Chapter 4.24

At barbarī, cōnsiliō Rōmānōrum cōgnitō praemīssō equitātū et essedāriīs, quō plērumque genere in proeliīs ūtī cōnsuērunt, reliquīs cōpiīs subsecūtī nostrōs nāvibus ēgredī prohibēbant. Erat ob hās causās summa difficultās, quod nāvēs propter māgnitūdinem nisi in altō cōnstituī nōn poterant, mīlitibus autem, īgnōtīs locīs, impedītīs manibus, māgnō et gravī onere armōrum oppressīs, simul et dē nāvibus dēsiliendum et in fluctibus cōnsistendum et cum hostibus erat pūgnandum, cum illī aut ex āridō aut paulum in aquam prōgressī, omnibus membrīs expedītīs, nōtissimīs locīs, audācter tēla cōicerent et equōs īnsuēfactōs incitārent. Quibus rēbus nostrī perterritī atque hūius omnīnō generis pūgnae imperītī, nōn eādem alacritāte āc studiō quō in pedestribus ūtī proeliīs cōnsuērant utēbantur.

The Britons try to prevent the landing.

quo genere: ‘a type of warrior which’ (Kelsey); ‘the kind of soldiers which’ (Towle and Jenks) (A&G 535)

essedarius, -ri m.: A soldier fighting from a war chariot, charioteer.

subsecuti: seeing the fleet stand out to sea, they guessed Caesar’s purpose and marched at once to oppose his landing. (Towle & Jenks)

aridus, -a, -um: dry; neut. as noun, 'dry land'. (Walker)(A&G 289)

impeditis manibus: ‘having their hands full’ (Towle & Jenks)

autem: ‘while’ (Towle & Jenks)

insuefactos: 'trained to it', i.e. to charge to the water’s edge (Allen & Judson); 'accustomed, trained' (Walker); 'accustomed to this work', i.e. to this mode of warfare (Harkness).

pedestribus: ‘on land’ (Kelsey)

utebantur: ‘were displaying’ (Kelsey)

non…utebantur: ‘did not display’ (Walker)

alacritas, -tatis f.: liveliness, ardor.

ĕquĭtātus, -ūs m.: cavalry

essĕdārĭus, -i m.: fighter in British or Gallic war chariot; charioteer

consŭĕo, -ērebe accustomed, be wont

subsĕquor, -sequi, -secūtus sum: follow, follow after

difficultas, -ātis f.: difficulty, trouble, distress

īgnōtus, -a, -um: unknown

impĕdĭo, -īre, -īvi, -ītum: entangle, ensnare, hinder 

opprĭmo, -ere, -essi, -essum: press against, press together; suppress, close

dēsĭlĭo, -silīre, -sĭlŭi, -sultum: leap down; dismount

aridus, -a, -um: dry, withered, parched

prōgrĕdĭor, -iri, -gressus: come or go forth, march forward, advance

expĕdītus, -a, -um: unshackeled, unimpeded; clear, free, ready for action

audacter: adv., boldly

cōnĭcĭo, -icĕre, -iēci, -iectum: throw together; to throw, to hurl

insŭēfactus, -a, -um: accustomed to, inured to

incĭto, -are: set in rapid motion, hasten, urge forward

perterrĕo, -ēre, -ui, -ĭtum: frighten or terrify thoroughly 

omnīno: altogether, wholly, entirely 

impĕrītus, -a, -um: unskilled, inexperienced, ignorant

ălăcrĭtas, -ātis f.: quickness, eagerness, animation

pĕdester, -tris, -tre: on foot, pedestrian; infantry; on land

consŭĕo, -ēre: be accustomed, be wont

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Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-02-3. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/caesar/book-4/chapter-4-24