēcī, iectus, 3, a.: to cast, throw, place or put under, 2.236; (fig.), to excite, kindle, 12.66; to subjoin, utter in reply, answer, 3.314; p., subiectus, a, um, cast under, put under, 6.223; situated under, bowed, bending, 2.721; put down, subdued, conquered, 6.853. (sub and iaciō)

stringō, strīnxī, strīctus, 3, a.: to draw tight, bind; of a sword, draw out, draw, 2.334; graze, touch lightly, go near, 5.163; trim up, cut, 1.552; (fig.), touch the mind, 9.294.

ēnsis, is, m.: a sword, 2.393, et al.; knife, 2.155.

adsum, adfuī, esse, irreg. n.: to be near or by; to be present, at hand, or here, 1.595; to have arrived, 2.132; to be with, attend, 2.701; aid, accompany, 10.547; be propitious, 3.116; to beset, 2.330; inf., adfore, to be about to come, destined to come, 7.270. (imp. subj., adforem, -ēs, -et, -ent)

Messāpus, ī, m.: a Latin chief, allied with Turnus, 7.691, et al.

īnsīgne, is, n.: a distinguishing mark; symbol, ensign, 10.188; trophy, 12.944; pl., īnsīgnia, ium, distinctive arms, tokens, 2.339; royal ensigns or insignia, 8.506; trappings, 11.89.

Tyrrhēnus, a, um: adj. (Tyrrhēnī), Tyrrhenian; Etruscan, Tuscan, 1.67; subst., Tyrrhēnus, ī, m., a Tuscan, 10.787.

Aulestēs, is, m.: an Etruscan chief, 10.207.

avidus, a, um: adj. (aveō, desire), longing, eager, 1.514; eagerly, quickly, 6.210; with longing, 3.132; eager for destruction, devouring, destructive, baneful; with infin., 12.290; with gen., eagerly, desirous of, eager for, 9.661.

cōnfundō, fūdī, fūsus, 3, a.: to pour together; mingle with, 3.696; trouble, confuse, 2.736; disturb, interrupt, violate, 5.496.

foedus, eris, n.: a treaty, league, alliance, freq., truce, 5.496; side or party, 12.658; covenant, contract, 4.339; laws of hospitality, hospitality, 10.91; pledge, love, 4.520; law, term, condition, rule, 1.62. (rel. to fīdō, trust)

prōterreō, terruī, territus, 2, a.: to frighten forth or away; put to flight, 12.291.

ruō, ruī, rutus, 3, n. and a.: to fall with violence; tumble down, fall, freq.; fall in battle, 10.756; of the sun, go down, set, 3.508; rush forward, 2.64; of the chariot of Nox, hasten up; ascend, rise, 2.250; advance, 10.256; plunge, rush, 2.353; flee, 12.505; tremble, quake, 8.525; hasten, pass away, 6.539; cause to fall; cast down, 9.516; plow, 1.35; cast, throw up, 1.85; throw up or together, 11.211.

recēdō, cessī, cessus, 3, n.: to go back, retire, withdraw, 12.129; recede, retreat, 2.633; stand apart, retire, 2.300; depart, 2.595; disappear, 3.72; vanish, 5.526.

oppōnō, posuī, positus, 3, a.: to place or put before or against, 5.335; oppose, 7.300; present, expose, 2.127; p., oppositus, a, um, placed in the way, opposed, 12.292; opposing, 2.333. (ob and pōnō)

involvō, volvī, volūtus, 3, a.: to roll on or in; cast upon, 12.292; roll along, carry, 12.689; cover up, obscure, 3.198; conceal, involve, 6.100.

umerus, ī, m.: the upper bone of the arm; the shoulder, 1.501, and freq.

fervidus, a, um: adj. (ferveō), glowing hot; glowing; fired, 9.736; furious, 7.397; boiling, 7.24; threatening, 12.894; eager, impetuous, 12.748.

advolō, āvī, ātus, 1, n.: to fly to, fly, 10.511; hasten, run up, speed, 10.896.

hasta, ae, f.: a spear, 2.50, and freq.; hasta pūra, a headless spear, 6.760; pampinea hasta, a thyrsus, 7.396.

trabālis, e: adj. (trabs, a beam), of beams; like a beam, 12.294.

dēsuper: (adv.), from above; above, 1.165.

graviter: (adv.), heavily; deadly, 7.753; greatly, deeply, 1.126; heavily, mournfully, 2.288. (gravis)

feriō, 4, a.: to smite or strike, 1.103; cut, 4.580; pierce, 12.304; slay, 10.315; strike or slay the covenant victim; hence, of a treaty, to make, 10.154.

victima, ae, f.: an animal offered in sacrifice; a victim, 12.296.

concurrō, currī (rarely cucurrī), cursus, 3, n.: to run together or at once; crowd around, 12.297; rush, 2.315; rush to conflict, 7.224; rush against a foe; (with dat.), engage, encounter, 1.493.

Italī, ōrum, m.: the Italians, 1.109. (Ītalia)

spoliō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to take the spoils; to strip; despoil, 12.297; plunder, rob, 5.661; with acc. and abl., strip, deprive, despoil of, 5.224, et al. (spolium)

caleō, uī, 2, n.: to be warm; to glow, 1.417.

obvius, a, um: adj. (ob and via), in the way; presenting one's self or itself; meeting, 1.314; against, 6.880; opposing, 9.56; in the way of; exposed to, 3.499; obvius fierī, to encounter, meet, 10.380.

ambūrō, ussī, ūstus, 3, a.: to burn round; p., ambūstus, a, um, blazing, singed, 12.301.

torris, is, m.: a firebrand; brand, 7.506. (torreō)

Corynaeus, ī, m.: 1. Corynaeus, a companion of Aeneas, 6.228; 12.298. 2. Another Trojan, 9.571.

corripiō, ripuī, reptus, 3, a.: to take completely or eagerly; to grasp, snatch, seize, catch, 1.45; hurry away, 1.100; tear away; hasten on, take, 1.418; raise quickly, rouse, 4.572; sē corripere, to hasten away, 6.472. (com- and rapiō)

veniō, vēnī, ventus: to come, freq.; come forth; approach, 6.755; rise, appear, 1.353; dawn, 10.241; to present one's self or itself, 5.344; descend, spring from, 5.373; impers., ventum est, we, they came or have come, 4.151.

Ebusus, ī, m.: a Latin warrior, 12.299.

plāga, ae, f.: a blow, wound; lash, whip, 7.383.

barba, ae, f.: the beard, 3.593.

relūceō, lūxī, 2, n.: to shine back or again, or brightly; glow, flash, 2.312; to take fire, 12.300.

nīdor, ōris, m.: vapor, steam; a smell, 12.301.

super: (adv.), above, 4.684, et al.; above, from above, 10.384; moreover, 4.606; besides, 1.29; more than enough, 2.642; remaining, surviving, left (with ellipsis of esse), 3.489, et al.; still (or above), 4.684; of time, in, during, 9.61.

caesariēs, ēī, f.: the hair of the head, 1.590, et al.

laeva, ae, f. (sc. manus): the left hand, 1.611; ab laevā, on the left side, 8.460.

turbō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to stir up, confuse, disturb, 3.449; scatter, 1.395; overthrow, 11.796; agitate, 4.566; perplex, 1.515; enrage, anger, 8.435; madden, 7.767; without obj. acc., to make disturbance, uproar, 6.857, et a1.; reflex., to be troubled, 6.800. (turba)

imprimō, pressī, pressus, 3, a.: to press into, on, or upon, 4.659; impress, mark; engrave, chase, 5.536. (1. in and premō)

genū, ūs, n.: a knee, 1.320, et al. (γόνυ)

nītor, nīsus or nīxus sum, 3, dep. n.: to lean or rest upon, w. abl., 6.760; tread, walk upon, 2.380; to be borne upon, poised or balanced upon, 4.252; push, press, struggle forward or upward; ascend, 2.443.

applicō, āvī or uī, ātus or itus, 1, a.: to fold upon; join to; impel, drive to, 1.616; fasten, nail to, 12.303. (ad and plicō)

rigidus, a, um: adj. (rigeō), stiff, inflexible, unbending; of iron weapons, 12.304.

Podalīrius, iī, m.: a Trojan follower of Aeneas, 12.304.

Alsus, ī, m.: a Rutulian shepherd, 12.304.

pāstor, ōris, m.: one who feeds; herdsman, shepherd, 2.58. (pāscō)

superimmineō, 2: to overhang, press upon, 12.306.

secūris, is, f.: an ax, 2.224, et al. (secō)

mentum, ī: the chin, 4.250; the beard, 6.809. (minor, to project)

redūcō, dūxī, ductus, 3, a.: to lead, bring back; restore, 1.143; return, 9.257; draw back, 5.478; rescue, 4.375.

dīsiciō, iēcī, iectus, 3, a.: to throw, cast asunder; overthrow, demolish, 8.355; scatter, disperse, 1.70; cleave, 12.308. (dis- and iaciō)

spargō, sparsī, sparsus, 3, a.: to scatter, strew; cast in fragments, 3.605; disperse, 1.602; shower, hurl, 12.51; sprinkle, 4.512; besprinkle, bedew, stain, 8.645; infuse, 4.486; (fig.), spread abroad, disseminate, 2.98; bring over or upon, diffuse, 7.754.

lātē: (adv.), widely; far and wide, 1.21; on all sides, far around, 1.163; all over, 12.308. (lātus)

rigō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to moisten, wet, bedew, 6.699; bespatter, stain, 12.308.

cruor, ōris, m.: shed blood; gore, 3.43; 4.455; blood.

quiēs, ētis, f.: rest, repose, 3.495; sleep, 2.268; respite, intermission, 1.723.

ferreus, a, um: adj. (ferrum), of iron, iron-, 3.45; (fig.), inflexible, stern, iron; of death, 10.745.

urgeō, ursī, 2, a. and n.: to drive, impel, press forward, 1.111; ply, hasten, 9.489; press, oppress, crush, bear down, 3.579; press around, inclose, surround, hem in, 11.524; weigh upon, oppress, close, 10.745; overpower, 2.653; attack, 10.375; punish, torture, 6.561.

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Suggested Citation

Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/vergil-aeneid/vergil-aeneid-xii-287-310