Chapter 1.20

Dīviciācus multīs cum lacrimīs Caesarem complexus obsecrāre coepit nē quid gravius in frātrem statueret: scīre sē illa esse vēra, nec quemquam ex eō plūs quam sē dolōris capere, proptereā quod, cum ipse grātiā plūrimum domī atque in reliquā Galliā, ille minimum propter adulēscentiam posset, per sē crēvisset; quibus opibus ac nervīs nōn sōlum ad minuendam grātiam sed paene ad perniciem suam ūterētur. Sēsē tamen et amōre frāternō et exīstimātiōne vulgī commovērī. Quod sī quid eī ā Caesare gravius accidisset, cum ipse eum locum amīcitiae apud eum tenēret, nēminem exīstimātūrum nōn suā voluntāte factum; quā ex rē futūrum utī tōtīus Galliae animī ā sē āverterentur. Haec cum plūribus verbīs flēns ā Caesare peteret, Caesar eius dextram prēndit; cōnsōlātus rogat fīnem ōrandī faciat; tantī eius apud sē grātiam esse ostendit utī et reī pūblicae iniūriam et suum dolōrem eius voluntātī ac precibus condōnet. Dumnorigem ad sē vocat, frātrem adhibet; quae in eō reprehendat ostendit, quae ipse intellegat, quae cīvitās querātur prōpōnit; monet ut in reliquum tempus omnēs suspīciōnēs vītet; praeterita sē Dīviciācō frātrī condōnāre dīcit. Dumnorigī cūstōdēs pōnit, ut quae agat, quibuscum loquātur scīre possit.

At the earnest request of Diviciacus Caesar spares Dumnorix, but he takes precautions for the future.

multīs cum lacrimīs: the usual word order of cum with the ablative of manner (AG 412); it conveys the notion of addition or unexpectedness (H-T).

complexus: “embracing” (Kelsey); probably clasping Caesar’s knees, for this was the ancient attitude of suppliant entreaty (Walker). Translate the perfect participle of a deponent verb actively.

obsecrāre: sc. eum: “to entreat (him) (Kelsey).

nē quid gravius statueret: “not to take too harsh measures” (Kelsey); “that he would not pass too severe a judgment” (Spencer); “that he would determine nothing too severe,” i.e., would not pass too severe a sentence upon him (Anton). Quid, the shortened form of the indefinite pronoun aliquid, is seldom used except after nē, num, sī, nisi (M-T).

scīre sē: “[saying] that he knew” (Kelsey). Here the verb of “saying,” on which the infinitive depends, is implied in obsecrāre (Harkness).

illa: “those charges”; note the way in which the Latin utilizes the neuter (Walpole).

nec quemquam: “and that no one”; literally “nor any one” (Harkness); accusative subject of the infinitive capere.

ex eō: “from him” (Harkness) or “on account of that fact” (Kelsey).

plūs quam sē dolōris capere: “suffered more pain than he himself [did]”; dolōris is a partitive genitive with plūs (AG 346).

proptereā quod, … ille minimum posset, … crēvisset: sc. cum from the preceding clause; construe proptereā quod with crēvisset: “for this reason, … he had grown powerful at a time when he had been having very little power/influence” (Walpole).

ipse: refers to Diviciacus (Harkness).

grātiā: ablative of respect/specification (AG 418).

plūrimum: sc. posset, expressed with minimum (Harkness): “had great influence.”

domī: “at home,” i.e., in Aeduīs (Kelsey), among his own people (Harkness).

ille: sc. et before ille, which refers to Dumnorix (Harkness).

propter adulēscentiam: “on account of his youth”; Dumnorix apparently was considerably younger than Diviciacus (Kelsey).

per sē crēvisset: “[Dumnorix] had increased (in resources and strength) through his [Diviciacus’s] help (Kelsey).

quibus opibus ac nervīs … ūterētur: quibus = et eīs, and thus couples ūterētur to crēvisset, so that it too depends on proptereā quod (M-T): “and this influence and power he (Dumnorix) was using,” referencing to the influence and power implied in per sē crēvisset (Harkness), i.e., the influence and strength gained through Diviciacus (Hodges). Opibus and nervīs are ablative objects of ūterētur (AG 410). Nervīs = potentiā, is used figuratively for “strength, power” (Harkness), the metaphor being borrowed from animals whose strength lies in their nerves and sinews (Anthon).

nōn sōlum … , sed: note the omission of etiam with sed. This happens when the second member contains the more important thought (H-T).

grātiam … perniciem suam: take suam with both grātiam and perniciem (A-G).

ad minuendam grātiam: “to lessen his (Diviciacus’s) popularity” (Kelsey). Gerundive construction expressing purpose (AG 506) (Hodges).

amōre frāternō: = frātris: “by affection for his brother” (Kelsey); the adjective is used for an objective genitive (Hodges).

exīstimātiōne vulgī: “by the opinion of the common people,” i.e., by the fact that they would hold him responsible, as explained in the next sentence (Harkness). Vulgī is subjective genitive (AG 343) (Hodges).

sēsē … commovērī: “that he [Diviciacus] was moved” (Walker), to intercede on behalf of his brother (Spencer).

quod sī: literally, “as to which, if.” Quod is strictly an adverbial accusative, but with has become a mere connective and is translated “and,” “now,” “but,” etc. (L-E).

sī quid eī ā Caesare gravius accidisset: “if anything very severe should happen to him [i.e., Dumnorix] at the hands of Caesar.” Accidisset takes the place of the original future perfect indicative (acciderit) in a future more vivid condition in the direct discourse (H-T).

cum: “while” (Kelsey); cum-circumstantial clause (AG 546).

ipse: i.e., Diviciacus (Anthon).

eum locum amīcitiae apud eum apud eum = apud Caesarem: “such a relation of friendship with Caesar” (Kelsey); “such a place in his friendship”; (Anthon), literally, “that place of friendship with him” (Harkness).

nēminem exīstimātūrum nōn: sc. esse: “everybody would think” (Hodges).

factum: sc. esse (Harkness) and illud: “that it had not been done.”

nōn suā voluntāte: “against his [Diviciacus’s] will” (M-T); ablative of cause (AG 404) (Harkness).

futūrum utī … : sc. esse: “it would come about that”; “the result would be that” (Walpole); “it would come to pass” (Hodges); “it would happen that … ” The periphrastic form futūrum esse with the subjunctive is used for the future infinitive of verbs which have no supine stem; also for the future passive infinitive, which rarely occurs; and frequently with verbs which have a future infinitive (H-T).

utī … āverterentur: a substantive clause of result (AG 568) (Walker); this clause is the subject of futūrum [esse] (Kelsey).

plūribus verbīs: “with very many words,” so we often say, “at great length” (Kelsey); ablative of manner (AG 412).

ā Caesare peteret: “he asked [of] Caesar”; ā/ab + ablative is the usual construction after verbs of asking (AG 396.a) (Walker).

cōnsōlātus rogat: sc. eum: “reassuring [Diviciacus] he asked him” (Kelsey).

fīnem ōrandī faciat: sc. ut, often omitted after verbs of asking (M-T): “to stop pleading,” literally, “that he make an end of pleading (Kelsey); ōrandī is a genitive gerund (AG 504).

tantī eius apud sē grātiam esse ostendit utī … condōnet: “he declares that his (Diviciacus’s) influence with him (i.e., Caesar) is so great, that he will pardon … ” (Anthon). Tantī is a genitive of price (AG 418a) (M-T), literally “of so great account” (Kelsey), originally a locative perhaps, but afterwards regarded by the Romans themselves as a genitive (Walpole). Utī … condōnet is a result/consecutive clause (AG 537).

reī pūblicae iniūriam: “the injury done to the republic” (Anthon). Reī pūblicae is objective genitive (AG 348) (Hodges).

suum dolōrem: “the insult offered to himself” (Spencer); “his own resentment” (M-T).

eius voluntātī ac precibus: literally, “to his wish and prayers” (Anthon); “in deference to his wish and prayers” (A-G); “in consideration of his good will” (Walpole); “in response to his wishes”; dative of indirect object (AG 362) on account of the meaning “give” or “present” contained in condōnet.   Eius refers to Diviciacus (Harkness).

condōnet: “he would disregard” (Kelsey). Condōnāre means “to give up a right to someone”; here the just resentment of Caesar was given up to Diviciacus (A-G); “to make a present to someone”; and so is used of passing over an offence as a boon to someone who intercedes for the offender (M-T). Subjunctive in a result clause (AG 537).

vocat, frātrem adhibet: “he summons … [and] brings in” (Anthon) (H-T); “he has the brother [Diviciacus] present” (Kelsey). Note the asyndeton (H-T).

quae … reprehendat: “what he objected to” (Kelsey).

intellegat: = sciat (Kelsey).

cīvitās: i.e., of the Aeduans, whose agreement to furnish grain had been broken (Kelsey).

prōpōnit: “he lays before him” (Anthon).

in reliquum tempus: “for the future” (Kelsey).

omnēs suspīciōnēs: “all grounds of suspicion” (Anthon); “all occasion of suspicion” (Spencer).

praeterita: “things bygone,” i.e., “the past” (H-T); neuter plural substantive (Kelsey).

vītet: “he should avoid” (M-T).

Dīviciācō frātrī: “for the sake of his brother Diviciacus,” (Harkness); “to oblige his brother Diviciacus” (Walpole).

ut scīre possit: subjunctive in a purpose clause (AG 531) (Harkness).

quae agat, quibuscum loquātur: subjunctive in indirect questions (AG 574). Note the lack of a connector (asyndeton).

It was tactful of Caesar to make Diviciacus believe that Dumnorix was spared for his sake. In reality, however, Caesar had his hands full with the Helvetii and could not afford to stir up a revolt of the Aedui in addition, a result which might easily have followed an attempt to punish their most popular noble. A few years later Caesar put Dumnorix to death for obstinate disobedience (Walker).

Dīviciācus, -ī, m. : Diviciacus: (1) a druid, one of the Aedui. He was brother of Dumnorix, but, unlike the latter, was friendly to the Romans; (2) a king of the Suessiones.

Caesar, -aris, m.: Caesar, a Roman cognomen: (1) Gaius Julius Caesar, the conqueror of Gaul;(2) Lucius Julius Caesar, a distant relative of (1), and his legate in 52 b.c. He is thought to be the same Lucius Caesar who was consul in 64 b.c.

complector, -plectī, -plexus : embrace, include, encircle.

obsecrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus : beseech, implore, beg.

quī, quae or qua, quod: indef. adj., used chiefly after sī, nisi, nē, num, any, some; the form quī is sometimes used as a substantive, any one, some one.

proptereā : adv., therefore, on that account; proptereā quod, for the reason that, because.

quod : conj., that, in that, because, since; as to the fact that: the fact that.

multum : adv., much, greatly; much of the time, often; nōn ita multum, not very long.

Gallia, -ae f.: Gaul

minimus -a -um: least, smallest

adulēscentia, -ae f.: youthfulness, youth.

nervus, -ī, m.: sinew, muscle; pl., power, resources.

minuō, minuere, minuī, minūtus : lessen, reduce; settle; grow less, run out, ebb.

perniciēs, -ēī f.: destruction, overthrow, ruin.

frāternus, -a, -um : of a brother, brotherly, fraternal.

exīstimātiō, -ōnis f.: judgment, opinion, thought; repute.

commoveō, -movēre, -mōvī, -mōtus : disturb, excite, agitate, impel.

āvertō, -vertere, -vertī, -versus : turn away, turn aside, avert; alienate.

prēndō (for prehendō), prēndere, prēndī, prēnsus: grasp, seize.

cōnsōlor, -ārī, -ātus : console, comfort, encourage.

rēs publica reī publicae f.: republic

condōnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus : remit, forgive, overlook, condone.

Dumnorīx, -īgis m.: Dumnorix, an Aeduan, brother of Diviciacus.

reprehendō, -prehendere, -prehendī, -prehēnsus : hold back; blame, censure, rebuke.

suspīciō, -ōnis f.: mistrust, distrust, suspicion.

praeterita, -ōrum n.: pl., the past, bygones.

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Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-02-3.