Victory of Berenice

Fr. 54

      Ζηνί τε καὶ Νεμέηι τι χαρίσιον ἕδνον ὀφείλω,

           νύμφα, κα[σιγνή]των ἱερὸν αἷμα θεῶν,

      ἡμ[ε]τερο.[. . . . . .].εων ἐπινίκιον ἵππω[ν.

           ἁρμοῖ γὰρ Δαναοῦ γῆς ἀπὸ βουγενέος

5    εἰς Ἑλένη[ς νησῖδ]α καὶ εἰς Παλληνέα μά[ντιν,

           ποιμένα [φωκάων], χρύσεον ἦλθεν ἔπος,

      Εὐφητηϊάδ[αο παρ'] ἠρίον οὕ[νεκ'] Ὀφέλτου

           ἔθρεξαν προ[τέρω]ν οὔτινες ἡνιόχων

      ἄσθματι χλι[. . . .]. . πιμιδας, ἀλλὰ θεόντων

10       ὡς ἀνέμων οὐδεὶς εἶδεν ἁματροχίας

      ημεν δη πο[

           καὶ πάρος Ἀργει[

      καιρωτους τε[

           Κολχίδες ἢ Νείλω[ι

15  λεπταλέους ἔξυσαν.[

           εἰδυῖαι φαλιὸν ταῦρον ἰηλεμίσαι

      . . . .]υκων οτε[

           . . . .].ν κομα[

      . . . . . . .]. . .[.]. .[ 

 

Fr. 54a

                ].[ 

           Ἰναχ[ίδα]ις κει[

      δωδ[ε]κάκις περὶ δίφρον ἐπήγαγεν ὄθματα †δίφρου 

           καὶ τ[.]. Ἀμυμών[η

5   κρή[ν]η καλὰ νάουσα κ[

           δρωμ[]σιν· Δαναοῦ δε[

      ἵππα[στ]ῆρ’ ἅτε τοῦτο φε[

           Αἴγυπτος γενεῆς αἷμ’ α[

      δηθάκ[ι] μου τὸν Νεῖλο[ν

10      κεῖνος ὃς ἐν Προίτου ξ[

      ὣς ἔνεπεν· τοὶ δ’ ἦχον [

      ἐκ λαγόνων [. .]. θερ[

          ἔσταθεν· ἤκου[

      αυτα . δ[

 15      οὐκ ἐρέω [

     αὔριον .[

         σ]υρίζει .[

     ἀ]λλαποδ[

        ]θμα χρ.[

20  .]ισομεν· ε[

         . . . . .]οσο[

     . . . . .]ν· α[

         . . . . .]ν ἰθ[

 

                             ]νκ[

Fr. 54b

      εἰς ἔριν ηνικ[

           δῶκε Ταναγ[ραι-

      παιδὶ κασιγν[ητ-

          ὡς ἀέκων ε.[

5    λῃτιαὶ Ταφιο[

           λήνεα γουνα[

      πωτηθεὶς αν[

           κυπωθεὶς τα[

      ὄφρα δεταις[

10       τόφρα δετω[

      τόξα διαπλη[

           καὶ μὲν οτοι.[

      σκῶλός μοι β.[

           [

15  αὐλείην παρ' ἄχ[ερδον

           ἐξέρυσ' ἑρμαίο[υ

      λέξας κεν ταδ.[

           ὣς φάτο τῷ δ' ο.[

      τὴν προτέρην [

20       δοῖεν, ὁ δ' ἁρπακ[τ-

      αἰνολέων ἀπόλοιτο .ε[

           καὶ θεὸς η καινε[ ]ι. . . . .[.]. .μ.[

      ὄφρα κεπιω.[ ]ω σε πάλιν πυρὶ δ[ε]ῖ[πνον

           . . .]μενον δυερῇ μηδὲ σὺν ἀξυλίῃ

25      . . .]α νυν, δρεπάνου γὰρ ἀπευθέα τέρχν[ε]α[

           . . .]α πολύσκαρθμος τοῦτον ἔχειν[. . .].[

     . . .].ε καὶ λίπτουσα δακεῖν κυτίσοιο [χίμαιρα

         βληχ]άζει πυλέων ἐντὸς ἐερ[γομένη

     . . . .] δυσηβολίοιο τράγου [. . .]. . .[

30        . . . .].ιος ἀλγήσαι πᾶς κεν ἰδὼ[ν

     . . . .] νομοῦ ποίμνῃσιν ἐελδ[

           . . . .]. θασσόντων ὡς περὶ .[

           .     .     .     .     .

 

Fr. 54c

      [                                        ]υια[

      [                         δίκρον φιτρὸν ἀειραμένη

      [                   ].λελα[. . . .]. . .ι στέγος οὐδ' ὅσον ε.[

      [                          ]παιδὶ νέμουσα μέρος.

5    ἀστὴρ δ' εὖτ'] ἄρ' ἔμελλε βοῶν ἄπο μέσσαβα [λύσειν

      [    αὔλιος], ὃς δυθμὴν εἶσιν ὕπ' ἠελίου

      [           ]ὡς κεῖνος Ὀφιονίδῃσι φαείν[ει

      [            ]θεῶν τοῖσι παλαιοτέροις,

      [            ]τηρι θύρην· ὁ δ' ὅτ' ἔκλυεν ἠχ[ήν,

10  [      ὡς ὁπότ' ὀκν]ηρῆς ἴαχ' ἐπ' οὖς ἐλάφου

      σκ]ύμνος, [μέ]λλ[ε] μὲν ὅσσον ἀκουέμεν, ἦκα δ' ἔλ[εξεν·

           "ὀχληροί, τί τό[δ'] αὖ γείτονες ἡμέ[τ]ερον

      ἥκατ' ἀποκναίσοντες, ἐπεὶ μάλα [γ'] οὔτι φέρο[ισθε;

           ξ]είνοις κωκυμοὺς ἔπλασεν ὔμμε θεός.’

15  ]ς ἐνέπων τὸ μὲν ἔργον, ὅ οἱ μετὰ [. . .].ινε[

           ῥῖ]ψεν, []πεὶ σμίνθοις κ[ρ]υπτὸν ἔτευχε δόλον·

       ἐν δ' ἐτίθει παγίδεσσιν ὀλέθρια δείλατα δοιαῖς

           αἴ]ρινο[ν ἐ]λλεβ[όρῳ] μίγδα μάλευρον ἑλών

       . .]ντ.[.]ωιτα.α[. . . . . . . .]. . θάνατον δὲ κάλ[υψε

20      . .].κ.[.].[. . .]γειη.[. . . .].αγ̣ωσιν ἔπι

      . .]ημ.ν[. ]ς κίρκο[ι. . . .]. . .ἄρτι πεσόν[τες

           πολλάκις ἐκ λύχνου πῖον ἔλειξαν ἔαρ

      ἀλκαίαις ἀφύσαντες, ὅτ' οὐκ ἐπὶ πῶμα[τ' ἔκειτο

           ἅλ]μαις καὶ φιάλῃς, ἢ̣ ὁπότ' ἐξ ἑτέρης

25  εἴλησαν χηλοῖο, τά τ' ἀνέρος ἔργα πενιχροῦ

           . . .]ο.οκ. . .σκληροῦ σκίμπ[τετο λ]ᾶος ὕπο

      κλ]ισμὸν α. . .τεπ[. . . . . . . ω]ρχήσα[ντο

           βρέγματι, καὶ κανθῶν ἤλασαν ὦρον ἄπο,

      ἀλλὰ τόδ' οἱ σίνται βρα[χέ]ῃ ἔνι νυκτὶ τέλεσσαν,

30       κύντατον, ᾧ πλεῖστ[ον] μήνατο κεῖνος ἔπι,

      ἄμφ[ιά] οἱ σισύρην [τ]ε κακοὶ κίβισίν τε διέβρον·

           τοῖς]ι [δὲ] διχθαδίους εὐτύκασεν φονέας,

      ἶπόν τ' ἀνδίκτην τε μάλ' εἰδότα μακρὸν ἁλέσθαι.

                                ].[.]. .ἀνέλυσε θύρην

35                              ]ἐπεὶ θαμὰ μίσγετο κεί[ν

                                    ]ιν ἐνναέτης

                               ]. .ο[. . .]ν οὔτε Κλεων[άς

                                            ].[

 

Fr. 54e

      . . . . . . . . . . . . .].δε κανὼν τέρα[ς

           εἴτε μιν Ἀργείων χρή με καλεῖν ἀάτην

      . . . . . . . . . . .].ωναιτεπαρηχειε.[

           . . . . . . . . . .]. Δαναοῦ φρείατι πὰρ μεγα[λ-

5    . . . . . . . . .]φίκλειος ἀδελφειοῖο νεμ.[

           . . . . . . . . . .]σμήξας ἀντι γετης γε[

      . . . . . . . . . .] πελάσαιμι μόνον περιβα[

           . . . . . . . . .]. ἔσεαι καὶ τάχ̣α βουκτέανο[ς

      . . . . . . . . .].ς ἔτι μᾶλλον ἐπικλεινες.[

10       . . . . . . . . . .]. . . πε[ί]σω Ζεὺς ὅτι παιδογό[νος

      . . . . . . . . . .]. . . . . . πέσω δ' ὑπ' ὀδόντ[ι

                 ]. . . . . . . . .ρμαλλονυπο[

          .     .     .     .     .

 

Fr. 54h

      αὐτὸς ἐπιφράσσαιτο, τάμοι δ' ἄπο μῆκος ἀοιδῇ·

           ὅσσα δ' ἀνειρομένῳ φῆ[σ]ε, τάδ' ἐξερέω·

      "ἄττα γέρον, τὰ μὲν ἄλλα πα[ρὼν ἐν δ]αιτὶ μαθήσει,

           νῦν δὲ τά μοι πεύσῃ Παλλὰ[ς. . . . . .]. .[

5    .]α[                                     ]α

 

Fr. 54i

                .     .     .     .     .

5         καί μιν Ἀλητεῖδαι πουλὺ γεγειότερον

      τοῦδε παρ' Αἰγαίωνι θεῷ τελέοντες ἀγῶνα

           θήσουσιν νίκης σύμβολον Ἰσθμιάδος

      ζήλῳ τῶν Νεμέηθε· πίτυν δ' ἀποτιμήσουσιν,

           ἣ πρὶν ἀγωνιστὰς ἔστεφε τοὺς Ἐφύρῃ.

10                  ].νωητετεοί, γέρ[ον

                          ].οὐδ' ἱερὴ π.[

                      ]σεμοι προμ[

                          ]ον Παλλὰς ἔ[

                      ]αρενωι τοδ[

15                     ς]ὴν κατ' ἐπω[νυμίην.’

                      ]υς τε Μολόρ[κ

                         ].θυμὸν ἀρε[σσάμενος,

      ν]ύκτα μὲν αὐτόθι μίμνεν, ἀπέστιχε δ' Ἄργος ἑῶιος·

           οὐδὲ ξεινοδόκῳ λήσαθ' ὑποσχεσίης,

20  πέμψε δέ οἱ τὸ[ν] ὀρῆα, τίεν δέ ἑ ὡς ἕνα πηῶν.

           νῦ]ν δ' ἔθ' []γι[στείη]ν οὐδαμὰ παυσομένην

                .     .     .     .     .

 

Fr. 55

           τὸν μὲν ἀρισκυδὴς εὖνις ἀνῆκε Διός

      Ἄργος ἔθειν, ἴδιόν περ ἐὸν λάχος, ἀλλὰ γενέθλῃ

           Ζηνὸς ὅπως σκοτίῃ τρηχὺς ἄεθλος ἔοι.

 

Fr. 58

      ἄξονται δ' οὐχ ἵππον ἀέθλιον, οὐ μὲν ἐχῖνον

           βουδόκον

 

Fr. 60a

                   τὸ δὲ σκύλος ἀνδρὶ καλύπτρη

           γιγνόμενον, νιφετοῦ καὶ βελέων ἔρυμα

 

Fr. 60b

           θηρὸς ἀερτάζων δέρμα κατωμάδιον

 

See also Catullus 66.

Fr. 54 Harder (= 383 Pf. + SH 254, =143 Mass.)
  1-19 init. P.Oxy. 2173 [image], Trismegistos 59396
  2-9 fin. P.Lille 82
  9-10 Porphyr. 1.15.9 sqq
  16 EtGen. AB s.v. ἰάλεμος

 Fr. 54a Harder (= 144 Mass.)
  1-23a PSI 15.1500 [image], Trismegistos 59396
  3 Σ DEGQ Pi.P. 5.44b

Fr. 54b Harder (= 176.21-34 Pf.; SH 257, = 148 Mass.)
  1-23 P.Lille 76d col. II [image

  21-34 P.Oxy. 2170 fr. 3 [image] Trismegistos 59370
  24-43 P.Lille 79 [image]

Fr. 54c Harder (= 177 Pf.; SH 259, = 149 Mass.)
  1-37 PSI 1218 fr.a [image], Trismegistos 59370
  2 EtGen. AB s.v. δίκρον καὶ δίκροον
  4-6 P.Oxy. 2258 B fr. 2 recto [image] Trismegistos 59424
  6 Σ A Il. 11.62
  11-20 initPSI 1218 fr. b [image] Trismegistos 59370
  17 EtGen. AB s.v. δέλεαρ
  18 EtGen. AB s.v. μάλευρον
  22 Σ G1 X Y Nic. Al. 87
  23 Σ AR 4, 1613-1616b
  28 EtGen. AB α 1544 s.v. ἄωρος
  33 Poll. 10.155-156 μυάργα

Fr. 54e Harder (= 333? and 557 Pf. and SH 260A, = 151 Mass.)
  1-21 P.Lille 78a [image]
  2 Hdn. Π.μον.λεξ. 2.948.8 sqq

Fr. 54h Harder (= 57 Pf.; SH 264, = 154 Mass.) P. Berol. 11629 A
   recto [image], Trismegistos 98082

Fr. 54i Harder (= 59 Pf.; SH 265, = 156 Mass.)
  1-11 P.Oxy. 2212 fr. 18.1-11 [image]Trismegistos 59390

  5-9 Plu. Quaest. conv. 5.3.3 676f-677b
  8-25 P.Oxy. 2169, 4-21
 [image], Trismegistos 59391
 18-22 P.Berol. 11629 A verso [image], Trismegistos 98082

Fr. 55 Harder (= 55 Pf.; SH 267, = 146 Mass.) Σ BD Pi.N. 10.1c

Fr. 58 Harder (= 58 Pf.; SH 268, = 155 Mass.) EtGen. AB s.v.
   ἐχῖνος

Fr. 60a Harder (= 677 Pf.; SH 268B, = 274 Mass.) Σ L S.Aj. 26

Fr. 60b Harder (= 597 Pf.; SH 268C, = 264 Mass.) Σ AR 1,
   1243-48a

The opening poem of book 3 was at least 175 lines long; it celebrates Berenice II’s victory in chariot racing at the Nemean games. Although in elegiacs, it is in the style of Pindaric epinician, and the opening is an imitation of Nemean 1. The order of the fragments and their location at the beginning of book 3 was established by Peter Parsons (1977).

Fr. 54. 2-4: The opening makes a clear connection between Egypt and Argos with a reference to Danaus, described as "cow-born," i.e., the child of Io. Berenice is called "holy blood of the sibling gods," i.e., Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II; she was actually the daughter of Magas of Cyrene (see Acosta-Hughes and Stephens 2012: 185-87 on the role of the Danaids in the Aetia).

Fr. 54.5: Helen's island is the island of the Pharos in Alexandria. According to Stesichorus (and Euripides' Helen) she spent the Trojan war sequestered there, while the Greeks fought over her eidolon. Hellenistic poets emphasize this story about Helen because it brings the environs of Alexandria into the orbit of Greek myth. The "Pallenean prophet" is Proteus, who is connected with the Pharos in Odyssey 4.351-572 and also in Posidippus, ep. 115 A-B. He is Pallenean because he is said to have resided in Pallene until his sons were killed by Heracles. He then came to Egypt (see Acosta-Hughes and Stephens 2012:126-27).

Fr. 54.16: The line refers to mourning for the Apis bull, who was an avatar of the god Osiris. In Egypt, when the Apis bull died the entire country went into mourning, a practice that continued under the Ptolemies. The bull itself was usually identified by a specific marking. The Apis bull died in 248, or shortly before the date of the epinician. Along with the mention of Colchis, which Herodotus claims was settled by the pharaoh Sesostris, it reinforces the relationship of Argos and Egypt.

For the relationship of this poem to the opening of book 3 of Vergil's Georgics, see Thomas 1983.

Fr. 54a: This fragment is an important recent discovery. Although the papryus does not contain any complete lines, it mentions the Inachids (Inachus was the founder of the Argive line, hence Argives), Amymone (the daughter of Danaus, after whom a spring in Argos was named; see fr. 65), Egyptian blood, the Nile, and Proitus. Since 54a seems to belong directly below the opening fragment, a reasonable inference is that Callimachus has developed the Argive-Egyptian connections in some detail. The structure would seem to be a dialogue (see lines 11, 15).

54a.2. The line is corrupt but seems to refer to the standard twelve laps of the chariot in competition.

The remaining fragments tell the embedded story of Heracles, the founder of the Nemean games, and his slaying of the Nemean lion. In telling the story, however, Callimachus appears to have focused on the details of Heracles' encounter with a peasant, Molorchus, with whom he took shelter. Much of the poem is his conversation with Molorchus. This bears a strong resemblance to the Hecale, in which Callimachus foregrounds Theseus' reception into the hut of the old woman Hecale and her life story, not Theseus' encounter with the bull of Marathon. Subsequently, E. Livrea connected the "Mousetrap" (fr. 177 Pf.) to this poem, arguing that Molorchus's slaying of the mice, who were eating him out of house and home, was a tale within the larger aition and functioned as a humorous parallel to Heracles’ slaying of the Nemean lion (see Fantuzzi-Hunter 2004: 83-88).

54b. Apparently a dialogue between Molorchus and Heracles (part of their first encounter?). Mention of the Taphian pirates (5) has led tothe  suggest that Heracles is recounting the story of Amphytryon's exile to Boeotia after he accidentally killed his father-in-law, Electryon.  

54c: Molorchus describes the depredations of the mice: they eat his stores, dance on his head at night, and even consume his clothing.  Interwoven is the description of his preparation of a mousetrap, baited with poison.

54e: a fragment spoken by Heracles, who is about to go off in pursuit of the Nemean lion.  

54h: Heracles responding to Molorchus after he has killed the Nemean lion. Apparently the narrator does not tell the full story of his contest, but uses a familiar technique from previous poetry (particularly Pindar), the breaking off and moving to another topic (the so-called Abbruchsformel).

54i: The fragment begins with a prophecy by Athena that in future the celery wreath will replace the pine as victor's crown for the Nemean games; and this celery crown will be adopted at the Isthmian games. The prophecy ends by line 15. The remainder recounts Heracles' fulfillment of a promise to give Molorchus a mule.  This seems to be the aition for a ritual probably to honor Molorchus. (The Hecale ends with the establishment of cult in honor of Hecale, the old woman who hosted Theseus.)

 

Bibliography

Ambühl, Annemarie. 2004. “Entertaining Theseus and Heracles: the Hecale and the Victoria Berenices as a Diptych.” Callimachus II (Hellenistica Groningana 7), edited by M. Annette Harder, Remco F. Regtuit & Gerry C. Wakker, 23-48.  Dudley, MA: Peeters.

Bennett, Chris. 2005. "Arsinoe and Berenice at the Olympics," Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 154:169-71.

Bulloch, Anthony. 2006. “The Order and Structure of Callimachus' Aetia 3.” Classical Quarterly 56 (2): 496-508.

Hollis,  Adrian S. 1986. “The Composition of Callimachus' Aetia in the Light of P.Oxy. 2258.” Classical Quarterly 36 (2): 467-71.

Livrea, Enrico. 1979. “Der Liller Kallimachos und die Mausefallen.” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik  34:37-42.

———. 1980. ‘Polittico Callimacheo. Contributi al testo della Victoria Berenices.’ Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 40:21-6.

———. 1982. ‘I cavalli di Berenice.’ In Studi in onore di Aristide Colonna, edited by Aristide Colonna, 199-202. Perugia: Istituto di filologia classica dell'Università.

Marinone, Nino. 1997. Berenice da Callimaco a Catullo. Testo critico, traduzione e commento. Nuova edizione ristrutturata, ampliata e aggiornata.Testi e manuali per l’insegnamento universitario del latino 49. Bologna: Pàtron.

Massimilla, Giulio. 2004. 'Il leone nemeo nella Victoria Berenices di Callimaco.' In La cultura ellenistica: l'opera letteraria e l'esegesi antica. Atti del Convegno COFIN 2001, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata", 22-24 settembre 2003 (Quaderni Seminari Romani di Romani Greca 8), edited by Roberto Pretagostini and Emanuele Dettori, 19-31. Roma: Quasar.

Parsons, Peter. J. 1977. “Callimachus: Victoria Berenices.” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 25:1-50.

Prioux, Évelyne. 2011. 'Callimachus' queens.' In Brill's Companion to Callimachus, edited by Benjamin Acosta-Hughes, Luigi Lehnus and Susan Stephens, 201-24. Leiden: Brill.

Rosenmeyer, Patricia A. 1991. ‘The Unexpected Guest. Patterns of Xenia in Callimachus’ “Victoria Berenices” and Petronius’ Satyricon.’ Classical Quartrerly 41 (2): 403-13. 

———. 1993. ‘A cold reception in Callimachus’ Victoria Berenices (SH 257-265).’ Classical Quarterly 43:206-14.

Thomas, Richard F. 1983. "Callimachus, the Victoria Berenices and Roman Poetry." Classical Quarterly 33 (1): 92-113.

Fr. 54

Ζεύς, gen. Διός, dat. Διί or Ζηνί: Zeus

Νεμέα, gen. Νεμέας, dat. Νεμέηι or Νεμέᾳ, ἡ: Nemea,  a city in the Argolid, site of the Nemean Games supposedly founded by Heracles; or the goddess Nemea personified

χαρίσιος -α -ον: (adj.) of thanksgiving

ἕδνον -ου, τό: a wedding-gift; a gift

ὀφείλω, fut. ὀφειλήσω, aor. ὠφείλησα or ὤφελον: owe; be obliged to

νύμφη -ης, ἡ: a young wife, bride, young woman

κασίγνητος -η -ον: (adj.) brotherly, sibling

ἐπινίκιον -ου, τό: song of victory, epinician

ἁρμοῖ: (adv.) just, newly, lately, recently

βουγενής -ές: (adj.) cow-born, i.e., son of Io

νησίς νησῖδος, ἡ: an islet, small island (dim. of νῆσος); Ἑλένης νησίς = Pharos  5

Παλληνεύς -έως, ὁ: someone from Pallenea region in Thrace; esp. Proteus

μάντις -εως, ὁ: one who divines, a seer, prophet

ποιμήν -ένος, ὁ: a shepherd

φώκη -ης, ἡ: a seal (semi-aquatic marine mammal)

χρύσεος -η -ον: golden, of gold

Εὐφητηϊάδης -ου, ὁ: son of Euphetes

ἠρίον -ου, τό: a mound, barrow, tomb

οὕνεκα: on which account, wherefore; that, the fact that

Ὀφέλτης, -ου, ὁ: Opheltes; the Nemean games were said to be founded in his honor 

τρέχω, fut. δραμοῦμαι or θρέξομαι, aor. ἔδραμον or ἔθρεξα: to run

οὔτι: nothing; (adv.) not at all, by no means

ἡνίοχος -ου, ὁ: a charioteer

ἄσθμα -ατος, τό: short-drawn breath, panting

ἀνέμος -ου, ὁ: wind 10

ἁματροχίας: perh. = ἁρματοτροχιά -ας, ἡ: a wheel-track, trace.

λεπταλέος -η -ον: fine, delicate (= λεπτός)

ξύω, impf. ξῦον, aor. ἔξῡσε: shave, scrape smooth, smooth (Il. 14.179)

φαλιός -ά -όν: having a patch of white, of the Apis bull (= φάλαρος)

ἰᾱλεμίζω (Ion. ἰηλ-): bewail (ἰάλεμος -ου, ὁ: a wail, lament, dirge)

Fr. 54a

Ἰναχίς -ιδος, ἡ: daughter of Inachus; Argive

δωδεκάκις: (adv.) twelve times

δίφρος -ου, ὁ: chariot-board; chariot; seat, stool

ὄθμα -ατος, τό: eye (= ὄμμα)

Ἀμῡμώνη -ης, ἡ: Amymone, daughter of Danaus, after whom a spring in Argos was called

κρήνη -ης, ἡ: well, spring, fountain

νάω: flow

ἱππαστήρ, gen. -ῆρος: (adj., describing a horse) fit for riding

δηθάκι(ς): (adv.) often

Νεῖλος -ου, ὁ: the Nile river

λᾰγών -όνος, ἡ: hollow, flank, side, bank

ἔσταθεν: “were set up” > ἵστημι, aor ind pass 3rd pl (Epic)

αὔριον: (adv.) tomorrow

συρίζω: to play the syrinx (σῦριγξ), to pipe; to whistle or hiss

Fr. 54b

ἔρις gen. ἔριδος, acc. ἔριν, ἡ: combat

Τάναγρα, ἡ: Tanagra, a town of Boeotia

ἀέκων ἀέκοντος: (adj.) against one's will, unwilling

ληϊτιαί -ῶν: regiment, army (from either λαός, people, host, or λεία, booty)

λήνεα ληνέων, τά: wool

πωτάομαι, aor. ἐπωτήθην: fly about (poet. frequentat. of πέτομαι)

κυπωθεὶς: overthrown (aor pass ptc of κυπόω)

τόξον -ου, τό: bow

σκῶλος -ου, ὁ: thorn, prickle (= σκόλοψ)

αὔλειος -α -ον: of or belonging to the courtyard; ἐπʼ αὐλείῃσι θύρῃσι at the door of the court, i.e., the outer door, house-door 15

ἄχεδρος -ου, ἡ: prickly pear, a type of fruit-bearing cactus, also called ἀχράς (which Eumaeus used to make a thorny hedge in Od. 14.10)

ἐξερύω: to draw out of

αἰνολέων -λέοντος, ὁ: the terrible lion ([Theoc.] 25.168)

ὄφρα: in order that, that 23

δεῖπνον -ου, τό: meal

δυερός -ή -όν: miserable

ἀξυλίη -ης, ἡ: want of wood (Ion. of ἀξυλία)

δρέπανον -ου, τό: a scythe, curved sword, sickle 25

ἀπευθής -ές: (adj.) unknown, not inquired into

τέρχνος -εος, τό: twig, young shoot

πολύσκαρθμος -ον: (adj.) far-bounding

λίπτω: be eager (= λίπτομαι)

δάκνω δήξομαι ἔδακον: bite, champ

κύτῐσος, gen. κυτίσοιο, ὁ/ἡ: moon-trefoil, a shrub with yellow flowers, often food for goats

χίμαιρα -ας, ἡ: she goat

βληχάζω: to bleat (= βληχάομαι)

πύλη -ης, ἡ: one door of a pair of gates, as of a city; (pl. in poetry) house doors

ἐέργω: shut in; (Pass.) be fenced in, secured (Ep. and Ion. of ἔργω)

δυσήβολος -ον: unpleasant to meet (= δυσάντητος)

τράγος -ου, ὁ: he-goat

ἀλγέω, fut. -ήσω: feel bodily pain, suffer; ἀλγήσας smarting with pain (ἄλγος)

νομός -οῦ, ὁ: pasture; pasturage, food

ποίμνη -ης, ἡ: a herd (of sheep)

θάσσω: sit idle

 

Fr. 54c

δίκροος -α -ον: forked, cloven, bifurcated

φιτρός -οῦ, ὁ: block of wood, log

ἀείρω: to lift, heave, raise up

μέσσαβον -ου, τό: the leather strap by which a yoke was fastened 5

αὔλιος -α -ον: belonging to sheepfolds; αὔλιος ἀστήρ = the evening-star (here and at A.R. 4.1629–30) 

δυθμή -ῆς, ἡ: the setting of the sun (= δυσμή > δύνω)

Ὀφιονίδης -ου, ὁ: descendant of Ophion (equated in some version of the creation myths with Uranus, father the Titans)

θύρα -ας, ἡ: door

ἠχή -ῆς, ἡ: a sound, noise

ὀκνηρός -ή -όν: shrinking, timid 10

ἰάχω: cry, shout, shriek, roar

ἔλαφος -ου, ὁ/ἡ: deer

σκύμνος -ου, ὁ: a lion cub, whelp

ἀκουέμεν: Hom. inf. of ἀκούω

ἦκα: (adv.) slightly, softly, gently

ὀχληρός -ά -όν: troublesome, irksome, importunate

γείτων -ονος, ὁ/ἡ: neighbor

ἀποκναίω: scrape or rub off, wear out; destroy

κωκυμός -οῦ, ὀ: a shriek, wail (= κώκυμα -ατος, τό)

πλάσσω: form, mold, shape

ἐνέπω, aor. ἔνισπον: to tell, relate, speak; call, name 15

ῥίπτω: cast, throw, hurl

σμίνθος -ου, ὁ: a mouse

κρυπτός -ή -όν: hidden, secret

τεύχω: make ready, make, build, work

δόλος -ου, ὁ: bait, trap

πᾰγίς -ίδος, ἡ,: snare, noose, trap (dim. of πάγη)

ὀλέθριος -ον: destructive, deadly

δεῖλαρ δείλατος, τό: bait (= δέλεαρ)

δοιοί -αί -ά = δύο

αἴρινος, -η, -ον: of darnel or poison darnel, a type of rye grass

ἑλλεβόρος -ου, ὁ: hellebore, a perennial plant, many species of which are poisonous

μίγδα: (adv.) mixed promiscuously, confusedly

μάλευρον -ου, τό: meal, flour, wheat meal (= ἄλευρον)

καλύπτω: cover, bury, hide, conceal

λύχνος -ου, ὁ: a portable light, a lamp 22

πῖος -η -ον: rich, unctious (poetic for πίων)

λείχω λείξω ἔλειξα: lick, lick up

ἔαρ ἔαρος, τό: blood, juice; (metaph.) oil of a lamp

ἀλκαία -ας, ἡ: lion's tail; tail

ἀφύσσω ἀφύξω ἤφῠσα: drain or draw liquids, esp. from a larger container to a smaller one

πῶμα -ατος, τό: lid, cover

ἅλμη -ης, ἡ: sea-water; brine used for pickling (olives, etc.)

φιάλη -ης, ἡ: a broad, flat vessel; a bowl

εἴλω, aor. ἔλσα or εἴλησα: shut in, hinder, press, force 25

χηλός -οῦ, ἡ: a low chest in which clothes and other precious things could be kept

πενιχρός -ά -όν: poor, needy

σκληρός -ά -όν: hard

σκίμπτομαι: press

λᾶας, gen. λᾶος, dat. λᾶι, acc. λᾶα or λᾶαν, ὁ: stone

κλισμός -οῦ, ὁ: couch

ὀρχέομαι: to dance

βρέγμα -ατος, τό: the front or top of the head

κανθός -ου, ὁ: corner of the eye; (poet.) eye

ὦρος -εος, τό: sleep

σίντης -ου, ὁ: ravening beast, spoiler, thief

τελέω, fut. τελέσω, aor. ἐτέλεσσα or τέλεσσα: fulfill, accomplish, perform, finish 

κύντατος -α -ον: most dog-like, most shameless 30

μαίνομαι, fut. μᾰνοῦμαι, poet. aor. 3 sing μήνατο: rage, be furious

ἄμφια -ων, τά: clothes (= ἱμάτια)

σισύρα -ης, ἡ: a cloak of goat hair

κίβισις -ιος, ἡ: pouch, wallet

διαβιβρώσκω, fut. -βρώσομαι, aor. -έβρωσα, Ep. aor. 2 -έβρων: eat up, consume

διχθάδιος -α -ον: twofold, double

εὐτυκάζομαι: to make ready

φονεύς -έως, ὁ: a murderer, slayer, destroyer

ἶπος -ου, ἡ: the piece of wood that falls and catches a mouse

ἀνδίκτης -ου, ὁ: a stick in a trap, when touched the trap will spring close

ἅλλομαι, fut. ἁλοῦμαι, aor. 1 ἡλάμην, aor. 2 ἡλόμην, aor. 2 inf. ἁλέσθαι: spring, leap, bound

 

Fr. 54e

καίνω κανῶ ἔκανον: kill, slay

τέρας, gen. τέρατος or τέραος, τό: monster

Ἀργεῖος -ου: of or from Argos

ἀάτη -ης, ἡ: bane, ruin (= ἄτη)

φρέαρ φρέατος, τό: a well, deep pit

τάχα: (adv.) quickly, presently; perhaps 8

βουκτέανος -ον: possessing cattle, rich in cattle

παιδογόνος -ου, ὁ: begetter, father 10

 

Fr. 54h

ἐπιφράζομαι: think of doing, devise, contrive; notice, observe, acquaint oneself with, find out

τάμνω Ion., Dor., and Ep. for τέμνω: cut, cut off, cut short

μῆκος -εος, τό: length; size, greatness

ἀοιδή -ῆς, ἡ: song

ἀνείρομαι: inquire of, question

ἐξερέω: I will speak

ἄττα: a salutation addressed to elders

δαίς δαιτός, ἡ: meal, banquet, feast

πυνθάνομαι: learn; πεύσῃ, fut ind mid 2nd sg

 

Fr. 54i

Ἀλητεῖδαι -ων, οἱ: the Corinthians, after Aletes, a descendent of Heracles and founder of Corinth

γέγειος -ον: earth-born; ancient 5

τελέω, fut. τελέσω, aor. ἐτέλεσσα or τέλεσσα: fulfill, accomplish, perform, finish 

σύμβολος -ου, ὁ: a sign, omen, proof

Ἰσθμιάς -άδος: (adj.) Isthmian, of or relating to Isthmia, where there was a series of quadrennial games

ζῆλος -ου, ὁ: jealousy, zealous imitation, emulation

Νεμέηθε: (adv.) from or at Nemea, where there was a series of quadrennial games

πίτυς -υος, ἡ: stone pine, pinus pinea, also called the Italian stone pine, umbrella pine and parasol pine

ἀποτιμάω: dishonor, slight

ἀγωνιστής -ου, ὁ: competitor

στέφω: put round, encircle, crown, wreath

Ἐφύρη -ης, ἡ: Ephyra, an old name of Corinth

       .             .            .             .             .            

ἀρέσκω, Ep. aor. ἄρεσσα: make amends; Ep. aor. mid ptc. ἀρεσσάμενος: appeasing, satisfying 17

μίμνω: stay, stand fast

ἀποστείχω: go away, go home

Ἄργος -εος, τό: Argos

ἑῷος -α -ον: in or of the morning

ξε(ι)νοδόκος -ου, ὁ: a host

λανθάνω, aor. 1 mid. ἐλησάμην or λησάμην: forget about (+ gen.)

ὑποσχεσίη -ης, ἡ: a promise  (Ep. for ὑπόσχεσις -εως, ἡ)

ὀρεύς, gen. -έως, acc. ὀρῆα, ὁ: mule 20

τίω: pay honor to

πηός -οῦ, ὁ: kinsman, kinsman by marriage

ἁγιστεία -ας, ἡ: ritual, rite, ceremony

οὐδαμά: (adv.) never, not at all

 

Fr. 55

ἀρισκυδής -ές: very wrathful, a hapax apparently built on the verb σκύζομαι/σκυδμαίνω.

εὖνις -ιδος, ἡ: wife

ἀνίημι -ήσω -ῆκα: send

ἔθειν: to ruin, destroy (= φθείρειν, Hsch. s.v. ἔθει)

ἴδιος -α -ον: pertaining to oneself; private, personal

λάχος -εος, τό: an allotted portion, lot, appointed office

γενέθλη -ης, ἡ: offspring

σκότιος -α -ον: secret; bastard

τρηχύς  -εῖα -ύ: rough, rugged, harsh (Ep. and Ion. for τραχύς)

ἄεθλος -ου, ὁ: contest, task, struggle (Ep. and Ion. for ἆθλος)

 

Fr. 58

ἀέθλιον -ου, τό: prize (Ep. and Ion. for ἆθλον)

ἐχῖνος -ου, ὁ: a large jar, cauldron

βουδόκος -ον: able to contain an ox; huge

 

Fr. 60a

σκύλος -εος, τό: a skin, hide

καλύπτρη -ης, ἡ: a veil, covering

νιφετός -οῦ, ὁ: snowstorm, falling snow

βέλος -εος, τό: missile, arrow

ἔρυμα -ατος, τό:  a fence, guard, safeguard; a protection

 

Fr. 60b

θήρ θηρός, ὁ: a wild beast

ἀερτάζω: to lift up (= ἀείρω)

δέρμα -ατος, τό: the skin, hide

κατωμάδιος -α -ον: worn on the shoulder

Fr. 54

To Zeus and Nemea I owe some gift of thanksgiving,

young woman, the sacred offspring of the sibling gods,

our . . . victory-song about your horses

For recently there came from the land of cow-born Danaυs,

to Helen's small island, and to the Pallenean seer, 5

the herder of seals, a golden message:

that near the tomb of Opheltes, the son of Euphetes

they ran, by no means . . . of charioteers in front

with their breath . . . but running

like the winds, no one saw their traces(?). 10

. . . 

Colchians or to the Nile?

delicate

women knowing how to mourn the bull with the white marking

 

Fr. 54a

For the Inachids

 

Fr. 54b

near the prickly pear at the entrance to the court 15

in order that  ... you again a meal for the fire ... 23

. . . nor with a miserable lack of wood . . .

. . . for the young trees are ignorant of the scythe . . .25

       .             .            .             .             .            .

. . . and the goat, eager to chew the moon-trefoil . . .27

bleats, secured inside the gates . . .

the he-goat, who is unpleasant to meet

 

Fr. 54c

and when the evening-star was about to loosen the yoke of the oxen 5

who at the setting of the sun

. . . when he (the sun) shines for the descendants of Ophion . . .

. . . the older ones of the gods . . .

. . . at the door; and when he heard the noise . . .

. . . as when a lion's cub roars at the ear of a timid deer . . .10

. . . he hesitated for a moment to listen, and then spoke softly

"Irksome creatures, why have you once more come like neighbors,

to destroy our home, since you will carry away absolutely nothing?

A god molded you as a source of woe for guests and hosts."

When he had spoken thus, he threw away the work . . .15

. . .  after that he was making ready a secret trap for the mice

and he put into two traps deadly bait

taking flour mixed with hellebore,

. . .  and he concealed death. . .

       .             .            .             .             .            .

many times they licked the fat oil from the lamp 22

scooping it up with their tails, when the lid was not placed

on brine and bowls, or when

they forced (the lid) from another chest, and the things made by a poor man 25

. . . pressed from under a hard stone . . .

. . . they had danced . . .

on his head and driven sleep from his eyes

but this the ravening creatures had accomplished in one short night

the most shameless thing, about which that man was most furious:30

the pests had eaten his clothes, his goatskin, and his bag.

For them he made ready two killers,

a crusher and a trap well able to jump over a long distance.

 

Fr. 54e

. . . having killed the monster. . .

. . . whether one ought to call it the bane of the Argives . . .

. . . at the large pit of Danaus . . .4

       .             .            .             .             .            .

. . . you will soon be rich in cattle . . .8

       .             .            .             .             .            .

. . . I shall persuade (people) that Zeus really is my father . . .10

 

Fr. 54h

he may find out for himself and cut short the length of the song,

but all that he said to him in answer to his questions I shall tell:

"Old father, you will hear the rest when you are at the meal,

but now you will hear what Pallas . . . me

 

Fr. 54i

and the sons of Aletes, celebrating games far more ancient 5

than this one at the Aegean god's place,

will make it a sign of an Isthmian victory,

in imitation of the victors from Nemea; they will despise the pine,

which previously crowned the competitors at Ephyra.

       .             .            .             .             .            .

. . . satisfying his heart. 17

He stayed the night there and left for Argos in the morning.

But he did not forget his promise to his host,

and sent him the mule and honored him like one of his kinsmen. 20

Even now a ritual which will never cease...

 

Fr. 55

Zeus' wife, in great anger, sent him

to destroy Argos, although it was her own territory, but so that

it would be a harsh task for the bastard son of Zeus

 

Fr. 58

and as a prize they will lead away no horse, no couldron

able to hold an ox

 

Fr. 60a

and the skin which became a covering for the man,

a protection from snowstorms and arrows

 

Fr. 60b

lifting the animal's skin to wear from his shoulders

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Suggested Citation

Susan Stephens, Callimachus: Aetia. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2015. ISBN: 978-1-947822-07-8.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/callimachus-aetia/book-3/victory-berenice